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Cedar  County 


Edited  By 

C.  RAY  AURNER.  M.  A. 










A  recent  lament  has  been  heard  in  reference  to  the  fact  that  certain  portions 
of  pioneer  history  of  Indian  Warfare  cannot  now  be  written  since  those  who 
were  participants  in  those  events  of  the  long  ago  made  no  record  that  has  been 
preserved  or  seemed  to  ccmsider  the  events  of  the  time  of  importance  enough  to 
make  mention  of  them  in  any  permanent  form. 

For  this  reason  those  who  attempt  to  find  authority  for  this  phase  of  American 
history  will  lock  in  vain  for  the  sources. 

Recently  it  was  suggested  that  the  points  of  interest  in  the  campaign  of 
Abraham  Lincoln  in  the  Black  Hawk  war  be  marked  in  some  suitable  way.  This 
only  emphasizes  the  tendency  of  the  times  to  take  more  interest  in  fixing  the 
points  in  local  history  while  those  yet  living  can  verify  the  facts  as  they  appear. 
This  will  leave  in  some  form  a  distinct  feature  of  the  community. 

Pride  in  one's  own  province  is  not  a  distinguishing  characteristic  of  the  mov- 
ing population  that  settled  this  portion  of  the  United  States.  Only  enough  remain 
to  furnish  a  suggestion  of  the  former  early  settlers  and  they  are  the  ones  who 
must  furnish  the  data  for  all  the  unmarked  or  unrecorded  material  that  one  may 
rightfully  use  in  an  attempt  to  write  on  any  topic. 

A  visitor  to  New  England  is  constantly  reminded  of  the  events  in  his  country's 
history  that  took  place  in  that  vicinity.  He  cannot  escape  the  sight  of  monument, 
inscription,  or  relic,  and  he  is  led  to  inquire  why  these  should  be  in  this  part  of 
the  United  States  and  so  few  in  comparison  in  his  own  environment.  Many  things 
that  should  have  been  recorded  and  those  concerned  been  the  better  able  to  relate 
or  preserve  for  future  relating  are  now  passed  beyond  recall.  Future  generations 
will  never  continue  a  custom  for  which  no  incentive  is  furnished.  That  should  be 
the  aim  in  all  attempts  in  writing  history — ^to  furnish  some  inducement  to  the 
generations  following  to  produce  a  better  citizenship,  a  better  method  of  doing 
things,  that  those  who  come  after  may  endeavor  to  rise  higher  in  the  attempt 
to  reach  ideals. 

It  is  not  expected  that  every  item  of  importance  can  be  gathered  into  a  small 
volume  by  any  one  in  a  brief  time,  but  a  grouping  of  events  topically,  that  will 
give  a  fair  account  of  the  times  in  which  they  occurred,  will  be  the  measure  of 



sincere  effort.  The  first  aim  is  truth,  the  second  the  place  where  the  truth  is  found 
so  far  as  it  can  be  located. 

The  history  of  a  county  may  lead  <me  far  astray  in  the  search  for  the  begin- 
ning of  things  and  the  temptation  to  follow  these  suggestions  to  the  end  has 
been  very  great.  The  limit,  however,  must  be  placed  somewhere  and  all  would 
not  agree  on  the  point.  It  ought  to  be  safe  enough  to  stop  with  matters  that 
have  to  do  with  the  development  of  the  coUnty  directly  and  its  relation  to  its 
neighboring  territory. 

Cedar  county  citizens  were  interested  in  the  preservation  of  all  that  goes  to 
assist  in  the  preparation  of  such  a  volume  as  early  as  1868.  At  that  time  the 
members  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  and  other  citizens  met  in  the  clerk's  crffice 
in  the  court  house  for  the  purpose  of  organizing,  in  some  way,  to  forward  his- 
torical facts  to  the  state  department  at  Des  Moines.  This  was  the  object  of  the 
meeting  as  stated  by  Lawrie  Tatum,  one  of  the  leaders  in  the  movement.  He 
emphasized  the  fact  of  the  necessity  of  such  action  if  the  history  was  ever  made 
possible.  John  S.  Tuthill  was  the  chairman  of  this  meeting  and  Wm.  Elliott 
the  secretary.  Resolutions  offered  by  Lawrie  Tatum  were  adopted  in  the  fol- 
lowing form:  Resolved,  That  there  be  at  least  one  person  appointed  for  each 
township  to  collect  and  collate  all  the  facts  and  circumstances  attending  the 
settlement,  rise,  and  progress  of  his  township,  and  forward  the  same  to  Judge 
Tutlull  by  January  ist  if  possible. 

According  to  this  the  members  of  the  committee  so  appointed  were :  Center, 
W.  H.  Tuthill ;  Pioneer,  A.  B.  Oakley ;  Fremont,  J.  C.  Batdorf ;  Dayton,  J.  P. 
Ferguson;  Massillon,  H.  B.  Potter;  Springfield,  Thomas  Shearer;  Red  Oak, 
W.  A.  Rigby;  Cass,  Robert  Gower;  Inland,  Hiram  Frank;  Farmington,  Frank 
Butterfield ;  Sugar  Creek,  James  H.  Leech ;  Rochester,  John  Baker ;  Iowa,  Lawrie 
Tatum;  Springdale,  Wm.  S.  Chase;  linn,  John  Dance;  Gower,  R.  E.  Campbell. 

Ten  years  after  this  the  first  attempt  to  put  the  collected  account  in  book 
form  was  undertaken.  No  authority  is  given  for  the  conclusion,  but  one  may 
judge  that  the  material  put  into  the  letters  from  '^ Antiquary,"  published  in  the 
"Post"  came  largely  from  this  source.  The  information  particularly  desired  at 
that  time  was  concerning  the  very  first  settlers ;  when  and  from  where  they  came; 
progress  and  prosperity  of  the  township;  religious  interests;  church  organiza- 
tionSy  and  denominations;  incidents  in  the  lives  of  persons  best  known  and 
tnographical  matter. 

If  such  a  plan  had  been  carried  to  a  conclusion,  and  if  such  a  conclusion  had 
been  continued  the  township  history  would  have  been  easy  to  compile  into  a 
complete  history  of  the  county.  The  Records  do  not  show  what  became  of  diis 
movement  If  no  record  had  been  made  of  the  past  events,  if  no  one  had  made 
any  effort  to  put  in  print  or  manuscript  tha  sayings  or  doings  of  the  men  who 
once  could  tell  of  things  it  would  be  impossible  to  compile  the  chapters  of  this 
bo<^  Hence  it  is  with  due  acknowledgment  to  all  diose  who  have  done  these 
things  that  this  preliminary  word  is  written. 

The  sources  of  the  history  published  in  1878  are  still  available  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  pioneers  who  were  then  living  and  they  were  of  the  greatest  value. 
What  they  left  must  still  be  retained  and  effort  has  been  made  to  do  so.  The 
county  records  are  all  in  their  places.    One  may  read  on  a  fly  leaf  of  one  this 

* » 

*    V         fc 


memorandum:  "Reuben  Hallett  of  Mount  Carroll,  Carroll  county,  Illinois, 
perused  this  book  in  the  month  of  April,  1878,  for  the  purpose  of  compiling  a 
history  of  Cedar  county." 

The  "Cedar  County  Post,"  published  in  1872  and  '73,  was  found  in  the  search 
for  sources  and  this  paper  contains  the  substance  of  the  old  history  of  1878. 
There  are  in  the  years  it  was  published,  twelve  or  more  papers,  written  by  "R.  L. 
R."  on  the  "Outlines  of  the  History  of  Cedar  County."  "R.  L.  R."  was  a  student 
in  Cornell  college  at  this  time  and  afterwards  taught  school  at  Mechanicsville. 
At  one  time  he  edited  a  paper  in  Grundy  Center  and  had  some  warm  skirmishes 
editorially  with  Daniel  Kerr,  member  of  Congress  from  the  fifth  district,  in  after 
years.  The  full  name  of  the  young  man  was,  or  is,  Richard  L.  Rowe,  now  of 
Vancouver,  B.  C.  He  did  some  excellent  work  in  connection  with  the  advice  of 
Judge  Tuthill  and  others  of  that  time.  It  is  well  to  call  any  work  of  this  kind, 
"Outlines,"  for  there  is  material  enough  available  to  make  a  library,  had  one  the 
leisure  and  capital  to  collect  it 

Another  source  of  the  former  compilation  was  found  in  Durant,  in  the  form 
of  a  hrodiure  written  by  a  teacher  of  the  time,  Mr.  Fisher.  It  is  quite  evident 
that  the  material  in  the  little  pamphlet  was  arranged  for  the  1878  history  and 
being  a  little  too  complete  for  the  work  was  put  in  this  form  to  preserve  it — z, 
very  sensible  thing  to  do.  The  citizens  of  Durant  who  happen  to  have  a  copy  of 
this  do  preserve  it  now  very  carefully. 

Judge  Tuthill  was  a  contributor  to  the  Post  over  the  non  de  pltmie  "Anti- 
quary." He  was  a  constant  student  of  historical  events  and  one  of  the  prime 
movers  in  an  attempt  to  organize  a  society  for  historical  study  in  1868,  when 
Lawrie  Tatum  suggested  it.  J.  A.  Berry  and  assistants  edited  the  history  men- 
tioned and  H.  F.  Kett  published  the  work.  C.  L.  Longley  was  editor  of  the 
Advertiser  at  that  time,  and  M.  R.  Jackson  of  the  Conservative.  Both  these 
men  were  influential  and  S3rmpathetic  supporters  of  the  movement. 

The  publishers  of  this  first  history.  The  Western  Publishing  Company,  had 
previously  done  the  same  service  for  Brown  and  Henry  counties,  Illinois. 

That  certain  surmises  in  the  foregoing  may  be  correct  is  fairly  well  established 
in  the  lettef  quoted  below  which  came  just  at  the  time  the  final  sections  were 
being  placed  together.  The  reply  is  to  one  which  had  been  started  early  in  June 
and  being  returned  a  second  attempt  was  made  to  reach  Mr.  Rowe. 

Vancouver,  B.  C,  Aug.  13,  1910. 
Dear  Sir:  Replying  to  your  letter  of  July  5  I  will  say  I  am  the  person 
who  wrote  the  "Outlines  of  the  History  of  Cedar  County"  about  forty  or  forty- 
one  years  ago.  *  *  *  When  I  wrote  many  of  the  old  pioneers  were  still 
living:  Washington  Rigby,  Andrew  and  Charles  Crawford  (Charles  is  still 
living  about  three  miles  south  of  Tipton,  Cedar's  oldest  settler)  ;  Judge  Wm.  H. 
Tuthill,  who  made  a  specialty  of  Cedar  reminiscences,  and  his  collection  cannot 
be  excelled;  Judge  S.  A.  Bissell,  with  a  marvelous  memory;  Wm.  Knott  ("Bill" 
Knott);  William  Baker;  Henry  Hardman,  and  others  now  nearly  all  gone.  I 
was  brought  up  in  Cedar  from  childhood,  and  wrote  largely  from  personal 
knowledge,  assisted  by  my  mother,  who  was  a  Crawford,  and  knew  all  of  the 
early  pioneers  and  much  of  their  doing^. 


The  "Cedar  County  Post"  was  founded  by  Murrow  and  James,  and  its  early 
files  went  intb  the  hands  of  'The  Advertiser,"  I  think.  C.  L.  Longley  might 
know  about  this.  Jesse  James  was  county  clerk  or  auditor  for  a  number  of  terms, 
and  if  living  can  doubtless  tell  about  the  files  containing  these  sketches.  I  kept 
no  data  after  the  story  was  done. 

The  old  files  of  the  early  board  of  county,  or  territorial  conmiissioners, 
county  probably,  who  held  sessions  in  Tipton  in  the  forties,  in  the  form  of  record 
books  were  in  the  office  of  the  county  clerk  or  recorder  (county  auditor — ^Ed.) 
largely  in  the  handwriting  of  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey,  clerk.  Many  records  about 
roads  and  other  early  acts  for  public  improvements  were  found  therein. 

Most  of  the  living  records  are  gone — ^in  the  form  of  men  and  women  who 
could  then  recall  the  facts,  and  you  will  have  to  depend  largely  upon  the  recorded 
data  you  can  locate. 

Very  truly  yours, 

Richard  L.  Rowe. 

With  the  "News-Advertiser,"  Vancouver,  B.  C. 

All  the  sources  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  reply  had  been  covered  long 
before  the  letter  reached  the  author  of  it  and  the  reply  received.  It  is  a  source 
of  satisfaction,  however,  to  find  Mr.  Rowe,  in  order  to  bring  to  light  all  the 
authorities  quoted. 

Finally  the  editor  must  express  his  appreciation  to  all  those  who  have  fur- 
nished information  or  data  as  referred  to  throughout  the  volume  in  a  general 
way  arid  so  far  as  possiWe  in  specific  instances.  To  the  staff  of  advisers  who 
were  selected  by  the  publisher  special  thanks  are  due  for  the  suggestions  of  cer- 
tain sources  of  information.  To  Judge  TreicMer  and  Hon.  J.  T.  Moffit  in  their 
own  profession,  and  public  matters,  Sherman  Yates  for  the  use  of  the  continuous 
files  of  the  Advertiser,  Mrs.  McClure  for  approval  of  the  first  section,  and  to 
Mr.  Boyd  for  being  willing  to  do  anything  his  time  would  allow. 

The  editor  of  the  first  volume  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  second  and  can 

claim  no  authority  over  it. 

C.  Ray  Aurner. 


Section  I. 
Pioneer  History ii 

Section  II. 
County  Organization  and  Government 53 

Section  III. 
Towns  and  Townshi|>s loi 

Section  IV. 
Educational , 155 

Section  V. 
Church  and  Its  Organizations 184 

Section  VI. 
Industrial  Affairs 236 

Section  VII. 
Transportation   267 

Section  VIII. 
Judicial  Matters 301 

Section  IX. 
Military  History .328 

Section  X. 
John  Brown  in  Cedar  County 410 

Section  XI. 
The  Press  and  Literary  Oiganizations 452 

Section  XII. 
Fraternal  Organizations 474 

Section  XIII. 
The  County  in  the  State  and  Nation 486 

Section  XIV. 
The  Professions  492 

Section  XV. 

Miscellaneous    •  .499 

Reference    513 

B  L 

'    '  I — ■ 


History  of  Cedar  G:)unty 



At  a  meeting  of  the  "Old  Settlers  Association"  in  Tipton,  June  lo,  1910, 
the  secretary  reported  twenty-seven  deaths  during  the  year  since  the  last  meet- 
ing. At  this  meeting  those  who  came  in  1836  to  this  county  were  asked  to  stand. 
Only  two  arose,  and  from  personal  reports  obtainable  only  six  are  now  livii^ 
who  canve  in  that  early  time.  Personal  interviews  in  this  chapter  of  accounts 
secured  from  those  able  to  give  correct  facts  will  reveal  who  these  six  are.  The 
tM  was  also  called  on  dates  up  to  1850.  Very  few  survivors  of  these  early  days 
are  now  found  in  this  county,  they  are  fast  passing  and  many,  very  many,  inter- 
esting facts  must  be  omitted  because  no  one  is  now  living  who  could  have  fur- 
nished them.  Many  points  of  interest  in  this  county  that  have  events  of  value 
associated  widi  them  cannot  now  be  exactly  located  because  the  character  of 
the  surroundings  has  been  so  changed  or  distinguishing  marks  removed.  If 
errors  creep  into  pioneer  accounts  they  are  due  to  crossed  memories  or  lack  of 
opportunity  to  verify  the  historical  data  by  actual  record  which  was  not  made 
at  the  proper  time.  The  earliest  settler  was  not  concerned  with  keeping  any 
record  of  the  present,  as  he  knew  it,  for  us  at  this  date  to  reproduce  as  history. 
He  had  enough  to  do  then  to  keep  himself  and  his  family  supplied  with  the  bare 
food  and  clothing  necessary  for  existence  and  while  happy  enough  and  possessed 
of  a  keen  appreciation  of  his  situation,  willing  and  more  than  anxious  to  better 
his  condition  he  was  alive  to  the  future  only  in  a  material  and  physical  sense 
at  first.  This  does  not  mean  that  he  had  no  thought  for  elevation  of  mind,  of 
morals,  but  that  he  was  after  a  home,  independence  of  fortune,  freedom  politi- 
cally, and  comforts  for  his  family  which  must  be  carved  out  of  a  wild  country. 
He  was  willing  to  give  his  life,  his  very  blood,  if  need  be,  to  carry  out  this  plan. 
This  one  purpose  possessed  him  and  if  he  was  not  concerned  with  keeping  records 
on  paper  or  in  marking  spots  of  historical  interest  so  that  they  could  be  identified 
by  posterity,  we  at  tiiis  date  must  forgive  him  and  do  the  best  we  can  to  put  facts 
into  form  for  preservation.  We  must  draw  from  every  possible  source  for  this 
chapter  and  shall  be  indebted  to  many  for  assistance.  It  may  not  be  true  that 
people  arc  more  selfish  or  thoughtless  than  in  these  pioneer  days,  but  they  cer- 


tainly  are  less  social.  They  fail  to  respond  to  calls  of  a  personal  nature  in  the 
same  way,  due  doubtless  to  the  great  demand  on  time  for  the  multitude  of  duties 
that  now  come  to  each  individual  if  he  fulfills  his  daily  round  of  occupations. 
Then  the  social  and  charitable  element  in  the  character  came  to  its  highest  degree 
of  expression  and  what  belonged  to  one  became  in  distress  or  need  the  property 
of  all.  One  has  written  something  as  follows  concerning  the  early  days :  "They 
were  void  of  hypocrisy  themselves  and  they  despised  it  in  others.  They  hated 
cowardice  and  shams  of  every  kind,  and  above  all  things  falsehood  and  decep- 
tion. The  stranger,  so  long  as  honest  and  trustworthy,  was  made  welcome  as 
one  of  the  household.  To  tender  pay  for  service  of  this  kind  was  offensive  to 
the  possessor.  If  one  fell  sick  and  needed  care  and  attention  it  was  immediately 
at  hand.  Such  service  was  cheerfully  rendered  and  the  needs  of  a  new  country 
made  skilful  nurses  of  housewives.  A  neighborhood  was  a  social  unit  and  what 
was  the  interest  of  one  became  the  interest  of  all.  When  work  needed  a  force  of 
men,  they  united  the  men  of  the  community  and  no  one  needed  to  make  a  second 
request.  In  a  sense  all  felt  the  need  and  could  not  enjoy  his  good  fortune  unless 
shared  by  his  neighbor. 

The  experiences  of  some  of  the  first-comers  were  very  similar  to  those  of  the 
early  founders  of  the  English  colonies.  Coming  here  in  the  autumn  no  oppor- 
tunity was  given  for  planting  or  growing  anything  before  winter  came  on. 
Hay  for  the  stock  could  be  harvested  anywhere,  fuel  was  found  along  the  streams 
and  material  for  a  dwelling  could  be  procured  in  a  short  time,  such  dwelling  as 
the  pioneer  was  accustomed  to  construct  or  had  seen  constructed  in  the  state 
from  which  he  came.  His  ancestors  had  taught  him  this,  had  taught  him  inde- 
pendence of  action  under  trying  circumstances  and  he  felt  no  fear  in  his  new 
surroundings.  The  experiences  of  these  early  people  were  similar,  yet  they  had 
their  individual  trials  and  some  of  them  were  peculiar  to  the  times  in  which  they 
lived,  while  others  were  only  the  result  of  a  disposition  to  carve  a  new  way  in 
a  wild  country  almost  single  handed.  Such  original  experiences  told  by  individ- 
uals now  living  are  hard  to  procure,  but  many  things  in  this  chapter  are  first  hand, 
coming  fresh  from  the  ones  who  were  participants  in  these  events.  Such  stirring 
scenes  as  they  are  able  to  picture  make  present  surroundings  seem  tame  in  com- 
parison and  romance  could  not  produce  situations,  tragic  or  comic,  to  compare 
with  the  realistic  tales  of  the  pioneer.  The  resources  of  the  family  were  em- 
ployed to  the  fullest  extent,  each  one  having  his  own  duty  and  while  none  escaped 
the  labors  assigned  him,  all  were  happy  in  the  undertaking.  Depending  for  life 
on  the  immediate  territory  in  which  they  lived,  every  means  was  employed  to 
make  economic  use  of  nature's  supply.  The  friendly  Indian,  indeed  a  friend, 
the  game  of  wood  and  stream  procured  at  the  risk  of  life,  often  was  the  sole 
dependence  of  the  lonely  forerunner  of  the  present  prosperous  people  of  this 
county  and  state.  If  the  hungry  child  of  this  date  were  given  for  his  dinner  the 
plain  food  the  pioneer  mother  had  to  give,  he  would  wonder  what  had  put  it  into 
the  mind  of  the  housekeeper  to  return  to  the  custom  of  his  great-grandfather. 
Let  these  people  tell  their  own  stories  in  their  own  way,  for  they  are  the  only 
ones  entitled  to  a  hearing  in  this  matter. 

The  portion  of  the  state  now  known  as  Cedar  county  is  just  within  the  limits 
of  the  Black-Hawk  purchase.    General  Winfield  Scott  made  the  treaty  on  behalf 


of  the  United  States  on  the  present  site  of  the  City  of  Davenport,  Sept.  13,  1832. 
By  this  treaty  the  government  secured  title  to  six  million  acres  of  land,  the  bounds 
of  which  arc  a  line  running"  from  the  east  side  of  Davis  county  northeast  to  a 
point  on  the  Cedar  river  near  the  northeast  comer  of  Johnson  county,  then  north- 
west to  the  lands  of  the  Winnebagoes,  then  east  to  the  Mississippi  near  Mc- 
Gregor.i  "It  was  then  a  land  untouched  by  civilization — ^a  land  possessing  all 
the  charms  of  primitive  wildness,  in  winter  a  soliture  of  snow-covered  and 
storm-swept  plains,  but  in  summer  a  paradise  with  every  enticement  for  the 
adventurer  or  homeseeker.  There  is  a  beauty  that  can  be  seen  at  one  step  in  a 
country's  development  but  never  afterward.  It  is  part  of  the  compensation  of 
the  pioneer  to  see  and  live  among  the  unchanged  loveliness  of  nature.  The 
groves  stand  where  God  put  them  and  the  streams  run  where  his  finger  marked 
the  way.  No  fences  mark  the  metes  and  bounds  of  one  man's  dominion  and  where 
another  may  not  go.  The  beholder  may  realize  the  full  meaning  of  the  words, 
'All  are  yours  and  ye  are  God's.' 

"What  a  new  land  is  to  be  for  years  to  come  is  determined  by  the  character 
of  the  pioneer  settler.  The  land  is  his  to  make  of  it  what  he  will,  physically, 
intellectually,  morally ."^ 

"The  territory  now  constituting  the  states  of  Iowa,  Wisconsin  and  Minne- 
sota, was  by  Congress  organized  as  Wisconsin  territory  and  Henry  Dodge  ap- 
pointed governor  in  July,  1836.  The  first  session  of  the  Assembly  of  Wisconsin 
territory  divided  the  Black  Hawk  purchase  into  Dubuque  and  Des  Moines 
counties.  The  second  session  of  that  Assembly,  which  was  held  at  Burlington, 
divided  Dubuque  county  into  Dubuque,  Qayton,  Fayette,  Delaware,  Jackson, 
Linn,  Benton,  Clinton  and  Cedar  counties.* 

"Such  was  the  political  birth  of  this  region.  Thus  the  first  steps  were  taken 
toward  political  freedom  and  separate  existence  as  to  local  authority  in  the 
county  of  Cedar,  territory  of  Wisconsin.  But  while  the  first  governing  body  of 
commissioners  were  in  session,  the  county  passed  from  the  jurisdiction  of  Wis- 
consin territory  to  that  of  the  territory  of  Iowa,  for  the  Congressional  Act 
whereby  Iowa  became  an  independent  territory  went  into  effect  July  4,  1838. 
The  last  order  of  the  commissioners  before  passing  from  the  Wisconsin  juris- 
diction reads  as  follows :  "Issued  a  writ  to  bring  before  this  body  Orrin  Lewis 
and  child,  which  was  committed  to  the  county  sheriff."* 

When  Rochester  was  named  as  the  county  seat  there  were  not  to  exceed  one 
hundred  fifty  inhabitants  in  the  borders  of  the  county  and  they  were  scattered 
throughout  the  whole  of  it.  The  earliest  and  heaviest  settlements  were  in  Sugar 
Creek  township  in  Rochester  and  Pioneer  Grove  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the 
county.  The  one  post-office  was  called  Rock  Crieek,  and  afterwards  Rochester. 
Naturally  as  immigration  increased  the  people  began  to  discuss  the  more  central 
location  of  the  county  seat.  The  first  aggressive  movement  toward  that  end  was 
made  in  1839  by  a  petition  from  the  people  to  the  legislature  then  in  session  at 
Burlington  asking  its  re-location.*^    But  more  of  this  in  another  chapter. 

The  old  frame  court  house  in  which  the  court  of  '41  was  held  may  interest 
us  for  a  time.  There,  of  course,  court  was  held  in  all  dignity ;  there  the  wander- 
ing lecturer  and  the  occasional  preacher  came ;  there  moot  legislatures  and  school 
exhibitions  and  dances  were  held.    There  Soper  and  Gleason,  captured  for  horse- 


stealing,  were  confined  over  night  instead  of  in  the  jail.  Whatever  may  have 
been  the  reason  for  this,  it  made  their  seizure  easy  and  certain  when  they  were 
wanted  by  the  r^fulators.  There  on  the  removal  of  an  outbuilding,  Hawley  and 
Daniels  were  burned  in  effigy  for  no  other  reason  than  that  they  came  from 
Oberlin  and  which  made  it  certain  that  they  were  abolitionists.^ 

"The  time  of  awakening  of  large  expectations  was  the  coming  of  the  Lyons 
Iowa  Central  Railroad.  The  soil  of  Iowa  was  then  unbroken,  unmarred  or  un- 
blest,  as  you  please,  by  any  railroad  cut  or  fill.  The  valleys  had  not  been  exalted 
nor  the  hills  made  low  to  make  a  way  for  Nahum's  Chariots.  The  advance  of 
this  project  beyond  the  talking  stage  was  signalized  by  the  appearance  of  the 
g^ders  with  shovels,  wheelbarrows  and  teams,  in  the  early  summer  of  1853. 
Imagine  the  interest  and  wonder  in  the  mind  of  the  writer  and  the  rest  of  the 
boys  as  week  after  wedc  the  peaceful  army  continued  and  results  began  to  show. 
The  nearest  actual  invasion  of  Tipton  was  made  by  a  heavy  fill  just  east  of  the 
present  school  campus,  where  a  large  embankment  was  raised,  an  embankment 
now  being  pulled  away  by  cartloads  to  fill  depressions  in  the  building  lots  in  the 
corporation.  But  when  expectations  were  at  the  highest  and  hope  the  brightest, 
and  the  cars  most  clearly  seen  in  the  near  future  by  those  who  had  never  seen 
them  in  reality,  work  abruptly  ceased,  the  army  of  workers  vanished  and  the 
whole  project  had  failed  as  'the  best  laid  schemes  of  mice  and  men  gang  aft 
agley.'  All  there  was  to  show  for  the  thought,  labor  and  money  expended  were 
worse  than  useless  instances  of  grading  between  Lyons  and  the  Wapsie  river  and 
between  that  and  Tipton  and  beyond  toward  Iowa  City."  "^ 

The  boys  of  the  town  were  in  a  measure  compensated  for  their  disappoint- 
ment in  not  seeing  actual  cars  by  having  a  very  available  skating  pond  furnished 
tiiem  by  the  water  which  accumulated  against  the  embankment  previously  men- 
tioned. A  few  stmimers  after  this  pond  was  formed  Mustoe  Chambers  was 
drowned  in  it.  Then  a  passage  through  the  bank  was  hurriedly  cut  for  a  way 
for  the  water  to  escape  and  our  cherished  pond  disappeared.  The  presence  of 
such  a  near-by  skating  pond  will  be  appreciated  by  the  boy  who  searches  for 
such  a  place  in  the  vicinity  of  Tipton  today.® 

"The  history  of  any  county  is  involved  largely  in  the  history  and  biography  of 
its  leading  men  and  women.  Let  us  note  the  history  of  some  to  whom  our  county 
is  indebted.  Prominent  among  its  pioneers  stands  the  name  of  Henry  Hardman. 
He  was  the  first  Justice  of  the  Peace  and  was  such  for  a  long  time  to  the  satis- 
faction of  the  pec^le.  He  was  among  the  first  jurors.  His  pioneer  home  became 
the  place  for  elections,  court,  religious,  school  and  social  gatherings.  There  the 
Rev.  Barton  H.  Cartwright  held  service.  The  writer  was  a  member  of  the  family 
as  a  district  school  teacher  "boarding  'round,"  and  there  heard  him  tell  of  feed- 
ing a  whole  camp  meeting  when  pork  was  twenty-five  cents  a  pound.  He  lived  ^ 
to  see  the  full-blown  flower  of  the  county's  affluence  and  his  countr/s  greatness. 
It  is  in  my  heart  to  speak  of  Mary  Hardman  and  other  pioneer  wives  upon  whom 
the  labor  of  open-handed  hospitality  fell  without  whom  neither  church  nor  state 
could  have  been  established  in  the  wilderness.  Too.  little  has  been  said  of  the 
pioneer  women  and  justice  can  never  be  measured  to  them  at  this  late  day. 

One  day  while  searching  in  the  old  but  still  well-guarded  cemetery  at  Roch- 
ester, pushing  aside  the  grass  from  a  low  headstone,  I  read  the  barely  legible 






I t\Ot     A 




F  H   ■•UAl. 





name  of  Daniel  Hare.  He  was  an  associate  of  Henry  Hardman  in  church  and 
state.  He  died  in  the  midst  of  his  labors  in  1852.  Those  who  met  in  daily  walk 
the  iorm  of  Henry  D.  Brown  scarcely  remembered  him  as  one  of  the  forerunners 
of  civilization,  of  the  historic  band  of  1836.  Moses  B.  Church,  the  first  secretary 
of  the  Board  of  County  Commissioners,  and  the  first  school  teacher  who  had 
been  trained  for  the  ministry,  who  came  to  brave  the  hardships  of  pioneer  life  in 
advanced  years,  met  with  misfortune  and  when  he  could  get  a  hearing  became  an 
advocate  of  new  doctrines  or  theories  of  life  which  left  God  and  the  Bible  out  of 
the  argument* 

Long  associated  with  the  town  and  county  was  Jeremiah  C.  Betts.  He  was 
hotel  keeper  and  successively  filled  almost  every  offiice  in  the  gift  of  the  county,  a 
successful  Sunday  school  teacher  and  superintendent  and  good  citizen  in  his 
time.  He  retired  to  a  farm  in  Inland  township  and  ended  his  days  in  peace. 
Following  the  line  of  woods  that  rims  the  horizon  on  the  west  and  north  of  the 
county  seat  were  the  homes  of  Joseph  K.  Snyder,  Solomon  Knott,  Samuel  Long, 
Sdbmon  Aldrich,  Benjamin  Fraseur,  Geo.  Reeder,  W.  A.  Rigby,  John,  James, 
and  George  Safley  and  Alexander  Yule.  The  successive  occupants  of  what  is 
now  known  as  Bunker  Hill  farm,  are  Captain  Higginson,  Mr.  Wall,  Moses 
Bunker  and  the  present  owner,  a  descendant  of  the  Bunker  family. 

The  Hammond  family  must  be  remembered  in  all  that  belongs  to  the  early 
history  of  the  county,  being  identified  with  both  the  farm  and  with  business  in- 
terests in  different  parts. 

To  Joshua  Hall  the  town  and  county  owed  the  stately  pine  trees  that  are 
found  here  so  numerously  and  with  the  growth  of  a  half  century  to  give  them 
majesty  they  furnish  a  constant  reminder  of  the  man.  In  some  way  these  pioneers 
with  their  heroic  wives  have  left  their  mark,  and  generally  for  good,  upon  the 
country.  In  the  early  days  Abraham  Lett  wks  a  well  known  character  and  Mr. 
Stuckenbruck  with  his  mountainlike  horse  and  little  wagon  sticks  in  memory  as 
does  the  venerable  Samuel  Daniels  who  was  always  the  bearer  of  the  Book  in 
Masonic  processions.  ^<> 

The  first  store  in  the  county  is  said  to  have  been  in  Centerville,  in  Sugar  Creek 
township,  and  was  conducted  by  John  C.  Higginson  and  John  Shellen  The  first 
things  bekMig  largely  to  Rochester,  since  it  was  laid  out  in  1836  and  very  soon 
after  obtaining  the  postoffice  and  ferry  could  also  boast  of  a  store. 

No  aggregation  of  houses  is  a  city  or  town  without  the  merchant  and  his 
store,  and  largely  as  are  the  merchants  so  is  the  city  or  town.  Let  us  look  at  the 
honored  roH  elsewhere.  With  the  rise  and  growth  of  the  county  seat  after  1840 
came  Addison  Gillett  His  appearance  was  gentlemanly.  He  had  brown  curly 
hair,  a  smooth,  almost  feminine,  face.  He  was  wdl  adapted  to  his  chosen  work 
as  salesman,  but  not  it  would  seem  to  the  surroundings  of  a  new  country  under 
pioneer  conditions.  He  cannot  be  numbered  with  those  who,  rising  with  the 
growing  country,  gained  wealth  and  position.  His  modest  monument  may  be 
seen  in  the  Masonic  cemetery  bearing  his  name  to  guide  the  search  of  those 
interested  and  make  its  mute  plea  for  remembrance  by  the  passing  generations. 
There  fa  no  remembrance  of  early  days  in  Cedar  county  and  its  capital  that  can 
leave  out  the  firm  of  Friend  and  Culbertson.  The  first  came  early  to  the  county 
but  for  a  time  engaged  in  farming.    The  latter  possessed  of  some  capital  became 


a  prominent  actor  in  public  and  business  affairs,  as  the  first  hotel  keeper,  as 
county  officer,  but  mainly  and  for  a  long  period  as  merchant.  The  firm  of  Friend 
and  Culbertson  was  always  solid,  enlarging  to  meet  demands.  A  branch  store 
was  established  in  Clarence  and  a  competent  manager  put  in  charge.  Dr.  Richard 
Hall  and  Aaron  Gilbert  as  druggists,  Casad  and  Gilmore  were  among  the  early 
firms,  the  latter  long  associated  as  partners  in  the  clothing  business  retired  to 
enjoy  their  well-earned  peace  after  useful  business  careers.  Mr.  Gilmore  is  still 
a  familiar  figure  on  our  streets  and  the  old  business  is  continued  in  the  same  place 
by  his  son  and  partner,  and  this  firm  is  one  of  two  places  in  Tipton  continued  from 
father  to  son  at  this  day.  The  other  one  is  directly  opposite  on  the  other  side  of 
the  square — the  old  harness  shop  of  Austin  Parsons,  which  is  continued  by  his  son 
at  this  time. 

Alonzo  Shaw,  when  not  holding  some  public  service  office,  was  a  business 
man  from  the  first.  As  partner  of  Col.  Lockwood  Smith,  as  hotel  keeper,  as  drug- 
gist and  merchant,  until  now  in  his  declining  years  he  has  gone  from  all  these 
scenes  and  finds  a  home  in  the  milder  climate  of  California.  He  tells  elsewhere 
of  some  of  his  early  experiences.  In  those  days  the  blacksmith  was  among  the 
first  comers.  He  was  one  of  the  prime  necessities  of  a  new  country.  Scattered 
all  through  the  county  and  whenever  a  settlement  sprang  up  the  shop  was  one  of 
the  first  needs  since  the  plow  must  be  kept  in  repair  if  the  native  sod  was  to  be 
made  productive.  Among  the  first  in  Tipton  and  vicinity  we  name  Peabody  and 
Daniels,  the  Bosserts  as  carpenters,  and  Goddens  as  mascms,  Weaver  and  Dickin- 
son as  shoemakers,  Magee  and  McCurdy  as  tailors,  Daniel  W.  Clapp  as  teamster, 
by  length  of  time  in  service,  miles  traveled  and  fidelity  to  trust,  has  gained  a  place 
in  county  history.  The  steam  mill  with  a  large  part  of  the  capitalists  of  the  town 
as  stockholders,  growing  out  of  the  needs  of  the  time,  was  a  great  wonder  to  the 
boy.  The  top  of  its  marvelous  chimney  seemed  to  be  beyond  his  vision.  There 
was  the  miller  in  all  his  glory  and  Taylor,  the  engineer,  with  his  watchful  eye 
on  the  power. 

Break  not  the  charm  of  early  days  that  live  like  a  song  in  memory.  Rather 
let  us  ask  where  are  the  mills  that  adorned  Rock  Creek  and  made  it  something 
more  than  a  watering  place  for  the  pastured  stock.  I  can  name  them;  there  was 
Miller's  mill,  in  more  recent  times  Dean's  mill,  just  west  of  the  present  cemetery. 
This  was  chief  of  them  all.  Then  Dwigan's  mill  and  Friend's  mill.  Their  ponds 
gave  to  boyish  eyes  all  the  charms  of  lakes.  There  lilies  grew  and  fish  swam  and 
the  great  waterwheels  spoke  all  the  poetry  that  has  ever  been  written  about  themu 
What  a  paradise  they  made  for  a  boy.  He  would  not  give  the  memory  of  those 
days  of  pleasure  for  all  the  money  that  might  have  been  earned  or  knowledge 
acquired  in  the  time  spent  upon  their  banks.^^ 

Late  in  the  summer  of  1836  my  parents  with  several  other  families  started 
from  Indiana  for  a  long  journey  westward.  Two  families,  one  mentioned  above, 
and  a  congenial  second  had  only  one  wagon  between  them.  This  was  drawn 
by  oxen  and  not  much  diflFerent  from  the  common  wagon  of  the  day  with  the 
exception  of  a  higher  bed  or  box,  the  harness  was  made  chiefly  of  chains.  The 
only  way  to  bring  live  stock  was  to  lead  them.  Even  the  hogs  were  haltered  and 
led  but  alas !  the  journey  was  too  long,  too  tiresome  and  only  one  reached  Iowa 
soil.    They  brought  one  cow  this  entire  distance.     Starting  with  considerable 


of  a  herd  it  was  necessary  to  dispose  of  most  of  them  before  reaching  the  desr 
tination.    At  the  great  river  which  separated  them  from  Iowa  soil  they  loaded 
their  belongings  into  a  ferry  boat  and  landed  on  the  western  side  at  Muscatine, 
then  called  by  the  name  of  Bloomington.     This  was  the  gateway  to  this  part 
of  the  territory  then  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Wisconsin.    At  Muscatine  these 
two  families  separated  from  the  remainder  of  the  party  and  continued  their 
journey  north  and  west  from  the  place  of  landing  in  this  new  region.    As  they 
crossed  the  different  creeks  they  named  them,  the  first  Otter,  because  they  saw 
an  otter  there,  the  second  Mosquito,  because  it  swarmed  with  the  insects,  the 
third,  because  of  its  condition.  Mud,  the  fourth  Sugar  because  the  water  was 
clear  and  sparkling  and  to  the  fifth  they  gave  the  name  Crooked  because  of 
its  peculiar  winding  in  and  out.    These  streams  are  known  by  these  names  at 
the  present  time.    Stopping  not  far  from  the  present  site  of  Wiltcm  they  at  once 
proceeded  to  build  a  cabin  from  the  native  timber,  plastering  the  logs  with 
mud  mortar  to  stop  the  openings.    In  this  house  some  two  weeks  later  the  nar- 
rator of  this  sketch  was  bom,  the  first  white  child  bom  within  the  borders  of 
the  County  of  Cedar.    The  family  arrived  too  late  in  the  year  to  secure  any 
crops  and  food  was  hard  to  obtain  during  the  first  winter.    The  father  of  the 
bouse  drove  his  ox  team  to  Illinois  to  secure  com  and  salt.    The  com  was  made 
into  meal  with  a  coffee  mill  and  some  into  hominy,  the  process  of  making  the 
latter  is  probably  unknown  to  the  present  generation.    The  hulls  were  removed 
from  flint  com  by  means  of  strong  lye  made  from  wood  ashes  by  means  of  a 
leach,  or  in  plain  language  by  passing  water  through  them  and  catching  the 
liquid  in  a  tub.     This  strong  alkali  was  removed  from  the  com  by  cleansing 
with  much  water  and  then  the  kemels  were  boiled  for  twelve  hours  or  more 
until  tender.    This  was  home-made  hominy,  a  kind  in  many  ways  superior  to 
the  medicated  article  found  in  the  market.    In  those  days  salt  was  often  hard 
to  procure  the  demand  being  so  great.    One  time  as  father  was  retuming  from 
the  trading  post  he  attempted  to  cross  Sugar  creek  on  the  ice.    His  team  of  oxen 
and  wagon  broke  through  where  the  water  was  about  six  feet  deep.    Taking  in 
the  situation  he  unloaded  his  meal  upon  the  ice  and  sprang  into  the  water  to 
aid  his  stmggling  oxen.    After  spending  an  hour  in  the  attempt  to  rescue  them 
and  in  an  atmosphere  of  zero  temperature  he  succeeded  in  unyoking  them  but 
they  were  unable  to  ascend  the  steep  bank.    He  hastened  for  help  at  some  dis- 
tance, a  team  of  oxen  was  secured  and  by  means  of  chain  the  helpless  ones  in 
the  stream  were  helped  up  the  bank.    All  this  consiuned  time  and  the  exposure 
to  wind  and  cold  had  frozen  the  wet  clothing  of  my  father  stiff,  yet  he  never 
experienced  any  unpleasant  effects  of  the  adventure,  due  to  the  continuous 
exertion  and  protection  secured  when  the  frozen  garments  shut  out  the  cold 
wind.    The  Indians  disturbed  these  early  settlers  to  an  alarming  extent.    The 
stories  are  numberless  concerning  them  and  many  are  now  living  who  can  relate 
some  experiences  but  mostly  of  a  friendly  nature. 

A  family  residing  near  my  father's  cabin  did  not  intend  to  deal  kindly  with 
the  red  men.  One  night  three  came  to  this  house  and  asked  for  lodging.  The 
man  of  the  house  ordered  them  away  from  his  premises.  Being  somewhat 
obstinate,  they  were  on  the  point  of  attacking  him  when  my  father  happened  along. 
He  told  them  to  spend  the  night  at  his  home,  and  they  hastily  departed,  surren- 


dering  their  weapons  to  the  master  as  they  entered.  During  the  entire  night  they 
were  restless  and  seemed  fearful  lest  the  whites  should  do  them  some  injury. 
In  the  morning  they  mixed  flour  and  water,  and  made  their  bread  in  the  (^)en 
fireplace.  Ever  after  the  Indians  remembered  this  kindness  and  often  brought 
gifts  to  the  mother  and  two  children,  their  bead  baskets  and  other  hand  work. 
They  did  on  some  occasions  atten^>t  the  life  of  the  white  settler,  as  others  may 
relate.  One  evening  a  white  woman,  while  alone,  saw  two  Indians  approaching. 
She  immediately  closed  and  locked  her  door.  They  demanded  admittance.  She 
refused  and  this  only  enraged  them  in  their  attempt  to  break  down  the  door. 
The  sudden  sound  of  a  bell  tcld  her  of  the  arrival  of  her  son,  and  when  she 
shouted  that  tiie  white  men  were  coming  they  fled.  The  whites  were  in  constant 
fear  of  the  Indians,  yet  the  red  men  seemed  fully  as  fearful  of  them.  The  first 
spring  found  the  entire  family  busy  in  planting  the  first  crop.  The  plow  and 
the  hoe  were  the  implements,  hand  work  was  the  rule.  The  grain  was  harvested 
with  a  hook  and  tramped  out  by  the  feet  of  animals.  A  true  threshing  floor,  but 
utilized  in  a  new  form.^< 

The  first  settler  chose  to  make  his  farm  from  the  woods  by  removing  the 
timber,  as  he  deemed  the  prairie  land  of  no  special  value.  There  was  notiiing  to 
fence  it  and  it  could  never  be  used  unless  fenced.  His  fence,  the  only  one  he  knew, 
was  the  old  worm  fence  of  his  fathers,  made  from  rails  and  stakes  split  from  logs 
at  great  expense  of  labor  and  time.  The  fence  of  the  future  that  was  to  make  it 
possible  to  enclose  miles  of  prairie  in  a  few  days  was  far  from  man's  thought 
The  need  evolved  the  supply,  as  it  has  so  often  since,  and  the  rich  prairie  has 
responded  to  man's  need  far  beyond  his  expectations  when  he  looked  out  upon  it 
from  his  wooded  location.  It  was  in  this  manner  that  the  oldest  farms  and  first 
improvements  seemed  to  grow  out  from  the  edge  of  the  timbered  r^^ions  until 
inhabited  sections  met  on  the  open  land,  completing  the  design  of  the  Creator  that 
the  land  should  be  made  to  support  a  multitude.  There  were  other  reasons  for 
his  remaining  close  by  the  water  routes.  An  Iowa  writer  expresses  it  in  an 
attractive  form:  'Iowa  was  originally  a  part  of  the  territory  which  formed  a 
grand  hunting  and  trapping  ground  for  the  red  man  with  his  primitive  weapons 
and  traps,  and  later  for  the  pale  face  with  the  modem  weapons  with  which  to  kill 
and  capture  without  though  of  the  morrow  all  food  or  fur-bearing  animals  com- 
ii^  within  range  of  his  deadly  rifle  and  the  lure  of  the  concealed  trap.  The  fur 
and  food  animals  in  those  days  were  the  deer,  wild  turkey,  pheasant,  squirrel, 
wild  goose,  brant,  duck,  otter,  beaver,  wolf,  mink,  muskrat,  raccoon,  with  an 
occasional  black  bear.  Trappers  usually  had  from  forty  to  fifty  steel  traps  of 
different  sizes.  To  these  were  added  the  "medicine"  used  to  put  on  the  bait  to 
attract  the  animal."^'  The  common  animals  along  the  streams  furnished  the 
meat  food  of  the  pioneer,  but  if  by  misfortune  he  got  no  game  he  must  survive 
without  meat,  he  had  no  other  resource.  He  must  use  art  and  skill  in  his 
methods  unknown  to  the  man  trained  only  in  prairie  ways.  Most  of  the  new- 
comers had  some  sense  of  wood  craft  and  felt  safer  when  dose  to  their  original 
environment.  "There  are  few  boys  or  men  living  in  a  timbered  country  who 
have  not  spent  an  occasional  night  during  the  fall  of  the  year  in  hunting  the  wary 
'coon  with  a  pack  of  well-trained  dogs.  A  couple  of  axes,  a  gun,  and  good  run- 
ning qualities  are  the  only  requisites.    When  the  nocturnal  prowler  comes  out  of 


Ah    •.  \ 


Tri.i.tfN   r>t  >iiAr. 

•■  *9 




his  hole  in  a  hollow  tree  during  the  night,  in  search  of  food,  the  dogs  cross  his 
trail,  and  after  a  chase  of  a  few  miles  he  takes  to  a  tree  and  in  is  either  shot  by 
moonlight,  or  the  tree  is  cut  down  and  the  pack  finishes  him  at  once."  ^*  In  early 
days  the  Iowa  streams  were  well  supplied  on  their  borders  with  game  which  the 
gradual  encroachment  of  improvements  and  civilized  methods  of  preservation 
have  about  destroyed 

In  1836  a  rude  log  cabin  was  erected  about  four  and  one-half  miles  east  of 
the  village  of  Rochester.  This  was  the  first  home  in  Iowa  of  Col.  Henry  Hard- 
man.  This  house  was  located  near  the  creek  and  served  as  a  home  for  the 
Hardman  family  for  many  years.  In  this  cabin  the  school  was  held  (referred  to 
elsewhere) ;  here  also  church  services,  Sunday  school  and  singing  school  wen^ 
held  as  time  went  on.  The  early  settlers  thought  that  Cedar  River  would  be 
navigable,  and  settlers  made  calculations  on  that  event  as  furnishing  means  of 
transportation  both  up  and  down  the  river.  Several  attempts  to  carry  out  this 
idea  soon  gave  a  discouraging  outlook  to  the  matter. 

During  the  winter  of  1837  ^  ^^^^i^d  of  Indians,  Sacs  and  Foxes,  about  five 
hundred  in  number  encamped  near  the  mouth  of  Rock  Creek,  just  above  the 
present  village  of  Rochester.  No  one  was  molested  by  them,  as  they  were 
friendly  to  most  of  the  whites.*^ 

''A  small  boy  of  ten  years  came  with  his  parents  to  this  county  in  1837  and 
settled  west  of  Tipton,  or  what  is  now  known  as  Tipton,  then  an  open  prairie 
with  no  indication  of  its  future  history  as  capital  of  the  county.  Their  only 
neighbors  were  the  Indians  who  made  early  calls  for  provisions.^® 

''In  1840  when  I  came  to  Cedar  County  there  were  but  a  dozen  families  in  as 
many  miles  radius.  They  were  of  the  best  people,  intelligent,  and,  for  the  time, 
well  educated  and  being  of  the  true,  vigorous  and  hardy  American  race  crossed 
hundreds  of  miles  of  trackless  country  to  form  a  new  home  in  a  rich  and  inviting 
r^on.  In  those  days  the  country  was  full  of  game  (it  is  mentioned  before), 
which  furnished  the  natives  and  whites  alike  with  their  meat.  In  the  swamps 
were  countless  numbers  of  muskrat  houses  and  many  deadly  snakes.  These 
swamps  seemed  to  form  a  large  part  of  the  open  country  there,  and  were  a  fruitful 
source  of  the  malaria  and  ague  common  among  the  first  settlers.  I  well  remember 
now  the  swamps  that  were  formerly  where  good  roads  now  pass,  in  my  girl- 
hood days  impassible,  and  one  might  remark  in  passing  that  some  of  the  best 
land  now  was  once  a  great  and  useless  marsh  improved  by  modem  systems  of 
drainage.  The  prairies  were  not  settled  until  the  later  fifties,  many  declaring 
that  they  would  never  be  settled,  but  would  remain  open  pastures.  They  rea- 
soned thus:  There  was  no  timber  to  furnish  fuel,  and  no  running  streams  or 
springs  to  furnish  water,  and  what  would  one  do  with  the  swamps.  At  this 
time  in  our  history  the  land  sale  at  Dubuque  had  not  taken  place.  A  man  by  the 
name  of  George  Miller  had  previously  pre-empted  large  tracts  of  land  unlaw- 
fully and  sold  tiiese  tracts  to  early  settlers  until  he  was  found  out,  when  he  left 
the  country.  When  the  land  was  entered  a  kind  of  duplicate  deed  was  given  to 
the  settlers.  These  were  government  documents  issued  by  order  of  the  Presi- 
dent, John  Tyler.  These  deeds  were  sent  to  Iowa  City,  then  the  capital  of  Iowa 
territory,  where  they  were  exchanged  for  the  deeds  we  got  at  first." 


"The  virgin  soil  was  broken  with  five  or  six  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  great  plow. 
These,  yoked  out  in  a  long  string,  were  hitched  to  the  plow  at  a  great  disadvan- 
tage when  compared  to  the  present  method  of  using  the  horse  in  close  harness 
whether  two  or  four.  Then  the  newly-turned  soil  was  harrowed  and  marked 
out  with  a  shovel  plow.  In  this  furrow  the  com  was  dropped  by  hand  and 
covered  with  a  hoe.  The  plow  then  used  cultivated  only  one  side  of  one  row, 
while  now  two  rows  at  a  time  are  cultivated  by  one  man.  All  grain  was  cut  by 
a  cradle  and  bound,  after  being  raked  into  suitable  bundle,  by  a  band  of  straw 
such  as  many  of  the  present  generation  do  not  know  how  to  construct,  even 
though  raised  in  surroundings  where  such  things  were  common  in  recent,  com- 
paratively recent,  years.  The  grain  was  threshed  by  means  of  a  flail  or  by  run- 
ning horses  over  it  on  a  smooth  floor.  Hay  was  cut  with  a  scythe  and  cured 
in  the  swath.  Crops  were  bounteous  and  vegetables  grew  to  great  size.  All 
produce  had  to  be  hauled  to  Bloomington,  now  Muscatine,  and  when  it  was  there 
brought  low  prices,  dressed  pork  selling  for  two  cents  or  less  a  pound,  wlieat 
twenty-five  cents  a  bushel,  half  the  amount  only  in  cash,  the  remainder  iA  trade. 
Flax  and  sheep  were  raised  to  make  clothes,  and  geese  to  make  feather  beds. 
The  wool  and  flax  were  spun  and  made  into  clothes.  Wool-picking  was  made  a 
social  diversion.  They  came  for  miles  around  on  horseback,  mothers  carrying 
their  babies  with  them  in  order  to  assist.  Cook  stoves  came  into  use  about  1850, 
but  fireplaces  continued  to  be  used  for  heating  purposes  for  a  long  time. 
Matches  were  unknown,  fire  being  kindled  with  flint  and  steel  and  a  bit  of  tow. 
If  these  were  lacking  the  only  resource  was  the  fire  of  a  neighbor.  Yet,  these 
people  seemed  fully  as  happy  as  those  of  this  generation."  ^^ 

"In  1841  my  father,  Abraham  Lett,  moved  from  Ohio  in  covered  wagons.  It 
was  spring  and  roads  were  almost  impassable.  While  traveling  through  Indiana 
the  horses  seemed  to  go  almost  out  of  sight  in  the  black  swamps.  After  a  long, 
tiresome  journey  we  arrived  at  Tipton  on  the  thirtieth  of  May.  In  addition  to 
our  family  was  that  of  Samuel  Akers,  and  we  made  our  home  in  an  old  log  cabin 
which  stood  two  blocks  west  of  the  court  house,  and  which  was  used  at  one  time 
as  a  clerk's  office.  The  room  was  twelve  by  twelve  feet  and  had  an  immense 
fireplace  on  one  side.  Before  long  our  friends  built  a  house  of  their  own  and 
we  had  the  whole  log  house  for  ourselves.  In  the  fall  we  moved  into  our  new 
house  of  one  room.  The  winter  was  very  cold,  and  the  house  being  unplas- 
tered  we  were  obliged  to  put  up  quilts  to  keep  out  the  penetrating  cold.  The 
one  stove  we  had  was  so  small  that  you  could  pick  it  up  easily.  After  the  first 
winter  we  raised  a  crop  and  food  was  plentiful.  Game  was  abundant  and  we 
had  our  own  com  meal  and  flour  by  going  to  Pett's  Mills  at  Anamosa  or  Maquo- 
ket^..  Later  on  in  our  history  we  got  our  supply  from  Dwigan's  mill,  and  better 
meal  never  was  ground.  The  first  yeast  we  had  was  brought  from  Virginia  by 
water.  About  twice  a  year  my  father  would  take  a  load  of  wheat  to  Muscatine 
and  get  thirty-seven  cents  a  bushel  for  it.  In  the  winter  dressed  pork  was 
hauled  to  the  same  marlqjt,  and  sugar  and  coffee  brought  on  the  return.  In  addi- 
tion to  this,  there  was  always  a  bolt  of  muslin  and  a  bolt  of  calico,  invariably 
blue.  I  was  raised  on  blue  calico,  and  these  were  our  best,  our  every-day 
dresses  being  made  of  unbleached  muslin  dyed  with  hazel  burrs  or  oak  bark.     In 


the  autumn  we  gathered  crab  apples  and  made  sauce,  and  such  good  sauce  as  it 
was.    We  made  sorrel  pies  in  the  summer  when  fruit  was  scarce. 

Great  companies  of  Indians  came  along  in  those  days  traveling  west.  They 
were  very  friendly  and  were  continually  wanting  to  trade  horses.  Father 
brought  out  a  horse  and  cme  old  fellow  said,  'Horse  sick,  heap  sick,'  after  having* 
g^ven  a  careful  examination  of  the  animal.  Wolves  howled  at  night,  and  their 
mournful  sounds  used  to  frighten  us  very  much.  They  came  close  to  the  cabins 
in  those  days  and  depredations  were  often  committed. 

Not  all  experiences  of  those  days,  however,  were  tragic.  A  few,  very  few, 
were  comic.  I  remember  one  occasion  that  seemed  vital  to  a  hungry  child.  By 
some  means  mother  had  secured  apples  enough  to  make  dumplings,  one  apiece 
all  around,  and  just  as  they  were  done  who  should  come  in  but  Harvey  Leech, 
and,  of  course,  he  remained  to  take  dinner  with  us.  At  that  time  it  was  the 
fashion  for  children  to  wait  when  company  came,  and  just  imagine  our  feelings 
as  we  watched  those  long-cherished  apple  dumplings  disappear  until  not  one  was 
left.  When  we  came  to  this  county  we  had  no  washboard  and  it  was  our  custom 
to  either  pound  our  clothes  on  a  block  or  in  a  barrel. 

In  1843  ^  storm  struck  Tipton,  carrying  away  several  houses  and  the  frame 
of  the  court  house.  Mrs.  John  P.  Cook  took  her  children  and  went  to  the  cellar, 
but  Mr.  Cook  declined  to  go,  whereupon  his  wife  expVessed  her  opinion  of  a  man 
who  was  not  afraid  of  a  storm  like  that.  As  years  drew  on  times  became  better, 
and  they  were  not  considered  as  hard  times  then,  since  all  were  on  the  same 
footii^,  and  poverty  might  have  been  called  the  prevailing  fashion.^® 

"In  the  fall  of  1842,  after  a  journey  of  five  weeks  or  more,  a  party,  including 
my  grandmother,  Mrs.  Lurenda  Humphrey  Casebeer,  settled  ten  miles  west  of 
Iowa  City,  then  a  village  of  fifteen  houses.  In  the  following  spring,  attracted  by 
the  land  sales  in  Cedar  County  they  bought  a  farm  and  came  here  to  live.  The 
site  of  the  old  homestead  is  two  and  one-half  miles  south  of  Tipton,  on  the  Mus- 
catine road.  The  only  building  on  the  place  was  a  log  cabin,  eighteen  feet 
square,  no  plaster,  no  ceiling  to  protect  the  dwellers  from  the  first  snow  storm  of 
the  fcdlowing"  winter,  which  sifted  through  the  chinks  in  the  wall  and  lay  two 
inches  deep  upon  their  beds  in  the  morning.  But  they  were  prepared  for  the 
next  storm.  The  tent  cover  and  wagon  top  were  stretched  over  the  ceiling  and 
walls,  and  the  snow  and  cold  kept  out  to  some  degree.  That  winter  food  was 
hard  to  procure.  No  mills  to  grind  wheat  had  there  been  any  to  grind.  What 
little  could  be  obtained  must  either  be  cooked  whole  or  crushed  by  letting  the 
horses  tread  upon  it  on  the  hard  ground.  Consequently  the  bread  was  rather 
hard  and  gritty.  Com  bread  was  preferred  to  white  put  up  in  this  fashion  from 
this  form  of  grinding.  In  the  spring  of  1844  grandmother  and  one  of  her  broth- 
ers, accompanied  by  a  minister,  made  the  trip  to  Ohio.  The  minister  had  left 
his  wife  and  family  in  Indiana,  and  was  to  bring  them  to  Iowa.  While  he  pre- 
pared for  the  return  journey,  grandmother  and  her  brother  drove  on  to  Colum- 
bus, which  she  said  was  'only  one  hundred  miles  farther  on.'  It  shows  how  little 
the  pioneer  regarded  a  distance  of  a  hundred  miles  overland  in  a  wagon.  The 
next  year  the  house  which  still  stands  (1903)  on  the  old  homestead  was  built 
(1845).  I^  ^s  sadly  in  decay  now,  the  haunt  of  bats  and  weasels,  rats  and 
snakes.    Grandmother's  father  made  the  brick  and  manufactured  the  shingles 


himself.  Part  of  the  lumber  he  hauled  from  Bloomington  (Muscatine).  The 
old  kiln  where  the  brick  were  burned  has  disappeared,  althought  in  wet  seasons 
water  fills  in  the  old  pond.  At  that  time  Tipton  consisted  of  two  or  three  dwell- 
ing houses,  a  store  and  a  log  jail.    It  gave  little  evidence  then  of  its  future. 

"Soon  after  the  building  of  the  house  mentioned  grandmother  was  married 
to  John  Casebeer,  The  young  folks  moved  to  Sugar  Creek,  several  miles  farther 
south.  When  I  asked  her  what  kind  of  a  house  she  had,  her  eyes  flashed  in 
reply :  'A  log  cabin  of  one  room  and  the  com  crib  under  the  bed.'  They  were 
often  troubled  by  begging  Indians.  The  squaws  teased  for  flour,  for  clothes 
for  papooses,  for  anything  their  greedy  eyes  might  light  upon.  The  sole  want 
of  the  Indian  buck  was  tobacco.    He  had  become  thus  far  civilised. 

"Fruit  was  very  scarce.  The  young  orchards  had  not  yet  reached  a  fruiting 
stage,  and  the  wild  product  was  mainly  crab  apples.  Pies  were  made  from  beet 
tq)s  and  sheep  sorrel  until  pie  plant  became  known,  which  was  thought  so  much 
better.  After  her  mother's  death  grandmother  came  back  to  her  father's  to 
care  for  the  younger  children.  It  was  a  time  of  bold  thieving.  Men  stole  valu- 
able horses,  rounded  them  up  near  the  Mississippi  and  shipped  them  south. 
Finally  the  outrages  became  unbearable  and  parties  of  men  from  Scott  and  Cedar 
Counties  organized  into  a  band  called  'regulators,'  to  find  and  punish  the  guilty 
ones.  The  Sopers  lived  a  half  mile  down  the  road  from  the  Humphrey  home. 
Ed.  Soper,  one  of  the  thieves,  was  found  at  his  home.  He  made  no  resistance, 
but  was  lodged  safely  in  jail.  Gleason  could  not  be  found.  For  several  days  a 
mob  of  angry  men  rode  through  the  woods  searching  everywhere.  They  wer^ 
armed  with  almost  every  conceivable  weapon,  and  were  determined  on  finding 
and  punishing  the  thief.  He  was  at  last  captured  in  the  woods  near  the  Bun- 
Oak  school  house,  a  short  distance  from  grandmother's  home.  A  girl  who  was 
picking  berries  found  him  hiding  behind  a  log.  She  led  the  'regulators'  to  the 
spot.    He  was  jailed  and  what  happened  after  that  is  related  in  another  chapter. 

"During  the  time  of  the  Civil  War  and  when  slavery  was  the  chief  topic  of 
thought  the  Humphrey  home  was  a  station  on  tfie  'underground  railroad.'  Many 
negroes,  especially  at  the  time  of  tfie  bloody  war  in  Kansas,  ran  away  north  or 
were  helped  away,  and  by  assistance  on  the  route  finally  reached  Canada.  Fami- 
lies of  colored  folk  often  remained  over  night  at  this  station.  The  next  day 
grandfather  would  put  them  in  a  wagon,  cover  them  up  with  quilts  and  blankets, 
and  transport  them  to  Posten's  Grove,  fifteen  miles  farther  on  their  way.  On 
long,  lonely  stretches  of  road  curly  heads  often  popped  out,  but  when  strangers 
happened  to  meet  the  command  was  'to  duck.'  All  promptly  obeyed  and  to  all 
s^pearances  grandfather  was  hauling  bags  of  grain  to  mill.  Even  in  the  north 
there  were  many  anxious  and  willing  to  send  the  negro  back  to  his  cruel  master 
in  the  southland  if  he  caught  him  seeking  a  route  to  liberty.  These  people  re- 
mained s)mipathetic  during  the  war  and  were  known  by  the  name  of  'copper- 
heads.' "  !• 

Such  were  some  of  the  exciting  scenes  of  pioneer  life.  Their  sufferings  and 
privations,  their  simple  joys  and  wholesome  pleasures  are  alike  unknown  to  later 
generations.  These  were  the  founders  of  our  county,  the  ones  who  must  be? 
credited  with  a  pure  and  earnest  purpose  to  make  a  real  home  in  a  new  land. 

Lnrenda  Humphrey  Casebeer,  a  Pioneer      Hannah  James,   Ninety   Yei 

Cedar     Mrs.   Margare 

Sterrelt.     Slio   \ 
in  Cei-inr  Coiintj 

Ft  l>iJ*/      Lii'   ^A  U  Y 


TTiJil-JN    KW;NI>ATI0N8 

B  L 


One  of  the  early  settled  portions  of  the  county  was  Pioneer  Grove  in  the 
northwestern  part.  In  1837  Prior  Scott  and  two  families  of  near  relatives  came 
to  this  part  of  the  coimty  from  Indiana.  They  came  up  the  river  to  Bloomington, 
where  the  teams  met  them  from  the  oVerland  journey.  The  usual  experiences  the 
first  year  came  to  them,  the  diflFculties  in  getting  the  necessary  food,  and  long 
journey  to  Illinois  to  bring  supplies.  A  daughter  of  Prior  Scott  relates  this 
experience  in  these  early  days:  "My  father  started  with  his  ox  team  to  bring 
com  for  the  three  families.  He  was  gone  three  weeks.  No  news  came  since 
there  were  no  mails  in  those  days,  and  mother  was  nearly  frantic  with  anxiety 
before  his  appearance  after  the  long  delay.  His  delay  was  caused  by  the  open 
river  and  the  time  it  took  for  it  to  freeze  over  that  he  might  cross  himself  or  get 
his  team  over.  They  planted  com  on  the  new  sod  in  the  spring  of  the  first  year. 
Our  meat  supply  was  secured  from  the  deer  that  were  so  plentiful.  The  log 
cabin  my  father  built  was  the  curing  place  for  the  supply,  the  venison  being 
hung  aloft  as  it  was  secured.  Indians  were  plentiful,  but  harmless.  Money 
was  not  wanting  to  enter  the  land  as  soon  as  open  for  sale.  Gold  and  silver  was 
brought  from  the  former  home  for  that  purpose.  The  usual  diet  of  hulled  com 
and  com  products  led  to  emergencies  being  met  in  original  ways.  When  meal 
supply  was  exhausted  at  one  time  my  mother  crushed  some  corn  with  a  hammer 
until  it  could  be  pulverized  in  a  coffee  mill,  and  the  bread  made  from  it  tasted  better 
than  any  cake  I  ever  ate.  When  my  Uncle  Joseph  Caraway  saw  it  he  called  out, 
•Ruth,  where  did  you  get  your  bread  ?'  On  being  infotmed  he  exclaimed :  We'll 
have  some,  too.'  In  those  days  the  only  company  we  had  were  Indians,  wolves, 
and  deer.  Only  two  of  that  eariy  group  in  Pioneer  Grove  are  now  living,  Mrs. 
Albaugh,*®  the  daughter  of  Prior  Scott,  and  Samuel  Gilliland,  who  in  his  ninety- 
seventh  year,  travels  about  independently. 

The  Fraseur  family  arrived  in  the  county  in  1837  2tnd  camping  west  of  Tipton, 
or  where  it  is  now,  on  the  banks  of  the  creek,  they  had  a  call  the  very  first  evening 
from  the  natives,  who  came  to  borrow  flour,  their  accustomed  request,  since  the 
white  man  was  supposed  to  have  an  abundant  supply  of  that  article  with  which 
to  placate  his  red  friend  if  necessity  required. 

Passing  along  the  stream  for  some  distance  north  of  the  camping  place  they 
selected  the  spot  where  the  Lunschen  house  now  stands  for  their  cabin.  Wolves 
and  deer  were  very  common  in  the  neighborhood,  as  all  the  settlers  found  when 
they  first  entered  the  county.  Mr.  Montgomery  Fraseur  relates  the  adventure  of 
a  neighbor  who  was  on  his  way  to  Muscatine  with  a  load  of  wheat  when  he  was 
attacked  by  wolves  and  only  ^scaped  by  throwing  off  one  sack  of  grain  at  a  time 
to  delay  the  hungry  bmtes. 

Land  was  unsurveyed  then  and  they  settled  anywhere  that  seemed  suitable, 
putting  a  crop  into  the  ground  at  cmce — wheat,  oats,  and  corn.  At  one  time  Mr. 
Fraseur  took  a  load  of  wheat  to  Chicago,  driving  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  bringing  in 
return  two  stoves  and  two  barrels  of  salt.  The  markets  were  so  uncertain  that 
the  producer  could  not  tell  what  his  prospects  were  until  he  had  tried  the  market. 
On  one  occasion  fat  cattle,  four  years  old,  were  taken  to  Dubuque  and  brought 
but  thirteen  dollars  per  head. 

Very  early  in  the  settlement  a  school  house  was  built  and  a  teacher  secured. 
To  this  school  pupils  came  from  a  distance  of  five  miles.    This  is  referred  to  as  a 


school  taught  by  Mr.  Smith  in  the  chapter  on  Education.  One  of  the  stoves 
brought  from  Chicago  was  to  serve  the  school,  and  so  far  as  records  show  it  must 
have  been  the  first  one  to  have  such  a  luxruy. 

Mr.  Montgomery  Fraseur  made  the  overland  trip  to  California  in  1849.  He 
tells  of  the  trials  of  that  trip,  how  so  many  gave  up  their  lives  in  the  attempt  to 
find  gold,  and  even  facing  the  dread  disease,  cholera,  on  the  journey.  A  hastily 
dug  grave,  a  hurried  burial,  and  then  a  greater  hurry  to  leave  the  vicinity  for  fear 
of  exposure  marked  the  journey  of  the  emigrant  train.  On  his  return  he  came 
by  way  of  Panama  to  New  York,  by  stage  to  Rock  Island  from  Chicago,  and  on 
horseback  to  his  home  in  Cedar  County .^^ 

It  is  said  that  in  June,  1835,  ^  party  from  along  the  Mississippi  River  entered 
this  county  at  Posten's  Grove  on  the  east  line  and  took  possession  of  that  timber 
before  it  had  its  present  name,  going  from  there  to  Onion  Grove,  north  of  the 
present  town  of  Clarence,  staking  out  their  claims  so  as  to  include  all  the  timber 
here.  This  party,  which  included  the  names  of  some  well-known  men,  and  some 
who  are  always  mentioned  in  connection  with  Iowa  history,  claims  to  have  opened 
the  way  for  the  first  land  rights  in  Iowa  territory  within  the  limits  of  Cedar 
County.  Antoine  LeQaire,  the  two  Davenports,  Wm.  Gordon,  Alexander  Mac- 
Gregor,  Louis  Hebert  made  up  this  party  according  to  the  only  authority  now 
available.*^  The  first  inhabitants  or  inhabitant  if  we  define  him  as  one  who  comes 
here  to  live,  probably  came  in  1836,  although  others  were  in  the  county  earlier. 
Andrew  Crawford  seems  to  have  the  best  right  to  the  claim  of  being  the  first 
settler,  but  preceded  others  by  only  a  few  months.  An  attempt  will  be  made  at 
the  end  of  this  chapter  to  arrange  from  the  records  the  order  of  arrivals  of  the 
early  settlers.  The  experiences  of  these  first  settlers  must  be  found  in  the  few 
interviews  that  can  now  be  reported  from  the  small  number  who  can  relate  them 
at  this  distant  date. 

When  the  Crawfords  came  to  the  county  they  first  made  a  claim  on  the  banks 
of  Sugar  Creek,  near  the  south  line  of  what  is  Centre  township.  Stephen  Toney 
took  his  claim  precisely  where  the  old  building  known  as  the  "Finch"  school  house 
stood.  McCoy  first  claimed  all  the  territory  now  and  then  in  prospective,  com- 
prised in  the  limits  of  Rochester.  The  process  of  getting  a  start  in  the  new  land 
is  briefly  told.  Having  made  his  settlement  or  found  a  stopping  place,  Andrew 
Crawford  hitched  to  his  breaking  plow,  which  he  had  brought  along,  and  turned 
the  sod  on  several  acres  on  the  place  afterward  owned  by  the  Widow  Rice,  and 
now  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Port.  This  he  planted  in  com  and  beans  and  other  vegetables 
for  early  crc^,  which  at  harvest  time  yielded  abundantly.  The  new  soil  did  re- 
spond well  to  the  hand  of  the  pioneer  and  such  crops  as  grew  then  were  remark- 
able for  their  size,  as  some  now  can  testify. 

When  Martin  Baker  made  his  claim  it  comprised  the  central  portions  of  what 
is  now  Rochester  township.  He  first  settled  where  Samuel  Slater  afterwards 
lived.  As  mentioned  elsewhere,  the  first  prayer  meeting  in  the  county  so  far  as 
known  was  held  in  his  cabin  at  this  place  of  settlement.  Mr.  Baker  afterward 
preached  regularly  at  Col.  Henry  Hardman's  house,  and  at  the  Burnside  cabin, 
which  then  occupied  the  place  later  owned  by  William  Ochiltree.  As  a  general 
rule  the  early  settlers  came,  selected  a  site  for  a  cabin,  erected  it  and  leaving  it  in 
charge  of  some  friend,  returned  for  their  families,  and  in  this  way  avoided  the 

married  in  1839 


Am^Ol.    LKN»X   AND 


1  L 


unpleasant  wait  that  always  must  elapse  before  comforts  of  shelter  and  protection 
from  danger  could  be  furnished.  Not  always  was  this  done,  for  covered  wagons 
made  the  stay  possible  until  log  cabins  could  be  put  together.  Then  when  a  few 
had  become  established  in  the  neighborhood  others  found  shelter  with  them  while 
preparing  their  own  home. 

It  is  said  that  for  reasons  implied  in  the  foregoing  there  were  very  few  women 
in  Cedar  County  at  first,  the  men  coming  to  prepare  the  way.  Several  women 
lay  claim  to  cooking  the  first  meal  in  the  county.  So  far  as  records  go  the  difjer- 
ence  in  time  of  claimants  is  a  matter  of  weeks  only^  and  it  is  safe  enough  to 
divide  the  honors. 

Andrew  Crawford  came  in  1836  and  Mrs.  Phoebe  Hasten,  his  daughter,  had 
charge  of  her  father's  cabin.  She  must  have  come  out  with  him  and  preceded 
other  wcxnen  by  a  few  weeks.  Cal.  Walton  came  very  soon  after,  and  to  his  wife 
the  honor  of  cooking  the  first  white  woman's  meal  has  often  been  ascribed.  The 
wife  of  Stephen  Toney  probably  came  soon  after  this  and  from  that  time  the 
women  of  the  household  came  more  frequently  and  the  household  knew  their 
comforting  ministrations. 

Robert  Sterrett,  on  entering  the  county,  selected  a  camping  ground  near  the 
stream  now  known  as  Mosquito  Creek.  In  those  days  these  insects  were  yeiy 
numerous  owing  to  favorable  conditions,  and  at  this  particular  time  and  place  tor- 
mented the  pioneer  without  any  mercy.  For  this  reason  the  name  was  given  to 
this  small  stream  and  the  incident  has  left  its  history  to  the  later  generation, 
although  its  reasons  may  not  now  be  prominent  in  the  experiences  of  those  living. 

Two  reasons  for  the  name  of  Sugjar  Creek  are  oflfered  by  diflferent  authorities. 
One  that  the  large  number  of  sugar  maples  growing  along  its  border  led  to  the 
name,  and  the  second  the  sweetness  of  the  water.  ,  Both  are  reasonable,  since  both 
are  true  from  the  early  and  pioneer  point  of  view.  The  sweetness  of  the  stream 
was  not  necessarily  in  the  sense  of  taste,  but  in  comforts  of  other  kinds,  and  one 
must  allow  for  some  sentiment  in  all  these  names — ^an  interesting  study  by  itself. 
Martin  Baker,  in  search  of  his  claim,  undertook  to  trace  "Crooked  Creek"  to  its 
rise,  but  returned  home  in  disgust  before  he  had  performed  his  task,  giving  the 
stream  its  appropriate  name  as  one  must  conclude  who  attempts  to  follow  its 

Rock  Creek  was  easily  named  from  the  course  it  follows,  as  it  furnishes  a  type 
formation  of  ancient  rocks  for  the  student  of  the  earth's  history. 

These  streams  in  that  early  time  are  described  as  swarming  with  fish,  the 
source  of  food  supply  for  many  families.  One  cannot  quite  believe  all  the  "fish 
stories,"  for  that  is  a  common  source  of  error  and  a  temptation  to  otherwise  gen- 
erally honest  men.  The  people  were  seldom  in  want  of  the  best  the  waters  could 
supply  in  spring  and  fall.  For  instance  a  pike  was  caught  in  Sugar  Creek  that 
weighed  forty  pounds  after  being  dressed,  but  it  is  agreed  that  this  was  above  the 
ofuerage  size. 

The  tricks  of  the  Indians  were  not  different  then  than  when  he  came  and  went 
in  quite  recent  years  over  the  Iowa  prairie,  stopping  at  farm  houses  to  beg,  borrow, 
or  pilfer  whatever  the  Indian  taste  appreciated.  They  liked  to  trade,  and  they 
loved  to  get  the  white  man's  flour  and  hog  meat.  It  was  easier  to  catch  the  white 
man's  chickens  than  to  hunt  the  wild  ones.    It  is  said  that  in  some  cases  they 


offered  to  "swap"  some  property  for  one  of  the  fair  members  of  the  settler's  house- 
hold, and  it  was  not  without  consideration  since  the  bargain  hunter  was  always 
a  leading  chief.  In  one  case  the  chief  explained  that  it  would  be  a  great  hcMior 
to  the  white  settler  for  his  daughter  to  become  the  "squaw"  of  the  "big  injun." 
When  the  settler  urged  the  necessity  of  keeping  his  daughter  to  work,  the  noble 
red  man  offered  to  substitute  his  own  squaw  in  her  place,  who  was  a  hec^p  better  to 
work,  a  heap  better.^' 

There  was  no  imagination  in  the  trials  of  the  early  settler  when  it  came  to 
labor — it  was  real — ^the  modern  implements  of  agriculture  were  yet  to  be  in- 
vented. As  one  may  read  farther  on  in  the  "county  fair"  exhibits,  the  most  primi- 
tive inventions  were  hailed  as  the  salvation  of  the  agriculturist. 

The  early  contests  with  the  elements  are  told  in  many  stories  of  adventure, 
some  of  them  in  this  chapter  and  the  most  of  these  stories  have  come  from  the 
sources  of  all  such  things,  and  must  vary  with  the  individual  experiences  of  men, 
yet  in  the  main  be  true  for  all.  A  writer  in  the  old  Ce<hr  County  Post  of  April, 
1872,  has  collected  most  of  the  data  now  available  for  drawing  ccmclusions  beyond 
a  few  personal  accounts  of  the  same  nature  that  are  told  by  those  now  living,  in 
most  cases  children  when  they  came,  and  children  who  were  very  young.  Only 
one  in  the  county  who  came  in  the  '30s,  Samuel  Gilliland,  was  a  young  man  at 
that  time. 

Andrew  Crawford,  the  father  of  Charley  Crawford,  whom  every  one  knows, 
who  has  been  long  in  this  county,  met  with  a  stirring  experience  one  time  during 
the  winter  of  1836-7.  The  winter  was  severe  and  provisions  must  be  brought,  as 
has  been  said,  from  the  source  of  supply  at  the  mouth  of  Pine.  Crawford  started 
to  wade  home  through  the  snow,  some  two  feet  deep,  for  a  distance  of  forty  miles. 
During  the  journey  a  blinding  storm  set  in,  causing  him  to  lose  his  way.  Com- 
ing to  the  course  of  Sugar  Creek  after  daric  he  did  not  dare  leave  this  landmaiic 
until  morning,  so  he  patrolled  the  ice  during  all  that  time  to  keep  from  freezing. 
To  stop  or  lie  down  was  certain  death,  as  sdl  know  who  have  read  of  those  who 
lose  their  lives  by  exposure  to  cold. 

Morning  revealed  to  him  his  situation  and  he  set  out  for  home  through  the 
deep  drifts,  although  well-nigh  worn  out  by  the  long  night  of  suffering.  On 
the  way  he  was  about  to  g^ve  up  in  despair  when,  noticing  a  break  in  the  snow 
ahead,  he  made  one  supreme  effort  to  reach  it,  when  he  found  it  to  be  a  path 
made  by  Mr.  Bumside  to  get  his  cattle  to  water  at  the  creek.  This  enabled  him 
to  find  the  house  of  friends,  where  he  dragged  himself  more  dead  than  alive,  and 
where  he  was  kindly  cared  for.  He  was  very  badly  frozen,  yet  lived  to  tell  the  tale 
until  1856. 

Other  experiences  of  this  kind  could  be  recounted  without  limit,  but  these  are 
typical  and  must  answer.  It  has  been  said  that  Cedar  County  was  thirty  years  in 
settling,  that  is  until  occupied  fully  by  those  who  were  to  form  the  first  settlement 
on  its  prairie  lands.  No  one  ventured  to  make  a  prairie  claim  until  about  1850, 
since  such  a  procedure  would  have  been  looked  upon  as  the  "height  of  folly." 
One  of  the  pioneers  who  considered  the  possibilities  of  this  prairie  was  regarded 
as  somewhat  visionary,  yet  by  1854  it  is  safe  to  say  a  very  littie  of  this  prairie  land 
was  left  in  the  hands  of  the  government. 


Early  in  the  history  of  the  cx)unty  the  speculator,  or  perhaps  that  is  a  name 
altogether  too  mild,  made  life  extremely  miserable  for  the  honest  seeker  after  a 
home.  The  timbered  portion  of  the  county  was  most  desirable  from  the  point  of 
view  of  the  settler  who  came  from  the  older  states,  where  he  had  been  taught 
these  things,  and  this  portion  the  ring  of  claimants  set  out  to  possess.  When  a 
claim  was  staked  by  the  farmer  this  gang  demanded  of  him  that  he  vacate  or  pay 
for  his  right.  Argument  availed  nothing  since  witnesses  were  always  at  hand 
to  prove  anything  necessary  to  establish  a  previous  claim.  To  avoid  trouble  the 
settler  might  ccmiply  or  move  on  as  he  chose.  Frequently  he  paid  a  siun  sufficient 
to  satisfy  the  greed  of  the  would-be  claimant,  and  when  the  time  came  the  opera- 
tion  was  repeated  in  some  other  locality.** 

After  this  had  been  repeated  for  a  time  the  population  grew  to  sufficient  extent 
to  make  such  operations  unsafe,  and  the  defrauding  agents  learned  that  the  people 
were  resolved  to  take  matters  into  their  own  hands  for  mutual  protection  against 
such  nefarious  practices,  and  see  what  a  taste  of  "lynch  law"  could  do  for  such 
unprincipled  men. 

Leagues  were  formed  to  secure  justice  at  the  land  sales  held  in  Dubuque 
in  1840,  and  while  the  robbers  of  honest  settlers,  who  were  innocent  of  their 
methods,  were  present  at  this  sale  in  force,  they  dared  not  make  any  attempt  to 
enforce  their  false  claims  when  they  came  into  contact  with  a  body  of  frontiersmen 
armed  with  rifles  and  determined  to  fix  the  first  bidder  against  the  rightful  settler 
of  any  claim  already  located.  This  seemed  the  only  remedy  then,  since  the  police 
powers  of  the  United  States  government  then  were  scattered  over  so  much  terri- 
tory that  this  r^on  seemed  left  to  its  own  resources,  like  similar  r^ons  in  other 
parts  of  this  big  country. 

"Necessity  being  the  mother  of  invention,"  as  one  learns  through  bitter  expe- 
rience, led  the  settler  to  methods  of  his  own  in  making  improvements.  "Cabin 
construction,"  as  they  called  it,  exemplifies  the  old  truth  expressed  in  the  begin- 
ning. The  pioneer  built  his  cabin  of  any  desired  dimensions  without  nails,  screws, 
bolts,  bars  or  iron  of  any  description.  Fireplaces  and  brick  chimneys  were  often 
made  without  lime  and  often  without  stone  or  brick.  The  logs  for  the  building 
being  cut  and  collected  on  the  proposed  site,  the  owner  would  make  a  "raising," 
to  which  he  summoned  the  entire  surrounding  community  within  hailing  distance, 
and  that  meant  miles  in  those  days.  The  jug  was  alwa3rs  a  prime  necessity  at  these 
gatherings,  and  after  it  was  sampled  the  work  began. 

Four  of  the  best  axmen  were  placed  at  the  four  comers  of  the  house,  whose 
business  it  was  to  match  and  adjust  the  logs  as  they  were  rolled  into  place  under 
the  direction  of  the  "boss."  One  window  and  one  door  were  allowed  generally, 
and  the  last  two  logs  laid  at  the  top  of  the  house  were  made  to  project  on  both 
ends  and  in  these  extensions  notches  were  cut  to  hold  a  log  laid  in  them. 

At  regular  intervals  from  and  parallel  to  this  cross  beam  other  timbers  were 
laid,  one  above  the  other,  making  rafters  for  the  roof.  Upon  these  the  clapboards 
were  laid,  very  much  the  same  as  modem  shingles,  only  fewer  courses,  as  the 
clapboards  were  about  four  feet  long.  Each  course  was  secured  in  its  place  by 
means  of  a  heavy  pole  placed  directly  over  the  rafter  beneath  and  kept  in  place 
by  braces.  The  first  at  the  eaves  was  kept  in  place  by  pieces  of  wood  placed  with 
one  end  against  the  log  and  the  other  against  the  "staying  pole."    The  next  pole 


above  was  stayed  from  this  and  so  on  to  the  top.  The  fireplace  was  built  of  rock 
or  of  wood  lined  with  rock,  or  of  wood  and  a  heavy  covering*  of  clay.  The 
chimneys  were  nearly  always  built  of  slats  of  wood  lined  with  clay.  The  door 
was  sometimes  a  thatched  framework,  but  generally  two  large  clapboards  or 
puncheon  pinned  with  cross  pieces  and  wooden  pins  and  hung  on  wooden  hinges 
with  a  wooden  latch.  The  door  was  opened  on  the  outside  by  means  of  a  string 
which  passed  through  a  hole  in  the  door  above  the  latch,  and  when  pulled  would 
lift  the  wooden  bar.  The  floor  was  of  puncheon  or  large  slabs  about  six  feet  long 
and  dressed  with  an  ax  to  fit  as  closely  as  possible.^^ 

In  houses  like  these  the  people  lived,  and  happily,  too.  So  much  for  circum- 
stances and  standard  of  living  as  it  changes  from  generation  to  genera- 
tion. John  Ferguson  of  Red  Oak  was  the  first  man  so  far  as  known  to  apply 
water  power  to  machinery.  In  the  years  of  1837-8,  with  the  help  of  his  neigh- 
bors, he  constructed  a  mill  on  Rock  Creek  not  far  from  his  home.  Shortly  after 
this  Aaron  Porter  built  a  mill  on  Crooked  Creek. 

Mr.  Porter  made  the  mill  stones  and  also  the  boxing  for  the  larger  shafting; 
the  latter  were  made  of  flint  rock  and  answered  the  purpose  well.  This  was  the 
second  flouring  mill  in  the  county.  These  mills  could  not  bolt  their  flour.  The 
bread  was  whole  wheat  and  of  a  kind  good  enough  for  anyone. 

Sometimes  these  mills  got  out  of  repair  or  were  frozen  up  or  the  dam  washed 
away,  when  the  settlers  were  obliged  to  go  long  distances  to  find  supplies  of  flour, 
even  to  Dubuque,  a  distance  of  eighty  miles,  if  they  could  do  no  better. 

Farming  in  the  early  fifties  was  still  primitive.  Horses  were  few.  Oxen 
were  used  in  cultivating  the  fields  and  conveying  products  to  market.  There 
were  no  stoves  until  about  that  time.  Farm  implements  consisted  of  a  wagon, 
plow,  scythe,  fork,  spade,  and  a  hoe,  besides  the  very  essential  axe.  August 
Petersen  in  the  summer  of  1855  brought  the  first  reaper  to  the  neighborhood  of 
Lowden.  It  was  a  McCormick  hand  rake  reaper.  He  cut  his  own  and  his  neigh- 
bors' grain  that  year.  He  went  with  his  reaper  as  far  as  Col.  Parr's,  on  what  is 
now  the  Antc«i  Hoeltke  farm.  Exchange  of  work  was  the  custom  in  those  days 
and  purchases  and  sales  a  mere  question  of  barter.  The  money  was  wanting  and 
articles  of  immediate  use  were  given  for  products  of  the  farm.  Mr.  Philip  Schnei- 
der, the  father  of  our  present  county  auditor,  one  of  the  very  earliest  settlers  in 
this  party  of  the  county,  related  not  long  before  his  death  the  following :  He  came 
with  his  father  and  two  brothers  from  Germany  in  1847  ^tnd  settled  in  Ohio.  In 
'51  they  came  to  Davenport  and  were  taken  with  ox  team  and  sleigh  from  there 
to  the  region  now  comprised  in  Springfield  township.  Settlers  were  very  few, 
log  houses  were  scattered  along  the  edge  of  the  timber,  and  land  could  be  had 
for  one  and  a  quarter  dollars  an  acre,  now  worth  one  hundred  times  that  amount. 
Among  the  hardy  pioneers  of  this  section  is  Henry  Heiner,  who,  at  the  advanced 
age  of  eighty-five  or  more,  is  able  to  relate  vividly  his  pioneer  experiences.  He 
came  to  this  neighborhood  in  1856  from  southern  Illinois.  He  hauled  the  first 
load  of  lumber  in  1857  from  the  Wapsie  to  this  place  for  Mr.  Dug^n.  He  was  to 
unload  it  at  a  stake  driven  in  the  tall  grass  where  the  stock  yards  of  Lowden  are 
now  located.  After  it  was  removed  from  the  wagon  the  gjass  hid  it  entirely 
from  view,  such  was  the  growth  in  its  wild  state.  There  was  only  one  house  near 
and  that  was  not  in  the  limits  of  the  town  as  then  surveyed.    The  lumber  went 




AlVrOl.    LBN»Z    AND 


into  the  first  house  erected  in  the  town  of  "Louden,"  as  then  spelled.     Mr.  Heiner 
met  with  a  misfortune  in  this  first  load  since  he  broke  his  brand  new  wagon.*^ 

"In  July,  1845,  the  Cedar  County  surveyor,  Thos.  Gracey  (the  first  teacher  in 
tht  Tipton  schools),  desiring  to  g^  to  Philadelphia  to  study  medicine,  appointed 
me  his  deputy.  The  next  year  I  was  elected  surveyor,  serving  in  that  office  until 
1 85 1.  The  land  was  being  rapidly  settled  at  that  time  and  it  gave  me  plenty  of 
work.  The  average  farm  then  was  a  quarter  section,  as  now,  th«  entries  being 
made  at  Dubuque. 

"The  center  of  Cedar  County  is  a  few  rods  north  of  the  present  Northwestern 
depot.  There  have  been  many  discussions  of  the  question  of  the  traces  of  the 
buffalo  in  this  vicinity,  with  a  strong  opinion  against  such  affirmation,  but  I  am 
sure  the  evidence  is  in  favor  of  the  existence  of  the  native  animal.  That  he  once 
roamed  over  these  prairies  is  very  well  shown  by  the  remains  found  during  my 
work  as  a  surveyor.  I  often  found  skulls  and  chips  of  the  animal  in  Cedar  County, 
and  still  further  during  a  government  contract  I  undertook  in  Franklin  and 
Butler  Counties  in  1851,  a  herd  of  twelve  of  the  animals  passed  over  the  territory 
covered  by  my  work.  Elk  were  also  very  plentiful  in  this  section,  where  there  was 
no  disturbing  element,  there  being  no  house  then  in  either  county  or  habitation 
between  Iowa  Falls  and  Cedar  Falls."2«» 

At  a  meeting  of  the  old  settlers  of  Red  Oak  township  in  1870,  the  latter  part  of 
December,  at  the  home  of  John  Goodrich,  the  «arly  comers  to  that  township  were 
assembled  to  recount  their  early  experiences.  "That  group  may  be  recorded  here, 
since  they  are  the  ones  who  first  made  the  towiship  a  placi?  for  future  comforts : 
Robert  Dallas,  John  Ferguson  and  wife,  John  Chappell  and  sister,  John  Safley 
and  wife,  James  Safley  and  wife,  George  Safley  and  wife,  Washington  Rigby  and 
wife,  Samuel  Yule  and  wife,  John  W.  Brown  and  wife,  William  Coutts  and 
wife,  Elza  Carl  and  wife,  William  Dallas,  Gordon  Dallas  and  wife,  James 
Cousins  and  wife,  B.  J.  Rodgers  and  wife,  Cyrus  Rickard  and  wife,  Ezra  Good- 
rich and  wife.  Of  these  Washington  Rigby  came  first  in  1836.  Most  of  the 
group  came  before  1841.  At  least  three  of  this  number,  all  women,  are  living  at 
this  date. 

Here  they  related  their  own  experiences,  some  of  their  hardships  and  some 
of  the  amusing  things  during  their  pioneer  days.  Mr.  Rigby  related  the  wedding 
tour  of  himself  and  bride,  they  being  the  first  couple  from  the  county  to  seek  a 
marriage  license,  and  had  to  go  to  Muscatine  to  secure  it. 

Mr.  Goodrich  being  anxious  to  raise  a  little  money  and  having  some  pork  to 
dispose  of,  determined  to  take  it  to  Iowa  City,  the  best  market  he  then  knew.  At 
that  time  Iowa  City  was  a  village  of  a  few  stores,  but  in  the  opinion  of  its  inhabi* 
tants  of  some  importance,  for  they  had  then  begun  to  figure  for  the  location  of 
the  a4>ital  of  the  territory. 

Mr.  Goodrich,  not  having  any  team  of  his  own,  hired  Mr.  John  Safley  to  carry 
his  load  of  pork  to  market.  On  their  arrival  in  the  market  they  found  pork  worth 
$1.25  per  hundred  and  no  cash  at  that  figure — only  goods  in  exchange  and  no 
groceries — some  kinds  of  dry  goods  only.  Mr.  Goodrich  finally  concluded  to  take 
the  value  of  the  load  in  Kentucky  jeans  at  a  dollar  and  a  quarter  per  yard,  and  Mr. 
Safley  took  his  pay  for  driving  the  load  to  market  in  powder  and  shot ;  so  having 


no  money  to  pay  for  lodging  they  came  home  in  the  night  from  Iowa  City  to  Red 
Oak,  their  home. 

All  these  pec^le  were  prosperous  farmers  when  this  reunion  was  held  and  the 
old  times  of  trial  were  long  forgotten  in  the  comforts  of  the  present.  It  was 
stated  at  that  time,  that  all  their  means  put  together  would  not  amount  to  three 
hundred  dollars  when  they  first  came  to  Red  Oak.^ 

At  another  gathering  of  the  same  nature  in  November,  1871,  at  the  home  of 
William  Coutts,  other  events  were  described  and  some  of  the  former  meeting 
repeated.  The  first  dwelling  in  this  part  of  the  county  was  built  by  J<rfin  Jones 
on  the  William  Aldrich  place.  Mr.  W.  A.  Rigby  had  gone  to  Red  Oak  to  build  a 
cabin  two  months  before,  but  through  a  personal  injury  could  not  do  so,  and  when 
Mr.  Jonas  Oaks  came  to  occupy  the  house  he  had  not  succeeded  in  erecting  they 
were  all  forced  to  occupy  the  one  built  by  Mr.  Jones.  The  snow  was  six  inches 
deep  and  the  family  of  Solomon  Knott  had  already  been  given  shelter  in  this  log 
cabin,  only  sixteen  feet  square,  and  as  yet  unchinked.  To  add  the  new  family 
made  twenty-one  men,  women  and  children  in  this  small  space  for  a  period  of  eight 
days  until  another  house  could  be  procured.  The  Oaks  family  moved  into  Red 
Oak  township  and  this  was  the  first  cabin  built  there.  They  occupied  it  in  No- 
vember, 1836.  At  this  time  Linn  County  was  attached  to  Cedar  for  judicial  pur- 
poses, and  W.  A.  Rigby  held  a  commission  from  Governor  Lucas  of  Iowa  terri- 
tory as  justice  of  the  peace.  Hence  when  John  Safiey  wished  to  be  married  in  the 
spring  of  1838,  he  was  called  upon  to  officiate  at  the  ceremony.  At  this  meeting  it 
was  stated  that  of  the  settlers  at  the  land  sales  at  Dubuque  in  1840  mpre  than  half 
of  those  present  from  this  county  then  and  still  in  the  county  were  in  Red  Oak 
township.  A  good  Scotch  coffee  mill  at  ]ohn  Ferguson's  furnished  all  the  meal 
for  the  breadstuffs  of  several  families  for  months.  The  com  was  dried  in  a  skillet 
during  the  day  and  in  the  evening  the  men  took  turns  in  grinding  it  for  breakfast 
It  was  at  this  juncture  of  affairs  that  the  mill  referred  to  elsewhere  was  built  for 
that  neighborhood.** 

At  this  meeting  the  first  steps  were  taken  to  organize  a  County  Old  Settlers' 
Association  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  secure  action  in  the  matter.  On 
Friday,  the  fourteenth  of  June,  1872,  the  old  settlers  of  the  county  met  at  the  court 
house  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  the  present  association,  which  recently  held 
its  meeting  for  1910.  William  Baker  was  the  chairman  of  this  first  meeting,  and 
Wm.  H.  Tuthill,  its  secretary.  The  call  was  for  those  who  came  to  the  county 
prior  to  1841,  and  under  this  call  some  twenty-five  or  more  assemUed.  All  of 
these  mentioned  then  as  old  settlers,  and  named  in  the  report,  are  gone  from  the 
scenes  here.  Some  of  them  at  that  time  had  passed  their  four  score  years.  The 
daughter  of  one  of  them  died  in  July,  1910,  at  the  age  of  eighty-seven — Mrs. 
Bunker.  This  meeting  was  continued  in  September  of  the  same  year  and  a  perma- 
nent organization  perfected,  a  constitution  was  adopted  and  an  address  given  by 
Mr.  Wm.  H.  Tuthill.  Henry  Hardman  of  Rochester  Township  was  the  first 
president  and  to  him  Judge  Tuthill  presented  the  cane  with  the  following  words : 
"It  is  made  from  a  native  cedar,  cut  from  the  banks  of  the  river  that  gave  name 
to  the  county  and  skillfully  fashioned  and  mounted,  with  its  appropriate  inscrip- 
tion, is  intended  to  be  the  badge  of  your  office,  to  be  preserved  with  jealous  care 
and  transmitted  from  President  to  President  successively  as  long  as  our  assoda- 


?1  I^JO    LIBRARY 

/«TOE.    I>BN^X    AMD 

TTLfUDN    riHNUATl"'^ 

1  L 


don  continues  to  exist/'  Col.  Hardman  then  responded  in  a  suitable  and  happy 
speech,  acknowledging  the  official  badge  and  the  honor  ccMiferred.  An  executive 
committee  for  the  enduing  year  was  2^)pointed,  which  included  the  names  of  John 
Culbertson,  W.  A.  Rigby,  W.  M.  Knott,  Henry  D.  Brown  and  J.  S.  Tuthill.  The 
committee  to  provide  for  a  speaker  the  coming  year  was  composed  of  Samuel  Yule, 
John  Safley  and  William  Baker.  On  this  day  they  partook  of  refreshments  at 
the  <dd  hotel,  the  Fleming  House,  a  picture  of  which  may  be  seen  in  this  volume.** 

At  the  Old  Settlers'  meeting  in  1883  Mr.  E.  E.  Cook  of  Davenport  addressed 
them  in  words  commemorative  of  the  early  days,  and  he  refers  to  his  father's  life 
in  the  county  amcMig  the  pioneers.    Mr.  Code  is  still  living  in  Davenport. 

''I  will  not  say  much  personal  to  myself,  but  I  must  tell  you,  old  friends,  and 
friends  of  my  father  and  mother,  that  I  have  never  prized  an  hour  more  highly 
than  this  one,  and  I  have  never  undertaken  a  duty  so  gladly.  My  father  came  to 
this  place  where  Tipton  now  flourishes  before  there  was  any  town  here.  That 
was  in  the  year  1840,  and  he  left  here  in  1851.  He  was  often  here  until  1872,  the 
time  of  his  death.  He  had  no  stronger  social  attachment  than  his  love  for  ''Old 
Cedar"  and  his  pioneer  friends.  No  days  of  his  life  were  so  happy  as  these  he 
spent  among  you.  Although  he  has  been  dead  now  eleven  years,  gray-haired  men 
who  were  with  him  here  in  the  early  days  often  talk  with  me  about  him,  and  their 
mutual  friendship.  It  is  only  a  few  months  ago  that  a  very  old  man  spoke  to 
me  on  the  streets  of  Tipton  and  asked  me  if  I  was  a  son  of  John  P.  Code,  and 
when  I  answered  in  the  affirmative,  he  said,  'I  w^t  to  shake  hands  with  you  for 
your  father's  sake.'  Nothing  ever  touched  me  more  deejay  than  that.  It  was 
a  strong  illustration  of  the  friaidship  that  exists  among  those  who  together  shared 
the  hardships  and  triumphs  of  pioneer  life.  It  was  an  evidence  of  the  regard  in 
which  my  father  was  held  by  those  among  whom  he  passed  the  days  of  his  early 
manhood.  He  was  worthy  of  that  regard,  and  the  fact  that  the  old  settler  friends 
of  this  county  always  had  so  strong  a  friendship  for  him  is  a  most  precious  tribute 
to  his  memory.  Because  I  am  among  the  old  friends  of  my  father  and  mother, 
and  because  I  have  that  respect  and  veneration  for  you  which  the  children  of 
pioneers  owe  to  those  who  have  prepared  for  them  so  fair  a  home,  I  feel  that  it 
is,  indeed,  a  privilege  to  address  you."^ 

It  was  about  this  time  in  the  history  of  the  county  that  the  pioneers  b^^n  to 
drop  off  like  ripe  fruit,  and  the  death  list  grows  rapidly.  They  had  fulfilled  their 
mission,  had  done  their  duty  and  of  right  passed  on. 

Oo  June  II,  1884,  the  year  following  the  address  quoted  from  above,  the 
Hon.  Robert  G.  Cousins,  member  of  Congress  from  the  fifth  Iowa  district  for 
many  years  since,  and  now  a  resident  of  TiptcMi,  spoke  to  the  old  settlers,  giving  in 
review  the  scenes  of  the  early  days  and  comparing  the  good  times  of  Cedar 
County  pioneers  with  the  present  day  and  the  great  advantage  in  owning  and 
occupying  the  land  of  Cedar  County,  giving  due  credit  to  the  pioneer  for  honorable 
record  made  thus  far  in  its  history.  His  closing  words  were  in  reference  to  the 
fifteen  members  who  had  gone  to  sleep  since  the  meeting  a  year  before.'^ 

At  the  Old  Settlers'  meeting  in  '89  Mr.  James  Bumside,  who  built  the  first  or 
second  cabin  in  Cedar  County,  told  the  following  story :  "He  crossed  the  Missis- 
sipiM  in  June,  1834,  and  on  the  sixteenth  of  that  month  took  his  claim  on  the  Will- 
iam Ochiltree  place  by  laying  the  foundations  of  a  log  cabin.    Going  back  next 


day  for  something  to  eat,  he  soon  came  again  with  his  wife  and  family,  three  hired 
men,  three  yoke  of  oxen  and  the  'prairie  schooner.'  This  was  before  the  cabin 
was  finished,  of  course,  and  only  a  small  circle  of  prairie  grass  had  been  cut  about 
the  wagon.  Mrs.  Bumside  was  bending  over  the  tub  washing  when  looking  up 
she  beheld  two  impassive  Indians  standing  with  guns  on  their  shoulders  at  the  edge 
of  the  untrodden  g^ass.  She  ran  shrieking  to  where  the  men  were  cutting  hay 
half  a  mile  distant,  and  the  Indians  ran  in  tfie  opposite  direction.  Responding  to 
the  cries  of  his  wife,  Mr.  Bumside  hastened  in  her  direction.  About  midway  of 
the  distance  he  met  his  wife  still  screaming  "Indians!"  "Where  is  the  baby?** 
said  Mr.  Bumside,  as  he  came  panting  on  the  scene.  "Good  Lord,"  exclaimed 
his  wife,  "I  never  thought  of  the  baby."  At  which  reply  he  left  her  to  her  fate 
and  ran  on  only  to  find  the  ten  months'  old  child  safe  in  its  clapboard  cradle  in  the 
wagon.  "^2 

Mrs.  McQure,  who  came  to  Tipton  in  1841  and  is  now  the  one  who  has  the 
longest  residence,  became  the  president  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  in  1905,  • 
being  the  first  womaau  to  hold  that  position. 

When  the  barn  on  the  farm  of  Alex.  Buchanan,  Sr.,  in  Linn  township  was  built 
it  was  necessary  to  remove  an  old  landmark.  This  was  the  old  Mason  house  built 
in  1847.  It  was  on  the  old  stage  line  from  Mount  Vernon  to  Davenport,  and  it 
was  in  its  day  used  as  a  stopping  place  for  travelers.  It  was  once  a  well  known 
house,  and  many  a  weary  and  lonesome  traveler  found  comfort  under  its  roof. 
The  days  of  its  usefulness  had  passed  and  it  was  removed  in  the  natural  course  of 
events  to  make  room  for  advancement.  The  brick  are  found  in  the  foundation  of 
the  barn  now  standing. 

The  carpenters  found  the  house  well  preserved.  The  same  "hand  shaved" 
shingles  were  on  the  roof  as  put  there  in  1847 — ^^^^y  years  before — ^and  the  roof 
leaked  very  little.  The  oak  rafters  and  studding  were  as  sound  as  the  day  they 
were  put  there.  The  inside  work  was  all  of  black  walnut  and  in  its  time  the  old 
house  must  have  been  one  of  the  best.^^ 

The  name  of  Charles  Swetland  is  remembered  by  the  older  residents  of  the 
county  so  well  that  the  present  generation  should  keep  some  account  of  events 
with  which  he  was  connected. 

On  Christmas  day,  1890,  the  house  on  the  hill  east  of  Tipton  about  a  mile, 
burned  to  the  ground.  This  was  known  as  the  Coutts  house  then,  but  it  was 
built  about  1859  by  Chas.  Swetland,  and  was  a  landmark  for  miles  around.  Then 
it  was  called  the  finest  residence  in  the  county.  Made  in  the  old  way  of  building, 
there  was  no  sham  there,  all  was  good  and  true  stuff.  Heavy  timbers  sawed  in  the 
mill  at  Rochester,  four  by  six  timbers  when  two  l>y  six  now  are  considered  un- 
necessary. Such  a  house,  in  fonm  of  material  used,  now  stands  between  this  spot 
and  Tipton,  formerly  the  home  of  Colonel  Powell,  now  of  Perry  MofFett,  where 
the  great  stone  step  is  load  enough  for  a  derrick.  Here  the  cellar  beams  are  an 
example  of  the  early  structure  burned  to  the  ground  as  mentioned  on  Christmas 

Uncle  Aaron  and  Aunt  Bathsheba  Gruwell,  as  nearly  everybody  called  them, 
were  married  sixty-nine  years  on  the  6th  of  July,  1906.  Think  of  it — married  sixty- 
nine  years  and  both  of  their  minds  still  remarkably  bright  and  their  bodies  free 





from  disease,  except  the  usual  infirmities  of  extreme  old  age.  This  statement  of 
facts  was  given  by  them  on  their  sixty-ninth  wedding  day. 

Aarcm  Gruwell  was  bom  in  Stark  County,  Ohio,  June  8,  1817.  Bathsheba 
Slater  was  bom  in  Ulster  County,  New  York,  January  21,  1816.  He  being  in 
his  ninetieth  and  she  in  her  ninety-first  year.  Their  parents  were  Friends  and 
Bathsheba  was  a  member  of  that  church.  Their  parents  were  pioneer  settlers  of 
Ohio ;  his  oldest  sister,  Elizabeth,  being  the  first  white  child  bom  in  Marlborough 
Township,  Stark  County. 

Aaron  Gruwell  and  Bathsheba  Slater  were  married  at  Marlborough,  Ohio,  July 
6,  1837.  Four  sons  and  two  daughters  were  born  to  them,  namely :  Isaac  New- 
ton, Hannah,  BrintcMi  T.,  Alice,  Timothy  and  Abram  Clark. 

Brinton  T.  and  Timothy  were  soldiers  in  the  Civil  War — the  latter  giving  his 
life  for  his  country.  Two  sons  and  one  daughter  still  live  to  bless  and  cheer  their 
aged  parents. 

Uncle  Aaron  and  Aunt  Bathsheba  with  their  five  oldest  children  moved  to 
Cedar  County,  Icfva,  in  October,  1854.  They  settled  on  a  farm  and  have  lived  in 
the  neighborhood  of  West  Branch  ever  since.  Their  youngest  son  was  bom  two 
years  after  they  came  to  Iowa. 

Here  as  pioneers  they  helped  to  make  this  country  the  beautiful  and  fmitful 
garden  it  is  today  and  by  their  example  and  others  like  them  have  inculcated  a 
spirit  of  industry,  frugality  and  morality  that  will  be  a  blessing  to  its  people  for 
very  many  years  after  this  dear  old  couple  have  passed-  over  to  the  other  side.  He 
has  also  been  a  useful  public  citizen,  having  served  many  years  as  justice  of  the 
peace  and  trustee  of  Gower  township. 

They  made  their  home  with  their  youngest  son,  A.  C.  Gruwell,  and  his  wife. 
It  is  a  home  on  one  of  Iowa's  many  ideal  farms  and  is  only  a  half  mile  north  of 
West  Branch  on  a  pretty  elevated  site  that  overlooks  most  of  the  town  and!  the 
valley  in  which  it  is  located.  Here  they  rested  from  their  life's  work,  calmly  and 
serenely  "waiting  the  Master's  call."  Uncle  Aaron  once  said  he  had  this  thought 
to  give :  "Sixty-nine  years  ago  when  I  was  young  and  she  was  young  we  walked 
and  talked  and  gathered  flowers  together.  But  now  we  are  old,  the  tale  is  told 
and  it  will  be  told  that  this  is  our  sixty-ninth  wedding  day."^* 

Golden  weddings  are  not  of  such  common  occurrence  that  they  become  monot- 
onous by  mentioning  many  of  them.  Alonzo  Shaw  and  wife  celebrated  their 
fiftieth  anniversary  in  1899.  They  were  married  in  Tipton  in  1849  and  at  the 
time  of  this  anniversary  not  one  of  the  guests  at  the  wedding  of  '49  was  living. 
They  spent  all  their  married  lives  in  this  vicinity. 

One  of  the  pioneers  of  Linn  township,  Alexander  Moffit,  who  came  there  when 
the  name  "Lynn"  included  much  more  than  now  (1840),  settled  on  the  farm  he 
now  occupies  in  1859.  A.  recent  account  of  their  golden  wedding  belongs  in  this 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Moffit  have  always  made  Cedar  County  their  home.  The  farm 
on  which  they  now  reside  having  been  purchased  by  Mr.  Moffit  just  before  their 
marriage,  and  was  occupied  by  the  newly  wedded  couple  as  soon  as  arrangements 
could  be  made  the  next  year  for  possession.  Mr.  Moffit  was  bora  in  Ireland  in 
1829  2tnd  came  to  Cedar  County  in  1840.  He  takes  an  active  part  in  the  old  set- 
tlers' meetings  and  is  now  among  the  few  of  the  old  members.    He  has  served  as 


a  member  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  of  this  county ;  and  represented  the  county 
in  the  legislature  in  the  Sixteenth  General  AssemMy. 

July  21,  1905,  occurred  the  fiftieth  wedding  anniversary  of  the  pioneer  couple, 
Rev.  John  Y.  and  Rev.  Mary  J.  Hoover,  of  West  Branch.  More  than  one  hun- 
dred guests  did  honor  to  the  occasion.  This  worthy  couple  came  to  this  vicinity 
in  1854  by  wagon  from  Ohio,  that  source  of  supply  for  s<xne  hundreds  of  homes 
in  Cedar  County.  They  were  married  by  the  Friends'  ceremony  in  a  building 
located  on  what  is  now  the  southwest  comer  of  Main  and  Downey  Streets.  They 
battled  for  existence  on  a  farm  near  West  Branch.  He  became  a  minister  of  the 
Society  of  Friends~in  1864  and  his  wife  a  few  years  later.  They  traveled  as 
evangelists  from  ocean  to  ocean,  worked  for  the  church  in  Canada  and  New  Eng- 
land, spent  two  years  among  the  whites  in  the  mountains  of  North  Carolina, 
Virginia  and  Tennessee,  for  years  in  the  work,  never  receiving  any  salary  for 
preaching,  but  freely  and  gladly  gave  the  service  for  spreading  the  gospel  message. 
Agreeable  with  requests  and  fortunately  for  this  record  the  couple  once  more 
stood  and  renewed  their  vows  of  fifty  years  before.  The  Friends'  ceremony  fol- 
lowed. "In  the  presence  of  the  Lord  and  before  this  assembly,  I,  John  Y.  Hoover, 
take  Mary  Jay  to  be  my  wife,  promising  by  divine  assistance  to  be  unto  her  a 
loving  and  faithful  husband  until  death  shall  separate  us."  Then  she  said :  ''In 
like  manner,  I,  Mary  Jay,  take  John  Y.  Hoover  to  be  my  husband,  promising  by 
divine  assistance  to  be  unto  him  a  loving  and  faithful  wife  until  death  shall  sepa- 
rate us."'* 

A  reunion  of  the  Negus  family  was  held  in  the  park  or  picnic  g^rounds  near 
Rochester  bridge  in  September,  1898,  and  at  this  time  some  interesting  pioneer 
accounts  were  given.  About  eighty  were  present  at  this  time  to  honor  the 
Negus  family,  who  came  to  Springdale  in  1846.  In  this  year  Shedlock  Negus 
sent  his  family  from  Ohio  to  Iowa  while  he  followed  driving  a  flock  of  sheep  of 
some  size  not  mentioned,  but  a  large  number.  It  was  not  uncommon  then  to 
drive  great  droves  of  sheep  from  Ohio  and  Michigan.  The  Negus  family  settled 
first  near  Muscatine,  but  on  account  of  sickness  were  compelled  to  move  on  from 
that  place  and  settled  this  time  near  the  present  site  of  the  village  of  Springdale. 
In  the  fall  of  1847  ^^y  hauled  logs  with  oxen  and  built  a  caiAn,  the  ruins  of  which 
were  still  standing  at  the  time  of  this  reunion  on  the  farm  owned  by  Beackan 
Negus,  Jr.  They  lived  here  ten  years  during  the  time  their  daughter  taught  the 
first  school  in  this  part  of  the  county.  It  was  through  the  influence  of  Shedlodc 
N^fus  that  the  first  road  was  laid  from  Davenport  to  Iowa  City,  and  he  helped  to 
plough  the  furrow  clear  through  which  marked  its  location.  Israel  N^[us  came 
to  Iowa  in  1852,  while  John  Negus  and  wife  at  the  age  of  eighty  drove  overland 
from  Ohio  in  i860.  In  these  days  temperance  was  the  tc^ic  of  interest  in  many 
parts  of  this  county  and  a  lecturer  by  the  nam6  of  Leland  came  out  from  Boston. 
He  delivered  the  first  lecture  of  this  kind  here  while  being  entertained  at  the  house 
of  Wm.  Negus.'^ 

Of  the  earliest  settlers  who  came  to  this  county  the  names  following  may  be 
listed,  as  coming  at  the  dates  gives.  The  township  may  not  be  exact  since  when 
these  came  there  were  no  township  lines  to  locate  the  names.  This  may  be  con- 
fusing and  it  is  not  a  matter  of  vital  importance  if  the  neighborhood  is  under- 

i'li^iJC    LlBliARY 

ABT?)».    IJlffW    AND 

m  DBN  riH/NUAriMNa 


Andrew  Crawford  and  daughter  to  Center  Township. 
David  Walton  and  family  to  Farmington  Township. 
George  McCoy  to  Rochester  Township. 
Stq>hen  Toney  to  Rochester  Township. 
Ben  and  John  Halliday  to  Sugar  Creek  Township. 
Samuel  Hulic  to  Sugar  Creek  Township. 
Harvey  Hatton  to  Rochester  Township. 
C.  C.  Dodge  to  Pioneer  Township. 
Alanson  Pope  to  Pioneer  Township. 
Peter  Crampton  to  Pioneer  Township. 
Robert  G.  Roberts  and  family  to  Iowa  Township. 
Aaron  Porter  and  family  to  Rochester  Township. 
James  Posten  and  family  to  Springfield  Township. 
William  Baker  to  Rochester  Township. 
Joseph  Olds  to  Center  Township. 
John  Jones  to  Center  Township. 
John  Barr  to  Center  Township. 
Richard  C.  Knott  to  Rochester  Township. 
John  Roper  to  Rochester  Township. 
SolcMnon  Knott  to  Center  Township. 
Reuben  Long  to  Cass  Township. 
W.  A.  Rigby  to  Red  Oak  Township. 
James  and  John  Bumside  to  Rochester  Township. 
James  and  Ira  Leverich  to  Rochester  Township. 
Rev.  Martin  Baker  to  Rochester  Township. 
Jchn  Scott  to  Rochester  Township. 
William  M.  Knott  to  Center  Township. 
Robert  Miller  to  Center  Township. 
Joshua  King  to  Center  Township. 
James  and  Jesse  Potts  to  Rochester  Township. 
Elisha  Edwards  to  Rochester  Township. 
James  W.  Tallman  to  Rochester  Township. 
H.  B.  Bumap  to  Rochester  Township. 
Isaac  Dickey  to  Rochester  Township. 
Samuel  Gilliland  to  Center  Township,  later  to  Pioneer. 

Mrs.  Albin  to Township. 

Enos  Nyce  to  Springdale  Township. 

The  Sterrett  family,  mother  and  three  sons,  to  Sugar  Creek  Township. 

John  Ferguson  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Charles  Dallas  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

John  Safley  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

William  Coutts  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

John  Chappell  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Charles  Swetland  to  Rochester  Township. 

William  Mason  to  Cass  Township. 


George  Miller  to  Linn  Township. 

John  Miller  to  Linn  Township. 

Nicholas  Miller  to  Linn  Township. 

Henry  D.  Brown  to  Rochester  Township. 

James  and  Henry  Buchanan  to  Cass  Township. 

Jackemiah  Baldwin  to  Cass  Township. 

Jehu  Kenworthy  to  Cass  Township. 

John  and  Philip  Wilkinson  to  Center  Township. 

William  Green  to  Rochester  Township. 

Christian  Holderman  to  Center  Township. 

Benjamin  Fraseur  and  family  to  Center  Township. 

Duncan  McClaren  to  Rochester  Township. 

Geo.  W.  Parks  to  Cass  Township. 

Charles  Warfield  to  Rochester  Township. 

Peter  Diltz  to  Rochester  Township. 

John  Blalock  to  Cass  Township. 

Noah  King  to  Cass  Township. 

William  Kizer  to  Center  Township. 

Abraham  and  Nicholas  Kizer  to  Center  Township. 

Richard  Ransford  to  Center  Township. 

John  G.  Foy  to  Center  Township. 

James  Foy  to  Center  Township. 

Samuel  P.  Higginson  to  Center  Township. 

A.  L.  McLaren  to  Center  Township. 

Samuel  Yule  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Geo.  S.  Smith  to  Center  Township. 

John  C.  Higginson  to  Center  Township. 

J.  S.  Sheller  to  Center  Township. 

Moses  B.  Church  to  Rochester  Township. 

Joseph  Wilford  and  son  to  Sugar  Creek  Township. 

John  Finch  to  Center  Township. 

Jonathan  Morgan  to  Center  Township. 

William  H.  Bolton  to  Center  Township. 

Daniel  Hare  to  Sugar  Creek  Township. 

Milton  Phelps  to  Rochester  Township. 

demon  Squires  to  Iowa  Township. 

William  C.  Long  to  Iowa  Township. 

Asa  Young  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Felix  Freeland  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Elias  Epperson  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Calihan  Dwigans  to  Center  Township. 

Prior  Scott  to  Pioneer  Township. 

Robert  Pirie  to  Red  Oak  Township. 

Hannah  Blalock  to  Cass  Township. 

William  Kester  to  Cass  Township. 

Angeline  Smith  to Township. 



Under  the  territorial  acts  the  management  of  the  county  affairs  was  vested 
in  a  board  of  three  commissioners  who  organized  immediately  after  the  county 
was  set  off  from  the  Dubuque  county  jurisdiction.^*  The  commissioners  met  at 
Rochester,  the  place  fixed  upon  by  the  Territorial  legislature  on  April  2,  1838. 
Richard  Ransford  was  chosen  as  chairman  and  Moses  B.  Church  as  clerk.  These 
records  are  found  on  a  folio  of  foolscap  paper  attached  to  Book  A  of  the  office  of 
Auditor.  Some  of  the  proceedings  of  1838  to  1840  are  so  unique  that  they  should 
not  be  overlooked.  The  first  date  of  the  county  commissioners  at  Rochester  is 
April  2,  1838;  the  final  March  22,  1840.  This  closes  the  first  "book  of  records" 
in  Cedar  County.  The  school  boy  today  should  envy  the  writer  of  these  records ; 
^uch  clear  cut  letters  and  ink  that  will  never  fade. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  commissioner  of  Cedar  County,  Wisconsin  Terri- 
tory, was  to  receive  the  bonds  of  the  justices  of  the  peace  appointed  by  the  gov- 
ernor of  the  territory,  namely,  given  by  Henry  Hardman,  John  Blalock  and 
George  McCoy,  and  by  James  W.  Tallman  as  sheriff.  These  bonds  were  turned 
over  by  Robert  G.  Roberts,  who  had  been  an  officer  of  Dubuque  County  before  its 
subdivision  mentioned  heretofore. 

But  to  quote  the  record  is  the  best  possible  way  of  indicating  its  purposes  : 

"Received  a  petition  praying  for  a  road  from  the  northeast  end  of  Pioneer 
Grove  through  Red  Oak  Grove  and  Centreville  by  Freeman's  mill  in  the  direction 
of  Bloomington,  which  was  laid  over  for  further  consideration"  ;^®  also 

"Received  a  petition  for  a  road  frc«n  our  eastern  boundary  in  the  direction 
of  Rockingham  through  Centreville  and  Rochester  in  the  direction  of  Gilbert's  on 
the  Iowa,"  which  was  laid  over  also.  There  seems  to  be  an  error  here  in  the 
name  of  the  stream,  since  "Gilbert's"  was  in  Linn  on  the  Cedar,  unless  there  were 
two  points  of  the  same  name.  Political  caucuses  were  held  at  Gilbert's  in  Linn 
and  that  could  not  have  been  on  the  Iowa  river. 

At  this  session,  April  3,  1838,  the  county  was  divided  into  four  districts  by 
congressional  townships,  four  in  each,  and  election  precincts  were  established  in 
three  of  these  only,  the  first  lying  in  the  northeast  one-fourth  of  the  county, 
being  attached  to  the  second  in  the  northwest  for  election  purposes.    One  pre- 



cinct  was  in  Linn  Grove  at  the  house  of  Elias  Epperson ;  a  second  at  Rochester ; 
district  number  three  at  the  house  of  Stephen  Toney,  and  one  at  Centreville  at 
the  house  of  Moses  B.  Church.  William  Mason,  Alanson  Pope  and  Elias  Epper- 
son were  appointed  judges  of  election.  MascMi's  Grove  is  named  for  the  first  of 
these,  Pope  was  one  of  the  first  at  Pioneer  Grove  and  Epperson  at  Linn.  These 
for  the  district  number  two,  to  which  one  was  attached.  Green,  Morgan  and 
Kenworthy  for  district  number  three,  and  Miller,  Walton  and  Whittlesey  for  four. 

"Be  it  enacted  that  permission  be  given  Greo.  McCoy  to  operate  a  ferry  over 
Cedar  River  at  Rochester,  and  the  place  of  landing  shall  be  opposite  to  Van  Buren 

The  rates  were  fixed  as  follows : 

For  a  wag(g)on,  25  cents. 

For  span  of  horses  or  yoke  of  cattle,  25  cents. 

For  man  and  horse,  25  cents. 

For  a  footman,  I2>^  cents. 
^  For  loose  cattle  per  head,  6j4  cents. 

For  hogs  and  sheep  per  head,  4  cents. 

These  grand  jurors  were  appointed  by  the  commissicMiers :  Alanson  Pope, 
David  W.  Walton,  Harvey  B.  Bumap,  Martin  Baker,  Charles  Whittlesey,  Jona- 
than Morgan,  Jehu  Kenworthy,  Solomon  Knott,  Henry  Hardman,  John  Jones, 
William  Mason,  Wm.  Miller,  Robert  (j,  Roberts. 

The  petit  or  trial  jurors :  Benjamin  Fraseur,  Walter  Freeman,  Richard  Knott, 
John  Scott,  Felix  Freeland,  Daniel  Hare,  Charles  M.  Moberly,  James  Buchanan, 
Abraham  Nix,  Prior  Scott,  Elias  Epperson,  George  Miller,  Jr.,  Washington  A. 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  Board  of  County  Commissioners  that  they  adopt  a  seal 
of  which  the  following  is  an  example  (a  circle  the  size  of  a  half  dollar  on  which 
the  letters  "C  O  M  S"  and  "C  C"  are  inscribed). 

'Gave  to  James  Tallman  the  following  instructions : 

'You  are  hereby  commanded  by  the  authority  of  the  Board  of  Conunissioners 
to  take  an  assessment  of  all  property  in  this  county,  and  in  all  the  counties 
attached  ^  to  this  for  judicial  purposes,  on  the  ctd  valorem  system,  naming  the 
different  kinds  of  property  possessed  by  each  individual,  viz. :  All  horses,  oxen, 
cows,  hogs,  sheep,  household  and  farming  utensils,  clocks,  watches,  money  on 
hand,  notes  due  and  on  interest,  noting  all  horses  and  cattle  which  are  under  three 
years  of  age,  and  all  horses  which  are  Uind,  and  to  make  due  return  thereon  on 
or  before  the  Thursday  next  preceding  the  fourth  Monday  of  next  May,  to  the 
Commissioners  of  the  County.' " 

After  allowing  the  per  diem  for  each  commissioner  and  for  the  clerk  and 
sheriff,  the  session  adjourned  to  meet  the  24th  of  May,  1838,  this  being  the 
fourth  Monday.  Thus  ended  the  first  session  of  the  first  governing  body  in 
Cedar  County,  composed  of  Richard  Ransford,  Jonas  W.  Oaks  and  Joseph  Will- 
ford,  with  Moses  B.  Church  as  clerk  and  James  W.  Tallman  as  sheriff. 

At  the  second  session  on  the  date  heretofore  mentioned  the  first  business  is 
stated :  "The  Board  agreed  with  Stephen  Toney  to  furnish  a  room  in  his  house 
for  the  accommodation  of  the  District  Court  at  its  first  session  in  this  county."*^ 


"Received  a  petition  praying  for  a  road  to  commence  at  some  point  <mi  our 
southern  boundary  so  as  to  meet  a  road  frcmi  the  mouth  of  Pine  Creek  (this  was 
north  of  Muscatine)  by  Centreville,  Halderman's,  Tallman's,  Mason's,  to  the 
west  end  of  Pioneer  Grove,  and  also  a  road  commencing  at  some  point  on  our 
northern  boundary  and  thence  to  Oaks  (JcMias  Oaks)  in  Red  Oak  Grove  and 
thence  to  Henry  Kizer's,  and  thence  to  intersect  the  above  road  in  the  most  prac- 
tical point  which  was  mentioned  at  the  previous  session  and  laid  over."  At  this 
session  district  number  one  was  detached  from  two  and  the  precinct  established  at 
the  house  of  Porter  McKinstry.  He  and  John  Nesbitt  and  Peter  Taylor  were 
made  judges  of  election  there. 

"Received  a  petition  for  a  road  commencing  at  Napoleon  ^  on  the  Iowa  River 
and  going  to  Rochester,  Cedar  County,  by  Felkner  and  Myer's  Mill,  which  was 
endorsed  and  laid  over." 

"The  following  names  were  added  to  those  formerly  selected  for  grand  jurors : 
Henry  Buchanan,  James  Setford,  William  Green,  George  Smith,  Abraham  Kizer, 
Jrfm  Finch,  J.  W.  Wilkinson,  William  Morgan,  John  Blalock,  Jackemiah  Baldwin. 
"And  these  to  the  petit  jurors:  James  W.  Potts,  Stephen  Toney,  Nicholas 
Kizer,  William  Sterrett,  Hector  Sterrett,  William  Watson,  Conrad  Sweitzer, 
Henry  D.  Morgan,  John  S.  Higginson,  Robert  Miller." 

Road  viewers  were  appointed  at  this  session  for  the  roads  petitioned  for  at 
these  first  sessions.  The  sheriff  was  to  notify  the  viewers  of  their  appointment. 
Adjourned  until  May  28, 1838. 

The  first  business  at  the  third  session  reads : 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  commissioners  that  the  County  of  Johnson  be  the  fifth 
election  district  and  that  the  election  precinct  be  at  Napoleon  at  the  house  of 
John  MuflFord."" 

"That  Henry  Felkner,  Philip  Clark  and  James  Marcey  be  the  judges  of  elec- 
tion in  the  fifth  district." 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  that  a  license  to  keep  a  tavern  in  the  town  of  Rochester 
be  pven  to  Stephen  Toney  for  the  term  of  one  year  for  the  sum  of  five  dollars." 

"Received  a  petition  for  a  road  to  commence  at  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
county  in  the  direction  of  Moscow  and  thence  to  Rochester,  and  thence  to  inter- 
sect the  road  from  Pioneer  Grove  to  Halderman's." 

"Received  a  petition  for  a  road  from  Tallman's  to  Whittlesey's  Mill,  on  which 
the  commissioners  considered  it  inexpedient  to  appoint  viewers." 

Adjourned  until  the  first  Monday  in  July. 

(Signed)  Moses  B.  Church. 

July  2,  1838. 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  that  the  viewers  appointed  on  roads  be  allowed  two  dollars 
per  day  for  their  services. 

"Received  the  report  of  Prior  Scott  and  James  Buchanan  on  the  road  they 
were  to  view  and  which  report  was  in  favor  of  the  practicability  of  the  road  from 
the  west  end  of  Pioneer  Grove  to  a  point  on  our  southern  boundary  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  mouth  of  Pine  (river),  and  also  of  the  road  from  Elizabethtown  to 
Tallman's,  but  not  in  favor  of  the  road  from  Red  Oak  Grove  to  Kizer's." 

"An  objection  was  presented  against  the  first-named  road  from  the  nine-mile 
stake  to  the  fourteenth-mile  stake  by  James  Foy,  Stephen  Toney  and  George 


McCoy,  praying  for  a  review  between  the  said  points  and  that  the  road  might 
pass  by  John  Foy's." 

"WashingtcMi  A.  Rigby,  Arthur  Dillon  and  Robert  Miller  were  appointed 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  that  the  County  of  Cedar  be  divided  into  road  districts  as 
follows :"  Then  follows  the  names  and  description  of  the  districts,  eight  in  nimi- 
ber,  and  the  men  chosen  to  supervise  the  roads,  their  care  and  improvement  with 
the  assistance  of  the  taxpayers  in  their  district.  It  is  well  to  remember  that  these 
were  not  section  line  roads,  but  run  at  any  point  of  the  compass  to  acccnnmodate 
the  population.**  From  these  old  trails  the  old  roads  that  wind  in  and  out  and 
refuse  to  follow  the  checker  board  r^^lation  are  descended,  and  the  only  poetry 
left  frcrni  an  early  independence  of  strict  regularity.  These  road  supervisors 
are  named  from  the  men  who  are  mentioned  in  connection  with  jury  duty,  and 
they  suggest  the  scarcity  of  population  in  any  part  of  the  county.  The  names  of 
the  districts  stick  to  the  map :  Centreville,  Rochester,  Rock  Creek,  Washington, 
Pioneer,  Red  Oak,  Crooked  Creek,  and  Yankee  Run. 

The  seal  mentioned  as  being  adopted  at  the  second  session  was  changed  in 
the  July  meeting.  "Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  that  they  adopt  as  their  seal  an  impres,sion 
made  by  the  eagle  side  of  a  five  cent  piece." 

Proceedings  from  this  point  are  in  Iowa  Territory,  no  longer  Wisconsin. 

July  4,  1838,  the  board  of  commissioners  did  not  observe  in  the  usual  way, 
but  issued  a  writ  that  was  returned  with  its  execution  in  the  person  of  the  man 
Orrin  Lewis  and  his  child.  James  Tallman  was  appointed  to  care  for  this  child 
temporarily.  So  early  in  the  county's  history  s(Hne  provision  was  made  for  the 
helpless  and  neglected. 

"License  was  issued  to  George  McCoy  to  run  a  ferry  over  the  Cedar  River 
until  April  4,  1839,  according  to  the  tenor  of  permit  granted  him  on  the  fourth 
of  last  April,  for  which  he  is  to  pay  the  sirni  of  five  dollars." 

"Issued  a  writ  commanding  John  Champaig^e  to  leave  the  county,  which  was 
committed  to  the  sheriff  of  the  county,  returned  as  served  by  reading." 

July  7. 

"Received  notification  that  the  family  of  Matthew  Turner  were  in  a  suffering 
condition  and  agreed  to  meet  at  his  house  to-morrow  morning  at  9  o'clock  to 
make  provision  for  his  relief." 

August  13,  1838. 
"Court  convened  according  to  adjournment." 

"Received  a  petition  for  a  road  from  Red  Oak  Grove  by  Posten's  Grove  to 
the  boundary  of  the  county  in  the  direction  of  Davenport  or  Rockingham."*' 

"Petition  for  road  from  Denson's  on  the  Wapsipinicon  to  county  boundary  in 
the  direction  of  the  mouth  of  Pine."  Joseph  Denson,  Solomon  Knott  and  Wash- 
ington Rigby  appointed  viewers  of  the  roads  prayed  for. 

And  now  appears  the  first  tax  levy  recorded  in  this  county,  August  13,  1838. 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc,  that  a  tax  of  five  mills  on  a  dollar  be  levied  for  county 
purposes  and  of  one  cent  on  a  dollar  for  road  purposes,  and  that  the  clerk  make 
out  the  taxes  accordingly." 

"Ordered  that  the  supervisors  proceed  to  open  the  roads  already  established." 


>  ■    < 

V.  ;;.  }'•    I  i;>  {\\i\ 

*f-T<;R,    UEN**X    AMD 

T'..    F<MJNI)AT1WN8 

g  L 


"The  amount  of  taxes  delivered  to  the  county  sheriff  for  collections  were 
for  1838:  $160.71  from  Cedar  County  and  $46.75  from  Johnson  County.  Total, 
$20746."  (Johnson  County  was  then  part  of  Cedar  so  far  as  judicial  matters 
were  concerned.)  The  tax  of  one  cent  on  a  dollar  was  cut  in  two  at  the  October 
session  of  the  c(xnmissioners. 

January  8,  1839. 

"Received  bonds  of  Christian  Halderman  as  Treasurer." 

"Delivered  to  the  sheriff,  Elishia  E.  Edwards,  a  precept  to  deliver  to  the 
above  supervisors  (road)  that  their  term  of  office  is  prolonged." 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  that  they  memorialize  the  legislature  to  pass  swne  law 
by  which  the  tax  in  this  county  laid  in  1838  may  be  collected  between  the  first 
of  January  and  the  first  of  April,  1839."*® 

January  26,  1839.    "Only  one  commissioner  present.    Adjourned  sine  die." 

(Signed)  Moses  B.  Church,  Cleric. 

April  I,  1839. — ^"Commissioners  met  pursuant  to  law." 

"Present,  R  R.  Ransford  and  William  Mason." 

"Be  it,  etc.,  that  George  H.  Brown  be  appointed  constable  for  Jones  County 
to  serve  unto  the  first  Monday  in  October,  or  until  his  successor  is  elected  and 
qualified."  (This  is  the  first  mention  of  Jones  being  attached  for  judicial  pur- 
poses.) -  - 

"Received  the  report  of  David  W.  Walton,  supervisor  in  Centreville  road  dis- 
trict, that  all  taxes  on  personal  liability  and  for  signing  petitions  have  been  paid 
with  the  exception  of  four  dollars  against  Henry  E.  Sweitzer  for  signing  petition 
and  four  dollars  against  William  K.  Whittlesey  for  personal  liability."*'' 

April  2,  1839. — ^"Granted  a  license  to  Abner  Arrowsmith  to  keep  a  ferry  over 
the  Cedar  River  for  the  term  of  erne  year  at  the  town  of  Washingfton"  (Cedar 

"Agreed  with  Stephen  Toney  to  furnish  a  room  for  the  next  district  court  and 
to  allow  him  five  dollars  for  the  same." 

"Be  it,  etc.,  that  Geo.  McCoy  be  appointed  constable  for  Cedar  County  until 
the  first  Monday  in  August  next  and  until  his  successor  be  appointed  and 

July  I,  1839. — ^"Received  the  returns  of  David  W.  Walton  and  found  due  to 
him  six  dollars  and  directed  him  further  to  prosecute  the  demand  against  Henry 
E,  Sweitzer  and  make  his  return  on  the  next  session  of  the  board." 

"The  Board  laid  a  tax  of  $19.17  on  Nelson  Hastings  for  a  Grocery  permit 
for  70  days,  i.  e.,  at  the  rate  of  $100  per  annum." 

"Sanctioned  the  permit  given  to  Warfield  and  Diltz  and  taxed  them  for  the 
same  $40."*® 

Jwly  3>  1839. — ^"Resolved  by  the  commissioners  that  they  allow  to  the  jurors 
for  their  attendance  at  the  May  term  of  the  district  court,  1839,  their  full  pay, 
except  one  day's  attendance  and  mileage  to  each  perscm,  which  they  think  is  due 
from  the  United  States." 

"Settled  all  demands  against  the  county  with  the  exception  of  that  of  James 
Tallman,  Geo.  McCoy  and  the  review  of  the  road  from  Rochester  to  Moscow." 

"Resolved  that  the  clerk  be  requested  to  make  out  and  put  up  in  three  different 
places  a  schedule  of  the  expenses  and  income  of  the  county."** 


"Resolved,  that  the  clerk  be  directed  to  write  the  commissioners  of  Johnson 
Cotmty,  requesting  them  to  make  some  arrangement  in  r^^rd  to  the  tax  that 
has  been  laid  by  this  board  upon  their  county  in  the  year  1838,  and  make  their 
communicaticm  to  the  clerk  of  this  board  immediately/' 

"Resolved,  that  the  clerk  be  required  to  copy  the  records  of  this  Board  into 
books  to  be  kept  as  county  records."*^ 

"Taxes  committed  to  the  sheriff  for  collection  in  the  year  1839  is  $299.65^." 

July  16,  1839. — "An  a|q>lication  having  been  made  to  the  Board  by  Charles 
Cantonwine  for  relief  as  a  pauper,  they  proceeded  to  examine  the  case.  It  appears 
that  the  above  applicant  has  not  been  a  resident  ten  days.  Ordered  by  the  Board 
that  the  clerk  issue  a  notice  to  Charles  Cantonwine  to  leave*  the  County  of 
Cedar  forthwith." 

October  7,  1839.— "Met  pursuant  to  law.  Geo.  McCoy  having,  been  called 
on  to  act  as  sheriff  and  having  refused  the  Board  is  left  without  an  officer." 

"On  motion  of  John  G.  Foy  it  is  ordered  that  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey  be  clerk  in 
place  of  Moses  B.  Church.    Sworn  in  by  Henry  Hardman,  Justice  of  Peace." 

"Ordered  that  Moses  B.  Church  be  constable  during  the  sitting  of  this  court." 

"£.  £.  Edwards  filed  his  bond  and  took  oath  as  county  treasurer.  Bond, 

October  8,  1839. — "M.  B.  Church  presented  a  view  of  Territorial  Road  from 
Davenport,  in  Scott  County,  to  Marion,  in  linn  (Lynn),  dated  September,  1839, 
and  signed  by  Andrew  F.  Russel,  Alfred  Carter  and  Warren  Stiles,  conunissioners, 
and  Andrew  Russel,  surveyor." 

"Viewers  of  road  from  Red  Oak  to  the  house  of  M.  B.  Church  report  road 
practicable,  and  the  following  have  been  employed  on  the  road,  viz. : 

"As. surveyor,  John  Tomlinson,  four  days. 

'Chain  carrier,  W.  M.  Dallas,  one  day. 
'Chain  carrier,  Elzy  Carl,  one  day. 

"Chain  carrier,  John  Ferguson,  half  day. 

"Chain  carrier,  Alfred  Waddle,  two  days. 

"Chain  carrier,  Jas.  Gillan,  two  days." 

"Markers,  Charles  Dallas  and  team,  one  day  and  a  half ;  Andrew  Ford,  two 

October  9,  1839. — ^"S.  C.  Hastings  and  F.  Springer,  Territorial  District  Attor- 
neys, filed  their  bills." 

October  11,  1839.— "Ordered  that  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey,  clerk  of  the  District 
Court,  make  use  of  fifteen  dollars  to  be  expended  in  stationery  for  the  use  of  the 
District  and  Commissioners'  court."** 

January  9,  1840. — "Ordered  that  Chas.  E.  S wetland  be  constable  of  Cedar 
County,  and  that  Stephen  Toney  and  Samuel  Carl  be  security  on  the  same." 

Report  of  the  locating  commissioners  appointed  by  the  territorial  legislature 
to  fix  upon  some  point  in  the  county  for  a  county  seat. 

"We,  the  undersigned,  being  duly  appointed  Commissioners  to  relocate  the 
County  Seat  of  Cedar  County,  met  upon  the  ninth  day  of  March,  1840,  in  Ae 
town  of  Rochester  in  pursuance  of  an  act  passed  at  the  second  session  of  the 
L^slative  Assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Iowa,  and  after  being  duly  sworn 
according  to  law,  we  proceeded  to  the  discharge  of  the  duties  assigned  us,  and 


ftfter  spendii^  some  time  in  the  county  we  became  convinced  that  for  the  benefit 
of  the  county  and  the  good  of  the  citizens  it  was  necessary  to  locate  the  county 
seat  on  the  Northwest  Quarter  of  Section  Six  in  Township  Eighty  North  and 
Range  Two  West  of  the  Fifth  Principal  Meridian  and  gave  it  the  name  of  Tipton. 

''Given  under  our  hands  and  seals  this  the  sixteenth  day  of  March,  1840. 

(Signed)  Henry  W.  Higgins.  (seal) 
John  G.  McDonald  (seal) 
John  Eagan  (seal) 
'^Recorded  this  i6th  day  of  March,  Anno  Domini  1840. 

"Wm.  K.  Whittlesey, 
"Clerk  of  the  District  Court,  Cedar  County. "«!• 

It  was  cm  March  16,  1840,  that  a  break  came  in  the  harmony  of  affairs.  The 
report  of  the  locating  commissioners  for  the  new  county  seat  was  called  for  and 
the  derk  read  the  same,**  which  report  it  is  recorded  was  accepted  by  Daniel 
Cbmstock  and  William  Miller,  but  objected  to  by  John  G.  Foy.  If  the  objection 
was  made  in  a  voice  to  correspond  to  his  sig^ture  (Mie  would  think  his  personal 
safety  lay  in  getting  as  far  away  as  circumstances  would  allow.  The  records 
shows  that  it  was  ordered  by  John  G.  Foy  that  Samuel  P.  Higginson  be  sutn^ 
moned  to  prove  that  the  locating  commissioners  each  signed  the  same.  Then 
this  record  was  crossed  out  and  a  milder  form  entered,  where  it  was  ordered 
that  it  be  proved  that  the  signatures  were  placed  there  this  day,  the  sixteenth  of 
March,  i840.»» 

Samuel  P.  Higginson  was  sworn  and  pronounced  the  signatures  just  and  true. 
The  protest  of  John  G.  Foy  was  placed  on  file  and  at  the  same  time  an  order  was 
made  to  pre-empt  the  quarter  section  selected  by  the  locating  commissicmers  as 
the  county  seat.  When  the  board  adjourned  at  this  session  it  was  in  "due  refer- 
ence to  the  county  seat''  and  the  clerk  advertised — ^how,  it  is  not  stated — ^that  those 
having*  money  to  loan  can  do  so  by  taking  an  interest  in  the  town. 

At  the  next  meeting  George  W.  Ames  presented  an  account  from  Dubuque 
County  showing  the  amount  of  debt  at  the  time  of  separation  to  have  been  $2,850, 
and  the  amount  due  as  Cedar  County's  proportion  was  $133.  This  was  placed 
on  file  to  await  advice  from  the  district  attorney. 

At  this  meeting  an  order  was  issued  to  David  W.  Walton  for  services  as  grand 
juror  in  May,  1838.  All  the  services  of  men,  and  doubtless  animals,  too,  were 
paid  for  in  county  warrants,  and  Mr.  Walton  had  evidently  carried  his  warrant 
for  jury  service  iov  the  two  years  when  the  treasurer  has  sufficient  cash  to  pay  up. 

At  this  meeting  also,  March  23,  1840,  a  ccmimunication  was  presented  as 
follows : 

''Gentlemen:  I  beg  leave  most  respectfully  to  make  the  following  proposal 
for  furnishing  the  money  to  enter  the  quarter  section  of  land  on  which  the  county 
seat  of  this  county  was  lately  located.  That  I  will  g^ve  outwright  (right)  to  the 
county  commissioners  of  Cedar  County  the  sum  of  two  hundred  dollars  for  the 
aforementioned  purpose  on  the  following  conditions :  That  the  county  commis- 
sioners shall  come  under  bonds  to  me  to  make  a  good  and  general  warrantee (y) 
deed  to  twenty  lots  upon  said  quarter  section,  said  lots  to  be  a  general  average  of 
the  whole  as  they  may  hereafter  be  laid  off,  and  to  be  deeded  and  set  off  to  me  as 


soon  as  said  quarter  section  is  surveyed  and  before  any  sale  of  lots  takes  place. 
Said  money  to  be  furnished  immediately  in  land  office  funds.*^* 

"(Signed)  Samuel  P.  Higginson/' 

On  receipt  of  this  proposal  the  commissi(xiers  drew  up  a  plan  to  accq)t  it, 
making  such  provision  as  the  loan  required,  namely,  that  any  person  making  such 
proposal  for  lots  must  do  so  on  certain  terms  which  seemed  equitable,  in  that  the 
board  were  to  choose  nine  lot's,  and  the  person  proposing  ishall  take  one  lot.  Then 
the  board  shall  choose  nineteen  and  the  proposer  one,  and  this  to  continue  until 
the  full  complement  of  twenty  lots  be  set  oflf  as  agreed,  the  entire  quarter  to  be 
laid  off  into  lots.  We  do  accept  the  above  proposal,  the  letter  of  Samuel  P.  Hig- 
ginson  being  a  part  of  the  same. 

(Signed)  William  Miller. 
Daniel  Comstock. 
John  C.  Higginson, 
Agoit  for  S.  P.  Higg^on. 

Attest :  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey. 

John  G.  Foy  does  not  sign  this  acceptance  and  was  not  present  at  the  session. 

The  commissioners  gave  their  bond,  which  was  declared  null  and  void  when 
the  deeds  for  the  twenty  lots  were  furnished. 

Daniel  Ccmistock  was  appointed  agent  to  procure  a  pre-emption  right  to  the 
county  seat  as  located  on  March  i6,  1840,  on  northwest  quarter  of  section  six, 
township  eighty  north  and  range  two  west  of  the  fifth  principal  meridian. 

This  was  the  last  session  in  Rochester  and  it  now  ceased  to  be  the  county  seat 
in  any  sense,  for  the  board  adjourned  to  meet  at  Tipton  on  the  first  Mcmday  in 
April,  1840.*' 

At  the  first  meeting  in  Tipton  the  claim  from  Dubuque  County,  presented  at 
the  last  meeting  in  Rochester  was  rejected  and  the  clerk  was  ordered  to 
return  the  same  by  mail.  Some  of  the  public  roads  petitioned  for  were  rejected 
also,  and  a  spirit  of  independence  assumed  not  quite  so  prominent  heretofore. 
The  license  for  the  ferry  at  Washington's,  scnnetimes  called  Gower's,  and  now 
Cedar  Bluffs,  was  renewed,  but  the  tax  fixed  at  $I2.*^« 

The  clerk,  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey,  was  allowed  an  additional  ten  and  one-half 
dollars  to  purchase  supplies  for  the  county.  Daniel  Hare  was  excused  from  pay- 
ing the  fine  imposed  on  him  for  not  acting  as  supervisor  of  the  roads  as  appointed. 
When  the  roads  were  reported  upon  by  the  viewers  it  was  necessary  to  settle  with 
the  surveyor,  chainbearers  and  axemen  who  had  assisted  in  laying  out  the  road, 
the  fees  being  paid  if  the  treasury  had  the  money,  otherwise  in  warrants  numbered 
in  order  so  that  when  mc«iey  was  there  the  warrant  first  in  order  was  entitled  to 
pa3rment.  In  November,  1840,  the  record  is  made  of  the  sale  of  a  pauper  for  the 
period  of  six  months,  sale  to  take  place  at  Pioneer  Grove  on  December  i,  and  the 
clerk  to  advertise  the  same.  This  sounds  strange  to-day,  but  "Wnding  out  to 
service"  in  this  way  was  customary. 

The  towTiship  history  of  the  county  is  difficult  to  follow.  If  one  were  asked 
to-day  where  Freeman  township  was  located,  or  "Waubespinicon" — that  is  the 
way  it  was  put — he  would  need  to  study  his  geography  in  vain.  Freeman  in- 
cluded the  present  townships  of  Farmington,  Sugar  Creek,  Rochester.   The  second 


one  mentioned  (save  the  spelling)  was  in  the  northeast,  as  one  might  suspect, 
and  included  Dayton,  Massillon,  Springfield,  parts  of  Red  Oak,  Center  and  Fair- 
field. (Walter  Freeman  was  a  county  ccMnmissioner  in  1840.)  Iowa  township  was 
all  territory  west  of  the  river  and  was  named  in  1840.  Center  was  also  set  oflf 
and  named  at  that  time,  but  not  in  its  present  boundaries.  Linn  (L3mn)  was 
named  at  the  same  time  and  included  the  four  congressional  townships  lying  in 
the  northwest  one-fourth  of  the  county.  There  were  five  townships  then  in  the 
cotmty  and  now  seventeen.  Like  many  counties  in  the  state,  there  are  sixteen 
congressional  townships,  but  in  the  divisions  for  governmental  purposes  the  seven- 
teen are  made  up  generally  of  fractional  townships.  At  the  May,  1840,  session 
of  the  conmiissioners  the  two  northern  tiers  of  sections  in  township  eighty  north, 
range  one  west,  were  ordered  to  be  added  to  the  township  known  as  "Waubes- 
pinicon,''  and  the  name  of  said  township  be  called  Springfield.  These  sections 
mentioned  that  were  "taken  oflf"  belonged  to  the  present  township  of  Inland.  In 
April,  1842,  the  sections  numbered  thirty-six,  thirty-five  and  thirty-four,  twenty- 
five,  twenty-six  and  twenty-seven,  township  eighty-one,  range  three,  were  detached 
from  Linn  (L)mn)  and  added  to  Center  on  petition  from  Solomon  Aldrich,  Ben- 
jamin Frazer  (Fraseur),  William  Frazer  (Fraseur),*^''  and  Caliban  Dwigans 
as  voters  who  wished  to  be  in  Center  township.  In  1842  the  portion  of  township 
eighty-one,  range  four,  lying  west  of  Cedar  River,  was  by  petition  of  voters  taken 
from  Iowa  township  and  added  to  Linn. 

In  October,  1842,  it  was  ordered  to  change  the  name  of  Freeman  township  to 
Rochester.  This  included,  remember,  all  that  portion  lying  in  the  southeast 
portion  of  the  county.  There  were  only  two  more  changes  in  the  township  lines 
before  1850.  Elzy  Carl  petiticmed  to  have  a  tier  of  sections  taken  from  the  west 
side  of  Springfield  and  attached  to  Linn,  which  was  granted  in  1845.  A  remon- 
strance having  been  filed  regarding  the  attachment  of  the  sections  lying  south  of 
the  river  in  township  eighty-one,  range  four,  these  sections  were  attached  to 
Center  for  school  and  township  purposes.  This  is  the  first  mentic«i  of  schools  in 
the  records  so  far  as  noted — 1845.*^® 

A  little  later  Sugar  Creek  township  was  set  oflf,  but  the  board  repealed  this  and 
continued  to  call  it  Rochester.  It  is  not  quite  certain  why  this  was  done,  as  no 
petition  is  found,  but  the  record  shows  certain  dissatisfaction  with  the  assessment 
in  Rochester  and  this  may  account  for  the  change.'* 

In  March,  1848,  the  petitioners  for  a  new  township  composed  of  the  two  con- 
gressional numbers  eighty-two,  ranges  three  and  four  west,  were  granted  their 
request  and  this  was  called  Pioneer. 

As  these  townships  gained  more  population  the  divisions  increased.  Spring- 
field was  divided  and  Polk  was  created  in  the  northeast.  Later  Polk  became 
Dayton  and  Massillon.  Pioneer  was  cut  in  two  and  the  east  half  called  Fremcmt. 
Inland  and  Fairfield  came  oflf  from  the  adjoining  larger  sections,  and  the  west 
side  of  the  river  was  changed  from  one  to  three.  These  are  found  in  the  records, 
but  details  can  be  carried  no  further. 

In  1839  a  petiticMi  was  presented  to  the  Assembly  then  in  session  at  Burlington 
asking  for  a  change  in  the  county  seat.  The  act  is  entitled,  "An  act  to  relocate 
the  county  seat  of  Cedar  County,  or  more  particularly,  the  seat  of  justice  in. and 
for  said  coimty."    The  provision  was  made  for  three  commissioners,  not  county 


i^sidents,  to  locate  the  new  city  if  such  was  to  be  changed.    They  were  under 
oath  to  act  impartially,  and  for  the  best  interests  of  the  county.    Henry  W.  Hig- 
gins,  of  Scott  County;  J.  G.  McDonald,  Jackson  County,  and  John  Eagan,  of 
Johnson  County,  were  appointed  to  carry  out  this  act.    They  were  required  to 
meet  at  Rochester  in  March,  1840,  or  September  of  year  before  •^  and  relocate 
the  seat  of  government  there  if  in  their  judgment  it  should  prove  the  most  suitable 
place.    Otherwise  they  were  to  proceed  toward  the  center  of  the  county  and, 
using  all  due  consideration  as  to  other  needs,  locate  the  new  city  there.    Specific 
directions  were  given  these  commissioners  to  name  said  city  and  make 'full  report 
to  the  clerk  of  the  District  Court  in  this  county.     Such  report  may  have  been 
made,  but  is  not  on  record,  and  the  reasons  for  certain  proceedings  nwist  be  sur- 
mised rather  thanverified.    There  were  many  aspirants  for  county  seat  honors — 
names  now  lost  or  forgotten,  or  never  mentioned  probably  in  the  hearing  of  the 
present  generation.    There  were  Centerville,  and  Elizabethtown,  Antwerp,  and 
Warsaw,  some  of  them  laid  out  for  the  occasion,  and  whose  names  remind  one  of 
Irving's  Knickerbocker's  History  of  New  York.    The  present  site  of  Tipton  was 
an  open  prairie  and  gave  no  promise  of  being  made  into  a  seat  of  justice.    As 
history  states,  it  was  unfortunate  for  the  former  seat  of  government  that  in  the 
spring  of  1840  the  Cedar  River  overflowed  its  banks,  partially  submerging 
Rochester,  and  causing  the  newly  appcnnted  commissioners  to  question  the  advis- 
ability of  re-locating  the  county  seat  there.**     They  naturally  sought   higher 
ground.    Luck  then  favored  the  present  county  seat  so  far  as  it  had  to  do  with 
natural  conditions  of  water  and  distance  from  county  lines.     The  commissioners 
were  courted  and  banqueted,  treated  royally  by  the  various  candidates  for  capital 
honors,  but  after  all  was  done  a  barren  prairie  secured  the  prize.    Here  in  the 
geographical  center  of  the  county  the  stake  was  driven  and  the  present  site  of  the 
elevator  near  the  C.  &  N.  W.  railway  depot  is  not  far  from  that  noted  spot.    The 
name  Tipton  is  from  General  Tipton,  of  Indiana,  in  which  state  there  is  also  a 
town  of  the  same  name.    It  is  hinted  that  the  privilege  of  naming  the  place  led 
to  the  vote  of  one  of  the  commissioners.    A  very  simple  matter  of  founding  a 
city,  but  not  unlike  many  others  in  this  prairie  state.    An  arbitrary  power  fixing 
the  place  without  any  consideration  of  natural  adaptation  or  future  advantage, 
mere  consideration  of  convenience,  of  obedience  to  instructions  and  lack  of  co- 
operation on  the  part  of  distinterested  persons.    Money  was  advanced  to  the 
county  for  the  pre-emption  of  the  quarter  section  on  which  the  original  town  was 
located  by  Samuel  P.  Higginson  ®*  on  conditi<m  that  certain  lots  should  be  granted 
him  up  to  twenty  in  number.    The  first  sale  of  lots  toc^  place  June  15,  1840. 
Fourteen  lots  were  sold  for  a  total  of  seven  hundred  and  eighty-three  dollars 
($783).    Among  the  purchasers  are  the  familiar  names  of  Preston  J.  Friend, 
J.  Scott  Ridnnan,  Benjamin  Fraseur  and  others.    Proposals  were  received  for 
the  erection  of  a  hewed  log  building  for  a  court  house  and  jail.    The  contract  for 
this  building  was  awarded  to  P.  M.  Vicker,  who  transferred  it  to  Snyder  for  the 
sum  of  two  thousand,  four  hundred  and  seventy-five  dollars.    The  building  was 
finished  and  accepted  as  a  jail  by  the  commissioners  of  the  county  before  comple- 
tion.   "Previous  to  this  Mr.  John  Culbertson  had  been  solicited  to  build  a  house 
for  county  purposes,  the  county  agreeing  to  share  the  expense.    In  this  building 
the  court  of  1841  was  held  and  continued  to  be  held  until  the  completion  of  the 



k^*^  1  n      ■  ^  « 

«  L 


combined  jail  and  court  room.  .  Whether  this  combined  building  was  ever  used 
for  court  purposes  is  not  a  matter  of  record.  It  stood  facing  south,  nearly  oppo- 
site the  present  machine  shop  of  S.  M.  Murray,  in  plain  view  from  my  father^s 

"Steps  went  up  from  the  outside,  irom  which  you  could  look  into  the  cell,  to  the 
place  designed  for  a  court  room,  but  which  from  my  recollection  was  used  by  the 
jailer."**  We  find  on  July  7,  1841,  a  contract  was  let  for  building  a  new  court 
hQUse  and  John  P.  Cook  was  clothed  with  power  of  attorney  to  carry  out  the 
same.  The  building  was  to  be  frame,  thirty-six  by  forty-two  (36  by  42),  and  to 
stand  in  the  center  of  the  square.  This  building  was  finished  and  occupied  for 
court  purposes  until  the  first  part  of  the  present  structure  was  completed. 

In  1876  Judge  Tuthill  said:  "Notwithstanding  the  measures  thus  far  inaugu- 
rated (that  is  up  to  the  conclusion  of  the  lot  sale  in  the  new  county  seat),  there 
appear  to  have  been  some  apprehensions  on  the  part  of  the  county  commissioners 
as  to  the  permanency  of  the  county  seat  at  Tipton,  for  an  order  issued  by  the 
board  on  the  day  of  sale  of  lots  providing  for  refunding  the  price  paid  for  lots 
with  interest  at  twenty  per  cent  from  time  of  payment  should  the  county  seat  be 
removed."**  "Improvements  commenced.  The  first  building  was  a  log  store  for 
John  P.  Cook,  in  which  was  opened  the  first  store  in  Tipton.  About  the  same  time 
John  Culbertson  commoiced  the  erection  of  a  hotel,  P.  J.  Friend  built  a  dwelling 
house  and  other  buildings  were  begun  by  Cummins  McCurdy,  C.  M.  Jennings, 
M.  Y.  Walker,  and  others." 

"The  post  office  was  established  in  1840^  July  23^  with  Charles  M.  Jennings  as 
first  postmaster." 

But  the  county  seat  was  not  to  rest  in  its  new  location  so  undisturbed  as  some 
seemed  to  imagine,  and  history  has  simply  repeated  itself  in  many  parts  of  the  state 
since  that  day  for  we  continue  to  read:  "Friends  of  Rochester  were  not  idle. 
Various  schemes  were  proposed  and  partly  carried  out  to  overcome  the  growing 
prestige  of  the  new  town  in  the  center  of  the  county.  Among  these  plans  was 
one,  which,  had  it  been  successful,  would  have  proved  unfortunate  for  the  financial 
prospects  of  Tipton  and  its  supporters,  so  far  as  the  matter  of  the  county  seat 
could  affect  it.  Since  there  were  no  means  of  transportation  then  except  overland 
the  plan  of  the  citizens  of  the  town  on  the  river  was  to  secure  a  line  of  boats  to 
Rochester  from  the  Mississippi.  From  this  effort  it  appears  steamers  did  come  up 
to  Rochester  sometime  during  the  summer  of  1840.  They  did  bring  supplies  and 
return  passengers  and  freight  But  nature  defeated  this  scheme  in  the  favor  of 
the  new  county  seat  since  the  uncertainties  of  water  supply  in  the  river  this  mode 
of  transportation  had  to  be  abandoned.  Sometime  this  plan  may  succeed  and  the 
dream  of  1840  will  be  real.  The  future  of  the  town  of  Rochester  after  this 
failure  was  plain,  and  the  failure  of  any  line  of  railroad  to  center  there  or  even 
come  within  hearing  distance  has  left  it  stationary  all  these  years.  Now,  1910,  a 
new  spirit  stirs  the  neighborhood,  and  it  may  be  that  before  the  present  youngest 
inhabitant  has  passed  away  the  life  that  once  seemed  so  abundant  will  return  to 
the  village  named  for  the  g^reat  city  of  New  York  when  its  water  power  promised 
so  very  much.  But  to  continue  the  county  seat  contest.  "In  1840  the  Rochester 
people  circulated  a  petition,  which  was  presented  to  the  legislature  at  the  session 
following,  asking  for  the  passage  of  a  law  to  enable  the  people  to  vote  upon  the 


county  seat  question.  The  citizens  of  the  county  seat,  already  officially  located, 
were  equal  to  the  emergency  and  prepared  a  renionstrance  against  any  such  pro- 
ceeding or  even  attempt  at  such.  It  was  a  merry  fight  and  in  a  short  time  all  the 
voters  in  the  county  were  on  one  or  the  other  document.  Rochester  had  eight 
majority.  This  majority  was  matched  by  the  names  of  fifteen  Scotchmen  and 
one  Englishman  in  Red  Oak  township,  which  number,  while  not  voters,  were 
bona  fide  settlers  and  had  declared  their  intentions.  These  names  are  recorded 
in  the  "History  of  Seventy-eight,"  and  should  be  preserved  with  every  writing  of 
this  statement,  since  their  names  can  be  obtained  from  no  other  source,  except  the 
duplicate  remonstrance  which  they  signed  and  this  cannot  be  found.  They  are 
given  by  Judge  Tuthill  as  follows :  John  Ferguson,  John  Safley,  Robert  Dallas, 
Charles  Dallas,  Samuel  Yule,  John  Chappell,  William  Coutts,  Alexander  Coutts, 
Robert  Perie,  Sr.,  Robert  Perie,  Jr.,  John  Leith,  John  Garrow,  Peter  Garrow, 
Duncan  McKee,  Daniel  McKee  and  John  Goodrich.®' 

From  the  reference  given  above  we  learn  that  the  contest  was  full  of  crimina- 
tion and  recrimination,  resulting  in  dangerous  argument  and  hot  tempers  were 
badly  stirred.  The  decision  was  not  with  the  people  of  the  county.  The  terri- 
torial assembly  had  that  matter  strictly  in  charge  and  before  that  time  came  for 
decision  the  blood  had  cooled  and  it  appears  that  the  two  factions  were  ready  to 
submit  to  the  action  without  protest.  December  8,  1840,  these  two  lists  of  "pro- 
posers" and  "opposers"  were  presented  to  the  legislature  then  in  session  at 
Burlington.  Nor  was  a  lobby  wanting  for  either  side,  although  it  stood  three  to 
one  in  number  of  speakers.  Green,  Toney  and  Hastings  were  present  in  behalf 
of  Rochester,  while  Samuel  P.  Higginson  alone  stood  for  the  present  county  seat. 
The  old  sea  captain,  to  quote  the  former  authority,  was  a  new  feature  in  such 
assemblies,  and  rather  won  the  favor  of  the  men  who  were  now  in  power.  By 
some  means  the  remonstrance  was  effective  and  Tipton  retained  its  honors  unmo- 
lested. The  vote  was  decisive,  being  seven  to  nineteen,  after  ccMning  from  a 
select  committee  of  which  Herman  Van  Antwerp,  a  friend  of  Rochester,  was 
chairman.  If  the  journal  of  the  territorial  legislature  is  quoted  here  in  the 
history  mentioned  before  it  is  not  referred  to  and  access  to  such  documents  is 
denied  the  present  writer  at  this  particular  time.  The  usual  result  followed  this 
decision  so  far  as  the  prosperity  of  the  county  seat  is  concerned.  It  hegaLn  to  grow 
both  in  population  and  volume  of  business.  This  was  only  a  lull  in  the  battle, 
only  the  first  attack,  for  the  next  move  of  the  Rochester  people  was  to  carry  the 
war  into  elections,  since  they  must  acquire  power  in  the  law-making  body  if  they 
would  control  the  location  of  the  county  seat.  Hence  they  sought  to  elect  mem- 
bers who  were  friendly  to  their  interests,  and  they  needed  to  dect  some  one  they 
could  trust.  They  moved  with  caution.  The  district  then  was  composed  of 
Cedar,  Linn,  and  Jones  Counties.  It  was  entitled  to  one  Councilman  and  two 
members  of  the  House.  The  voting  by  general  ticket  over  the  whole  district  made 
it  possible  to  elect  members  opposed  to  Rochester  even  if  Cedar  County  had  a 
majority  against  that  particular  candidate.  A  nomination  in  those  days  was  not 
equivalent  to  an  election,  since  the  two  political  parties.  Whig  and  Democrat,  were 
not  certain  of  either  having  a  majority  until  after  the  votes  were  counted. 
Cedar  and  Linn  were  both  democratic  by  small  majorities,  from  twenty-five  to 


fifty  votes  each,  while  Jones  was  claimed  by  the  whigs  by  about  the  same  nimiber. 
Other  complications  arose  from  the  fact  that  the  greater  part  of  the  whig  vote 
lay  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county  and  would  support  the  candidate  favorable 
to  Rochester.  The  democratic  majority  lived  in  the  portions  of  the  county  that 
would  favor  Tipton  as  the  seat  of  government  and  this  combination  of  affairs  made 
predictions  of  the  result  impossible. 

The  democratic  caucus  was  called  to  meet  at  Tipton  and  sixteen  delegates  were 
chosen  to  represent  the  county  in  a  convention  to  meet  at  Gilbert's,  in  Linn  County, 
and  these  delegates  were  all  known  to  be  friendly  to  Tipton  when  it  came  to  select- 
ing candidates  for  the  territorial  assembly.  This  move  was  important,  since  these 
delegates  would  select  their,  own  candidate  from  their  county  when  it  came  to 

This  Tipton  caucus  was  repudiated  by  the  remaining  portion  of  the  democratic 
party,  who  declared  it  had  been  called  without  due  notice  to  all  concerned  and  that 
the  county  seat  had  been  favored  in  the  call.  If  history  speaks  true,  it  was  a  one- 
sided affair  and  not  in  harmony  with  present  views  of  such  proceedings,  since 
Joseph  Crane  of  the  Rochester  party  was  chairman  of  the  democratic  executive 
committee,  and  he  in  ordinary  usage  would  call  a  caucus  if  one  were  to  be  called. 
The  county  committee  ignored  the  Tipton  caucus  and  proceedings  and  proceeded 
to  make  an  official  call  at  Rochester  of  the  democrats  of  the  county.  But  this 
result  was  evidently  not  unexpected  by  the  former  combine,  for  they  fell  upon  the 
meeting  at  the  river  town  and  taking  possession  of  the  oi^anization  simply  ratified 
the  action  of  the  former  caucus  at  the  county  seat.  Even  in  1841  methods  of 
meeting  emergencies  were  not  far  from  being  as  perfect  in  their  disregard  of 
l^;ality  as  they  are  on  occasicms  now. 

On  the  seventeenth  of  June,  1841,  the  district  convention  met  at  Gilbert's  as 
arranged,  and  one  of  Cedar  County's  delegates  failing  to  make  his  appearance 
Joseph  Crane  of  Rochester  was  appointed  in  his  stead.  Harvey  G.  Whitlock 
was  presented  by  the  Tipton  party  as  their  candidate  for  representative,  and  Mr. 
Crane  presented  the  name  of  Herman  Van  Antwerp  for  the  same  office.  The 
nomination  was  carried  by  strategy  on  the  part  of  Joseph  Crane.  He  seems  to 
have  propounded  a  question  to  Mr.  Whitlock®^  which  so  embarrassed  him  to 
answer  that  the  delegates  from  Linn  and  Jones  voted  in  a  body  for  Van  Antwerp, 
who  was  favorable  to  Rochester  in  the  capital  fight.  The  Cedar  County  delegation 
withdrew  in  disgust,  and  it  soon  became  evident  that  the  party  in  Cedar  was  badly 
split,  and  it  was  due  to  the  local  interest  in  the  county  seat  question. 

The  whigs  tocJc  advantage  of  this  division  in  the  democratic  party,  and  a  meet- 
ing was  called  in  Tipton  to  select  delegates  to  a  convention  of  the  district  to  meet 
at  Goudy's,  in  Linn  County.  To  preserve  harmony  in  the  county  the  delegates 
were  equally  divided  between  the  two  contending  towns  for  county  seat  honors. 
When  the  convention  was  called  to  order  at  Goudy's  the  Rochester  party  presented 
the  names  of  James  W.  Tallman  and  those  from  Tipton  territory  that  of  the  old 
sea  captain,  Samuel  P.  Higginson,  the  same  Higginson  who  furnishes  so  much  of 
the  early  county  seat  history,  and  to  whom  it  may  be  the  county  owes  more  than  it 
has  paid  so  far  as  history  goes.  Linn  and  Jones  delegates  were  posted  on  the  com- 
bination of  democratic  and  whig  votes  to  elect  a  candidate  favorable  to  Tipton,  and 


since  this  cond>ination  would  elect  a  whig  they  voted  for  Higginson.    This  gave 
him  the  nomination  on  the  first  ballot. 

The  election  of  August,  1841,  was  one  of  the  most  exciting  in  Cedar  County, 
that  is,  up  to  the  time  of  those  who  could  give  any  information  on  the  matter 
from  personal  experience.  Doubtless  many  just  as  exciting  have  been  held  since, 
but  they  could  not  l>e  oxnpared  with  those  days  by  any  one  of  authority.  The 
fight  was  not  political,  not  state  questions  of  vital  public  interest,  but  just  a  plain 
county  seat  matter,  whether  it  should  or  should  not  be  once  more  brought  before 
the  territorial  assembly  for  re-location.  This  was  the  prime  question  for  the 
future.  Voters  did  not  inquire  as  to  the  political  tendency  of  the  candidates,  but 
simply  whether  he  was  for  the  proper  town  for  the  county  capital.  When  votes 
were  counted  the  candidate  from  the  new  town  had  about  thirty  majority,  thus 
defeating  the  river  town  in  spite  of  all  the  efforts  of  her  sympathizers.  This 
settled  the  contest  for  a  time. 

A  different  phase  of  the  same  sectional  feeling  came  up  in  1842  when  it  came 
to  the  nomination  of  members  of  the  territorial  councilman.  An  aspiring  young 
lawyer,  William  R.  Rankin,  endeavored  to  preserve  harmony  in  the  ranks  of  the 
democratic  party  in  order  to  win  in  this  election.  He  was  a  candidate,  but  in  his 
efforts  to  secure  the  nomination  he  made  one  fatal  mistake  by  promising  the 
Rochester  people  that  he  would  support  them  impartially  if  elected,  not  considering 
himself  pledged  to  Tipton  in  any  contest. 

A  caucus  was  held  at  Antwerp,  which  place,  it  will  be  remembered,  was  an 
aspirant  for  county  seat  honors  in  1840.  With  a  number  of  influential  friends 
Rankin  attended  and  secured  a  majority  of  the  delegates.  The  convention  again 
met  at  Gilbert's,  in  Linn  County,  and  upon  Rankin's  suggestion  it  was  agreed  that 
the  councilman  should  come  from  Cedar  County  and  the  representatives  from 
Linn  and  Jones,  a  fine  move  politically  from  Rankin's  point  of  view.  There  were 
other  aspirants,  however,  and  from  this  source  came  Rankin's  defeat  and  more 
excitement  over  the  old  question.  One  O.  C.  Ward  took  advantage  of  a  very 
evident  condition  in  political  theory — namely,  that  the  member  of  the  council  of 
the  territory  was  from  the  whole  district  and  not  from  one  county  composing  it 
Obviously  the  entire  district  must  share  in  his  nomination,  and  this  evidently  met 
with  approval,  and  also  led  to  the  undoing  of  Mr.  Rankin,  whose  machine  plans 
were  defeated  by  a  simple  fact  in  the  common  sense  of  all  good  citizens.  Van 
Antwerp  was  then  put  in  nomination  and  thus  blasted  the  hopes  of  the  man  of 
legal  learning  and  political  skill. 

Now  came  the  sequel  to  the  matter.  The  candidate  was  the  known  supporter 
of  the  Rochester  party  and  this  would  never  do,  and  in  opposition  to  him  the  other 
party  placed  John  P.  Cook  in  nomination  for  the  same  office.  The  former  Bght 
was  on  and  judging  from  the  earlier  alig^nment  of  forces  only  one  thing  could  be 
the  result  of  the  election — Cook  would  win,  and  he  did.  Thus  ended  the  county 
seat  contest  in  Cedar  County  so  far  as  the  territory  had  to  ccmtrol  it.  The  majority 
of  the  people  took  this  as  final,  but  later^  many  years,  it  came  up  by  petition  for  a 
vote  on  the  matter  in  the  county.  In  1852  such  vote  was  taken  and  resulted  in 
another  and  final  defeat  for  the  old  seat  of  county  government.  Wm.  Green  and 
four  hundred  and  thirty-six  others  signed  the  petition  asking  for  thb  vote.     For 



*  ' 



,  * 

1  • 



•  t- 

'  *      • 





■A.     • 

■'    - 

f  uHB 




these  petitioners  W.  G.  Woodward  and  J.  Scott  Richman  appeared  as  attorneys 
before  the  county  court.  It  is  said  ''the  poll  books  of  this  election  are  lost  and 
along  with  them  the  hopes  of  Rochester  to  secure  the  county  seat."*^ 

An  item  of  some  interest  concerning  the  county  boundaries  is  reported  as  oc- 
curring in  1846-7.  A  scheme  proposed  by  some  persons  interested  in  speculation 
provided  for  a  division  of  the  counties  centering  on  the  northwest  and  the  creation 
of  a  new  county  from  portions  of  Cedar  and  the  others,  Jackson,  Jones,  Linn,  but 
when  proposed  to  the  legislature  it  was  so  unpopular  that  such  a  plan  was  never 
more  heard  from.  Had  such  a  proposition  been  successful  the  county  seat  con- 
troversy in  the  opinioa  of  those  then  living,  would  have  come  forward  again  for 
settlement.  In  i860  a  proposition  was  made  to  the  assembly  of  Iowa  to  create 
a  new  county  from  portions  of  Cedar,  Jones,  Clinton,  Scott  and  Jackson  Counties. 
The  scheme  was  proposed  by  the  proprietors  of  the  town  of  Wheatland  as  a 
financial  measure,  as  this  would  apparently  make  that  village  the  central  seat  of 
government  Opposition  was  very  strong  against  such  a  move  so  far  as  Cedar 
was  concerned,  and  it  met  the  fate  of  a  similar  proposition  from  another  source 
which  came  to  the  front  in  the  early  '40s,  about  the  time  of  the  county  seat  episode. 
This  measure  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  committee  on  new  counties,  of  which  Hon. 
J.  M.  Kent  happened  to  be  chairman,  and  the  petition  of  certain  citizens  of  Cedar 
and  Qinton  Counties  was  turned  down.*^* 

When  Cedar  County  came  into  existence  in  the  winter  of  1836-7  it  became 
necessary  to  fix  upon  some  seat  of  government.  This  at  first  seemed  to  be  a 
difficult  matter,  as  the  entire  population  at  that  time,  scattered  over  the  twenty- four  , 
miles  square  of  the  county  limits,  did  not  number  more  than  fifty,  and  no  village 
existed  within  its  botmdaries.  When  it  was  discovered  that  Rochester  was  in 
embryo  it  was  fixed  upon,  not  because  it  was  the  best  place,  but  because  it  was  the 
only  place.  This  was  the  only  point  on  the  river  at  that  time  above  Moscow  where 
a  ferry  had  been  established,  and  moreover  it  was  near  to  the  settlers  and  to  the 
only  post  oSict — ^Rock  Creek — then  in  this  county,  as  population  increased  in 
different  parts.  Red  Oak,  Linn,  Pioneer,  and  Posten's  Grove,  a  feeling  of  a  more 
central  location  b^;an  to  be  manifest. 

A  brief  description  of  the  towns  that  were  candidates  for  court  purposes  would 
convey  to  the  reader  an  idea  of  the  easy  method  of  making  a  town.  Most  of  them 
have  been  referred  to  in  connection  with  the  county  seat  contest,  but  it  is  worth 
while  to  note  that  these  towns  were  advertised  in  Boston  and  lots  sold  on  the 
strength  of  their  future  prospects.  Towns  on  paper  were  not  uncommon.®* 
Some  of  the  leaders  in  the  county  seat  contest  became  prominent  in  the  county's 
history  and  made  it  a  real  matter  of  personal  interest,  probably  far  beyond  any 
selfish  ambition.  They  could  be  ambitious;  they  could  be  sarcastic;  they  could 
make  bitter  flings  at  their  opponents  without  being  open  enemies,  and  from  what 
has  been  written  one  might  suppose  the  "county  seat  fight"  gave  opportunity  for 
some  amusement  and  even  hilarity  at  certain  times.  We  may  draw  such  conclu- 
sions from  the  printed  songs  made  in  "taking  off''  the  different  persons  chiefly 
instrumental  in  furthering  either  party — ^**Billy  Green,"  "Stephen  Tcmey,"  "Hast- 
ings," and  others  were  rhymed  by  John  P.  Cook.  Then  Joseph  Crane,  mentioned 
before,  and  from  his  history  evidently  a  more  than  ordinary  man,  put  John  P.  Cook 


into  a  burlesque  parody.  Judge  Tuthill  was  not  averse  to  assisting  in  the  literary 
eflForts  of  the  time,  and  prepared  a  song  for  the  Tipton  minstrels,  who  tried  to 
sing  the  county  seat  into  permanency.  Typical  of  eariy  contests  of  the  kind,  it  is 
now  settled  for  all  time,  and  no  one  recalls  the  past  since  it  is  far  removed  from 
most  of  those  now  concerned  in  the  enterprises  of  these  places.  Other  contests 
are  now  on,  many  of  them  more  vital  to  the  future  good  of  the  county  than  any 
county  seat  contest  could  ever  have  been.  Then  the  diversion  may  have  been 
agreeable,  but  now  it  would  not  be  a  question  of  far-away  assemblies  to  adjust, 
being  an  entirely  local  matter. 

It  was  in  July,  1841,  that  John  P.  Cook  was  made  the  agent  of  the  county 
commissioners  to  contract  for  the  first  court  house  to  be  erected  in  the  square  as 
set  aside  when  the  town  was  surveyed.  He  had  specific  instruction  as  to  the 
requirements  in  the  case.  It  was  to  be  erected  near  the  central  part  of  the  square 
and  should  not  cost  more  than  four  thousand  dollars.  The  commissioners  were 
not  to  be  bound  to  pay  out  any  money  from  the  treasury  arising  from  the  sale  of 
town  lots  that  would  interfere  with  the  payment  of  the  jail  contractor.  But  after 
the  jail  bill  was  paid  he  could  use  any  other  money  arising  from'  such  sale.  He  had 
full  power  to  supervise  and  construct  the  first  court  house  in  the  cotmty.  It  is 
rather  out  of  the  present  order  of  things  to  find  such  a  loan  as  is  menticmed  on 
page  fifty,  volume  two,  of  the  records  in  the  office  of  the  auditor.^®  Here  J.  K. 
Snyder  was  authorized  to  borrow  thirty-five  dollars  for  the  purchase  of  two  locks 
for  the  jail  and  to  pay  for  this  money  twenty  per  cent  per  annum.  Owing  to  scmie 
delay  the  contractor  was  given  one  more  year  in  which  to  complete  the  court  house. 
The  jail  was  accepted  and  bill  paid  in  July,  1843.  (This  jail  was  sold  at  auction 
in  1856.)  In  February,  1845,  ^he  board  of  commissioners  ordered  the  contractcM' 
on  the  new  court  house  to  cease  operations  and  to  give  possessicm  to  the  authori- 
ties, he  having  forfeited  his  right  to  proceed. 

The  clerk  was  instructed  to  advertise  for  bids  and  these  bids  to  be  in  the  price 
of  town  lots  at  their  minimum,  or  in  county  warrants,  the  cation  to  be  with  the 
board.  After  contract  was  made  the  time  was  once  more  extended  to  allow  for 
suitable  weather  to  plaster.  The  flues  for  the  building  were  described  in  detail 
by  the  commissioners.  There  were  to  be  three  and  they  were  to  beg^n  on  the 
second  floor  and  extend  four  feet  above  the  roof,  sixteen  by  twenty  inches  in  size, 
with  crocks  for  stove  pipe  in  the  several  rooms.  When  this  house  was  finished  it 
was  rented  to  many  users  besides  furnishing  the  offices  for  the  county  work.  The 
first  floor  was  given  to  the  district  court,  county  commissioners,  clerk  and  recorder. 
The  northwest  room  on  the  second  floor  was  rented  to  the  Mascxiic  lodge  for 
twenty  dollars  for  six  months,  payable  quarterly.  The  southwest  room  on  the 
same  floor  was  apportioned  to  the  treasurer,  surveyor,  sheriff,  and  to  be  used  as  a 
jury  room  when  court  was  in  session. 

The  court  house  square  was  once  ordered  fenced  in  a  superior  way.  The 
contractor  was  required  to  use  boards  ten  inches  wide  at  the  bottwn,  the  next  to 
be  eight,  the  third  six  inches  and  the  other  two  five  each.  There  was  a  cap  board 
six  inches  wide,  and  "good  and  sufficient  posts,"  these  to  be  not  further  than  six 
feet  apart,  each  post  to  be  faced  with  a  six-inch  plank. 

The  old  frame  court  house  built  in  1843  answered  the  purpose  of  court  sessions 
and  meetings  of  various  sorts  until  the  second  one,  or  as  some  might  say  third, 




If  we  count  the  old  log  jail  first  built,  was  contracted  for  in  1857  by  Judge  Spicer, 
then  county  judge.  This  old  frame  house  stood  in  the  center  of  the  square,  and 
was  built  of  native  timber,  the  frame,  flooring  and  lath  being  of  oak,  the  side  and 
finishing  lumber  of  walnut.    Afterwards  it  was  moved  to  the  west  side  of  the 

ffc      street,  across  from  the  square,  and  occupied  by  the  post  office  and  the  Advertiser, 

T2£      besides  other  tenants. 

ta^  Part  of  the  present  court  house  was  completed  in  i860,  and  cost  about  forty- 

15  i:"  five  thousand  dollars.  The  rear  portion  and  tower  as  it  now  appears  were  built 
later,  and  will  be  noticed  in  the  proper  connection. 

kz  The  jail  contracted  for  in  1857  was  built  at  an  expense,  according  to  record,  of. 

if';       $8,000. 

ai.  Plans  for  addition  to  the  court  house  begun  in  1857  and  completed  in  i860  were* 

iiec  agitated  in  the  summer  of  1889.     Mr.  M.  A.  Fulkerson  was  employed  by  the 

icr  county  supervisors  to  draw  plans  for  the  two-story  addition  and  safety  vaults,  as 

[gi  the  risk  to  county  records  was  one  of  the  chief  reasons  for  reconstruction  of  the 

fer  building. 

H^  The  question  for  the  erection  of  an  addition  to  the  court  house  was  submitted 

^  to  a  vote  at  the  November  election  in  1887,  the  cost  to  be  ten  thousand  dollars.''^ 
s:  This  was  submitted  again  in  1889  for  the  sum  of  twelve  thousand  dollars,  and  this 
!f'  time  the  measure  carried.  This  may  have  been  due  to  the  long  preamble  of 
explanation  given  by  the  Board  as  to  the  necessity  for  the  addition  to  the  old 
building.  Adler  and  Smith  had  the  contract  and  it  was  completed  in  1890,  being 
accepted  by  the  county  authorities  in  November  of  that  year.'^^  The  old  jail 
built  in  the  fifties  had  served  its  day  as  early  as  1868,  according  to  the  records,  for 
it  was  proposed  then  to  make  a  new  one.''* 

This  change  did  not  materialize  until  1892.  Perhaps  this  was  due  to  the  heavy 
expenses  of  the  county  for  bridges  and  court  house  and  the  great  number  of 
demands  for  funds.  At  least,  the  contract  was  not  let  until  the  year  above  men- 
ticMied,  when  plans  were  submitted  in  January .''s  The  new  jail  was  completed  in 
November  of  1892  and  accepted  by  the  Board.  There  is  no  record  on  the  books  of 
the  minutes  on  the  page  of  acceptance  as  to  the  cost  of  the  new  jail. 

It  was  ordered  at  this  time  to  rent  or  sell  the  old  jail. 

It  may  be  of  interest  in  this  connection  to  note  that  the  original  log  jail  was 
sold  for  fire  wood,  and  one  of  the  inducements  for  its  purchase  was  the  large 
amount  of  material  in  the  structure — it  being  three  logs  thick.  Wells  Spicer 
let  the  contract  for  this  old  one,  that  is,  the  last  but  one,  in  1856.'^* 

The  amount  paid  Chas.  Swetland  for  the  fence  he  erected  or  for  which  he  fur- 
nished material  about  the  square  is  given  as  $176.67.''' 

Shortly  after  the  close  of  the  war  the  question  of  a  place  to  care  for  the  poor 
of  the  county  was  under  discussion.  One  of  the  reasons  given  then  was  the 
natural  result  of  the  war  would  be  the  increase  in  the  necessity  for  alms.  This 
question  was  submitted  to  a  vote  in  1870.''® 

Bonds  were  issued  in  the  sum  of  ten  thousand  dollars  to  pay  for  the  farm 
then  voted.  The  first  buildings  were  erected  in  1871.  In  1885  the  Board  of 
Supervisors  adopted  set  rules  for  the  governing  of  the  inmates  and  employes  of 
the  poor  farm. 


•t ' 


Considerable  difficulty  has  been  experienced  in  the  county  since  the  first  large 
bridge  building  was  undertaken.  At  the  close  of  the  war  a  bridge  was  urged  to 
be  constructed  across  the  Wapsie  since  the  trade  between  these  districts  east  and 
west  demanded  it.  A  bridge  c(xnmission  was  appointed  in  1865  ^^  make  some 
investigations  as  to  the  feasibility  of  certain  sites  for  bridging  the  Cedar  River. 
A  deal  of  rivalry  was  manifested  in  the  location  of  the  first  bridge  across  the 
Cedar.  The  first  commission  was  composed  of  Rigby,  Carey,  and  Chase,  from 
the  townships  of  Red  Oak,  Inland,  and  Springdale,  respectively.  Gray's  Ford 
and  Cedar  Bluffs,  then  Washington,  or  Gower's  Ferry  were  rivals  for  this  bridge 
and  the  proposals  were  first  made  to  construct  these  partly  by  subscription  and 
partly  by  county  tax.  The  matter  was  put  to  a  vote,  the  south  side  winning,  but 
this  did  not  result  in  a  bridge,  for  the  record  shows  that  no  bridge  was  built  until 
the  one  at  Cedar  Bluffs  was  constructed  in  1877.  The  story  of  this  bridge  and  the 
events  leading  up  to  its  completion  were  full  of  difficulties  to  the  county  Board  of 
Supervisors,  who  had  succeeded  the  county  judge  in  authority  in  this  county. 

Robert  Cower  once  petitioned  for  the  privilege  of  erecting  a  toll  bridge  at  the 
crossing  of  Gower's  Ferry  and  the  County  Judge  (1852)  granted  the  prayer  of 
the  petition  after  it  was  shown  that  the  company  were  able  to  maintain  such  a 
structure,  and  Ae  rates  of  toll  were  fixed  in  the  answer  to  the  request  for  license. 
The  rig^t  was  extended  to  the  company  for  ten  years  and  they  were  in  no  way 
allowed  to  obstruct  the  navigation  of  the  Cedar  River. 

The  grant  was  never  used  as  the  ferry  continued*  to  run  until  the  present,  or 
1877,  bridge  was  built.  Later,' Robert  Gower  became  a  member  of  the  Board  and 
on  one  occasion  introduced  a  resolution  to  carry  out  the  idea  expressed  in  the 
previous  petition  of  building  two  toll  bridges,  one  across  the  Wapsie  and  one 
across  the  Cedar,  the  county  to  pay  one-half  the  cost. 

The  vote  mentioned  above  was  taken,  resulting  in  the  defeat  of  the  Gower 
location,  and  this  continued  to  be  the  verdict  until  both  propositions  for  a  bridge 
across  the  Cedar  had  been  voted  down  by  the  ones  to  be  accommodated  or  those 
who  had  the  taxes  to  pay.  This  was  in  October,  1867,  ten  years  before  any  bridge 
was  built. 

A  new  proposition  came  up  in  1870,  when  a  committee  reported  favorably 
on  the  site  in  the  w6stem  part  of  the  county.  When  the  stock  was  selling,  of 
which  the  county  was  to  take  half,  the  legal  opinion  was  given  that  the  county  had 
no  authority  to  do  such  things  as  carry  stock  in  this  way.  Nothing  more  was  done 
until  1874,  when  the  Gray's  Ford  bridge  was  voted  down.''^ 

The  first  record  of  the  county  bridge  building  in  a  direct  contract  appears  in 
1848,  when  the  board  agreed  to  pay  thirty  dollars  to  the  builder  of  a  bridge  across 
Rock  Creek,  near  the  house  of  Wm.  Green,  provided  the  work  was  done  in  an 
acceptable  manner. 

In  1868  the  first  bridge  was  placed  across  the  Wapsipinicon  at  Massillon,  which 
was  built  by  the  citizens  and  the  county  at  an  expense  of  some  four  thousand 
dollars.  The  record  shows  four  other  smaller  bridges  built  in  1877  at  an  expense 
of  from  three  hundred  and  seventy  to  one  thousand  four  hundred  dollars.'^^ 

In  the  centennial  year,  1876,  a  petition  signed  by  621  voters  from  the  region  to 
be  benefited  was  presented  to  the  Board  for  an  appropriation  of  fifteen  thousand 
dollars  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  a  bridge  at  Cedar  Bluffs.    The  Board  at  this 


time  to<*  favorable  action  so  far  as  to  make  the  preliminary  examination  of  the 
cost  of  such  a  bridge  and  the  possibility  of  its  construction.  O.  H.  Helmer,  C.  P. 
Sheldon,  and  H.  G.  Coe  were  appointed  a  committee  to  examine  the  river  at  this 
point  and  to  report.  In  June  of  this  same  year  another  move  was  made  by  those 
who  favored  the  bridge  at  Gray's  Ford,  and  double  the  number  of  names  signed  to 
the  first  petition  was  secured  in  its  favor.  To  this  the  Board  turned  a  deaf  ear, 
as  no  record  is  made  of  action  upon  it  and  their  attenticfn  to  it  was  urged  by  good 
men,  E.  A.  Gray,  Thomas  James,  Elwood  Macy,  D.  Morrison,  and  H.  C.  Gill,  and 
others  of  the  petitioners. 

The  committee  appointed  to  report  on  the  bridge  site  did  so  at  the  June  meet- 
ing and  their  report  was  adopted,  which  recommended  the  Cedar  Bluffs  proposi- 
tion. Supervisor  Coe  then  offered  the  following,  and  it  is  quoted  verbatim  since 
it  is  the  first  definite  action  binding  the  county  to  do  something  toward  the  actual 
construction : 

Whereas,  believing  that  two  bridges  over  the  Cedar  River,  in  this  coimty,  will 
best  serve  the  interests  of  the  citizens,  and  also  believing  that  a  place  called  Cedar 
Bluffs,  or  Gower's  Ferry,  furnishes  a  suitable  site  for  such  bridge ;  therefore 

Resolved,  that  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  before  the  final  adjournment  of  this 
session,  take  the  necessary  measures  for  the  building  of  a  bridge  at  the  above 
named  point;  proznded,  that  there  is  sufficient  guaranty  given  to  the  Board  of 
Supervisors  that  the  west  abutment  and  the  approaches  to  such  bridge  shall  be 
built  without  expense  to  the  county,  and  built  according  to  the  plans  and  specifica-* 
tions  approved  by  this  Board. 

On  the  call  of  the  yeas  and  nays  the  vote  stood  three  to  two  for  the  resolution, 
Hedges  and  Smith  voting  nay. 

Robert  Gower  died  about  this  time ;  he  did  not  succeed  during  his  life  time  in 
securing  the  object  he  so  long  sought  for,  but  his  son  Sewall  presented  the  needed 
guaranty  and  it  was  accepted.  It  agreed  to  pay  twelve  hundred  dollars  before 
the  first  of  April,  1877,  to  cover  the  cost  of  the  required  portions  of  the  bridge 
demanded  in  the  resolutions  of  the  Board.  The  signers  of  this  agreement  were 
Sewall  Gower,  S.  E.  Gunsolus,  and  Ed.  Seitzinger. 

The  Auditor  of  the  county  was  instructed  to  advertise  for  bids  for  one  month 
and  the  contract  was  let  in  July,  1876.'^® 

The  entire  cost  of  this  bridge  was  finally  about  twenty-one  thousand  dollars. 
It  was  tested  by  the  Board  in  January,  1877,  ^md  accepted.  About  this  time  other 
projects  were  on  foot  to  make  the  second  bridge  which  was  erected  at  Rochester. 
A  diagram  of  the  structure  and  each  item  in  the  requirements  of  the  Cedar  Bluffs 
bridge  are  posted  in  the  minute  book  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  of  1877.®^ 

Petitions  were  presented  to  the  board  for  a  bridge  at  Rochester  in  1876.  In 
the  beginning  seven  hundred  names  were  attached  and  later  on  in  1878  enough 
more  were  added  to  bring  the  total  up  to  more  than  one  thousand.®^  These  ques- 
tions were  postponed  from  session  to  session  of  the  board  until  a  committee  was 
finally  ai)pointed  to  make  an  inspection  of  the  Ivanhoe  bridge  in  Linn  County  to 
find  out  something  of  its  cost.    This  was  in  October  of  1878.®^ 

At  the  June  term  of  the  Board  in  1879  the  clerk  makes  the  following  record : 
"The  Cedar  River  bridge  question  was  revived  and  then  genily  laid  over  until  the 
September  term."    River  soundings  had  been  ordered  and  been  reported  before 


this.  Resolutions  were  proposed  to  build  at  Gray's  Ford  at  a  cost  of  twenty-five 
thousand  dollars  and  when  votes  were  counted  they  were  lost.  The  same  session 
the  proposal  was  made  for  the  same  amount  to  build  at  Rochester  and  it  carried. 
At  the  November  term  the  contract  was  let  for  the  bridge  now  crossing  the  rivei* 
at  that  point.®*  The  Wrought  Iron  Bridge  Co.  of  Canton,  Ohio,  secured  the  work. 
The  citizens  of  the  vicinity  of  Rochester  had  subscribed  one  thousand  dollars  for 
the  bridge,  and  the  subscription  lists  were  ordered  to  be  transferred  to  the  company 
for  collection  and  that  without  recourse. 

The  last  license  issued  to  anyone  for  a  ferry  at  Rochester  was  given  on  the 
condition  that  the  county  might  at  any  time  construct  a  bridge.  Before  locating 
the  bridge  at  Rochester  the  Board  had  visited  the  point  for  which  petitions  had 
been  received,  and  a  meeting  was  held  at  Rochester  to  discuss  the  matter.  Further 
consideration  was  postponed  until  the  time  as  noted. 

A  bridge  committee  to  supervise  the  construction  of  all  bridges  was  appointed 
in  1880  and  first  consisted  of  C.  Orcutt,  J.  W.  Bell,  and  J.  Werling.  The  entire 
board  visited  the  bridge  then  in  process  of  erection  and  approved  the  substructure 
in  April,  1880.    It  was  paid  for  at  the  June  session. 

The  board  met  at  Rochester  to  test  the  new  bridge  in  July,  1880,  and  on  account 
of  the  absence  of  the  engineer  in  charge  it  was  not  accepted  and  paid  for  until  his 
report  was  made  at  a  later  date. 

From  this  time  on  the  question  of  building  bridges  did  not  arouse  so  much 
interest,  for  the  building  of  the  Cedar  Valley  structure  was  done  very  moderately 
as  ordinary  business  of  the  county.  A  committee  was  appointed  in  1887  consisting 
of  Wm.  Dean,  Aikens  and  Hall.    The  contract  was  let  the  same  year.®* 

The  system  of  governing  a  county  by  commissioners  originated  in  Virginia. 
The  government  of  any  state  or  territory  comes  from  the  previous  custom  of  its 
population,  and  in  the  case  of  our  own  state  we  have  the  effects  of  two  kinds  of 
early  training  in  the  combination  of  county  and  township  government.  Commis- 
sioners governed  this  county  frcmi  its  beginning  in  1838  to  1851.  It  would  be 
very  interesting  and  profitable  to  trace  the  peculation  of  this  county  to  the  point 
where  we  could  determine  the  influences  that  preponderated  in  the  county  govern- 
ment. Judging  from  the  first  settlers  who  came  from  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  and 
New  York  in  a  large  majority,  we  can  see  that  they  were  more  or  less  familiar 
with  the  town  and  county  government.  Those  who  came  from  Virginia  or  Ken- 
tucky had  little  knowledge  of  the  township  plan  and  one  may  see  in  certain  por- 
tions of  our  state,  where  such  persons  came  in  larger  numbers,  the  opposition  to 
control  by  townships.  In  1851  a  county  court  was  created.®*^  The  act  creating 
the  court  gave  the  county  judge  jurisdiction  in  probate  affairs  and  gave  him  the 
powers  formerly  held  by  the  county  commissioners.  It  left  nothing  for  commis- 
sioners to  do.  The  term  court  in  this  sense  seems  to  relate  to  the  powers  of  a 
legislative  body,  which  is  the  name  used  in  such  connection  in  New  England,  but 
it  does  not  consist  of  one-man  power. 

On  July  4,  i860,  a  law  went  into  effect  which  provided  for  the  election  of  one 
supervisor  from  each  civil  township.  When  assembled  at  the  county  seat  for 
county  business  this  body  became  known  as  the  "Board  of  Supervisors."  This  was 
based  upon  the  township  system  which  had  its  origin  in  New  England,  com- 
mencing in  1635.    The  town  meeting,  which  is  called  in  the  township  each  year. 



'.    *  \ » 

''.  K 

1  *  • 






fvi  M>AriON8         1 




is  the  <Mily  remaining  form  of  pure  democratic  government  left  us.  This  provided 
for  local  government  and  the  supervisors  came  to  represent  the  township  in  the 
county  board  as  then  established.  Thus  we  have  represented  in  our  permanent 
form  of  government  the  two  types  of  organization— county  and  township  com- 
bined. A  law  was  passed  in  1871  providing  for  a  change  in  the  number  of  super- 
visors, allowing  but  three  instead  of  one  from  each  township.®^  From  the  time 
this  law  went  into  effect  until  the  election  of  1873  county  officers  were  under  the 
control  of  three  supervisors  with  county  auditor  as  clerk.  The  act  creating  three 
members  of  the  county  board  provided  that  on  petition  of  one-fourth  of  the 
electoVs  the  question  of  increasing  the  membership  to  five  or  seven  should  be 
submitted  to  the  voters  of  the  county.  Such  a  vote  was  taken  in  1873  and  the 
result  was  in  favor  of  increasing  the  nimiber  to  five  which  number  has  not  been 
disturbed  by  increase  or  decrease  up  to  the  present  time. 


The  proceedings  of  the  first  agricultural  society  held  in  Cedar  County  are  pub- 
Ushed  in  the  Advertiser  for  November  12,  1853,  the  very  first  issue  of  that  paper, 
under  the  heading  of  "The  Cedar  Cotmty  News-Letter." . 

This  meeting,  the  very  first,  was  held  on  October  11,  1853,  and  was  called  to 
order  by  the  president,  J.  W.  Cattell.  The  officers  for  the  ensuing  year  elected  at 
this  meeting  were :  President,  J.  W.  Cattell ;  Vice  Pifesident,  T.  James ;  Secretary, 
H.  C.  Pratt ;  Treasurer,  S.  P.  Daniels.  Executive  (^ontmittee :  Iowa  Township, 
G.  P.  Wood;  Pioneer  Township,  Prior  Scott;  Sprihgdale  Township,  M.  V.  Butler; 
Rochester  Township,  J.  D.  Walker;  Polk  Township,  Ezra  Morton. 

A  Board  of  Directors  was  empowered  "to  purchase  a  lot  of  land,  from  five  to 
ten  acres,  to  be  fenced  and  fitted  tip  as  a  fair  ground  in  order  that  the  society* 
may  have  a  permanent  place  for  holding  its  fairs."  S.  S.  Daniels  was  secretary  of 
this  meeting. 

The  premium  list  is  interesting  and  somewhat  out  of  the  ordinary  when  com- 
pared to  one  of  later  date.  It  is  stated  that  there  was  some  apprehension  as  to  the 
success  of  this  undertaking  since  lack  of  competition  would  destroy  interest. 
When  the  eventful  days  arrived  the  fears  soon  passed,  for  the  farmer's  wealth 
b^^an  to  come  in.  The  vegetable  products  are  truly  marvelous.  It  is  said  that 
the  g^eat  squash  weighing  148  pounds  really  "took  the  rag  off  the  bush."  In  the 
manufacturing  department  several  specimens  of  weaving  are  mentioned  that 
would  have  done  credit  to  a  Paisley  weaver — coverlets  and  carpets  were  there  that 
would  rival  the  imported  article. 

The  premium  list  includes  some  names  familiar  to  all  the  county  from  that 
time  and  before.  On  butter  and  cheese  the  awarding  committee  included  Mr. 
Cattell,  Mrs.  James  and  Mrs.  Biseley. 

M.  Bruder  secured  the  premitmi  for  the  best  display  of  apples,  S.  S.  Daniels 
for  fowls. 

The  reputation  of  this  county  for  horses  seems  established  even  at  that  early 
time.  The  names  of  W.  W.  Aldrich,  Prior  Scott,  J.  Stout,  George  Carl  and  H.  C. 
Horn  appear  among  premivun  winners.  The  best  yoke  of  oxen  came  from  the 
farm  of  John  Hubcr,  best  three-year-old  steers,  Prior  Scott.  In  domestic  and 
manufactured  articles  we  find  the  greatest  interest. 


Mrs.  James,  Mrs.  Moffett  and  Mrs.  Huber  were  the  awarding  committee. 
Best  quilt,  Mrs.  Hay ;  woolen  yam,  Mrs.  Goodrich ;  shawl,  Mrs.  Paton ;  rug,  Mrs. 
Dr.  Hall ;  woolen  knit  socks,  Mrs.  Prior  Scott ;  best  pair  woc^en  sheets,  Mrs.  Hall; 
roll  stair  carpeting,  same ;  twenty-five  yards  of  rag  carpet,  Mrs.  A.  Hdtslander. 

In  farm  products  not  mentioned  some  surprising  yields  are  mentioned :  Best 
acre  of  com  (25  acres,  one  hundred  eleven  bushels  per  acre),  H.  C.  Horn,  (pre- 
mium three  dollars)  ;  second  best  com  (30  acres,  ninety-six  bushels  to  the  acre),  T. 

In  February,  1854,  the  committee  appointed  to  secure  grounds  for  the  society 
were  urged  by  the  president,  Cattell,  to  set  to  woric  at  once  to  secure  subscriptions. 
In  a  column  article  he  sets  forth  the  reasons  for  this  organization.  He  states, 
prophetically,  that  land  will  be  increasing  in  value  and  success  is  impossible  unless 
the  ground  is  owned  and  kept  in  readiness.  The  mechanic  is  urged  to  compete 
especially  in  the  articles  used  in  agricultural  pursuits. 

The  president  continued  the  agitation  in  succeeding  numbers  of  the  paper 
urging  the  county  to  use  all  diligence  in  carrying  out  his  recommendations. 
The  premium  list  should  be  completed  in  June  in  order  to  give  the  farmers  a  good 
chance  to  compete.  He  says :  "I  never  like  to  put  my  hand  to  a  work  and  have  it 
drag  or  fail,  this  is  my  excuse  for  so  often  urging  this."  •^ 

July  15,  1854,  the  regular  premium  list  for  the  fair,  October  10  and  11,  was 
published  and  is  much  more  complete  than  in  the  previous  year.  This  list  in- 
cludes among  manufactured  articles  such  things  as  best  farm  wagon  made  within 
the  county,  as  all  articles  must  be  that  compete.  The  best  buggy,  pleasure  carriage, 
breaking  plow,  double  and  single  plow,  shovel  plow,  roller,  harrow,  ox  yoke,  farm 
hamess,  saddle,  shoe  and  boot  making,  cooperage,  set  of  chairs,  lot  of  brooms, 
best  specimen  of  plowing,  best  soap,  and  candles.  A  special  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  award  premiums  on  all  meritorious  articles  exhibited  but  not  enumer- 
ated in  the  list.  Tickets  at  ten  cents  each,  admitting  one  person,  may  be  procured 
at  the  stores  of  Friend  &  Culbertson,  Shaw  &  Bagley,  and  Hammond  &  Co. 

An  editorial  comment  on  this  fair  states  that  the  exhibit  was  good  but  nothing 
more  remarkable  than  the  apples  showing  the  adaptibility  of  Iowa  soil  to  that 
product.  The  patent  loom  exhiUted  by  Mr.  Rathbun  of  Pioneer  was  an  article 
worthy  of  all  commendation,  simple  of  construction  and  could  be  made  at  very 
small  expense.  It  would  weave  twenty  yards  of  plain  cloth  per  day.  Mr.  Ham- 
mond, the  tinner,  had  on  exhibition  the  patent  "Block  Warrior"  stove  and  took  the 

In  October,  1859,  a  county  fair  was  held  at  Springdale.  A  complete  premium 
list  was  published  which  compares  favorably  with  those  of  the  previous  years. 
Exhibitors  were  present  from  distant  parts  of  the  county.  At  that  time  Lawrie 
Tatum  was  the  secretary. 

In  September,  i860,  the  annual  fair  of  the  county  was  held  at  Springdale. 
The  table  for  holding  the  fruit  and  vegetables  was  well  protected  by  a  shed  24x84 
feet,  which  was  covered  with  heavy  muslin  and  enclosed  by  the  same  kind  of 
material  (a  cloth  building).  Within  this  enclosure  the  managers  made  ample 
provision  for  seats.  All  the  males,  except  the  members  and  small  boys,  were  re- 
quired to  pay  a  fee  of  fifteen  cents. 


There  were  352  entries  made  of  articles  for  exhibition.  Cattle  were  well  rep- 
resented by  the  Durhams  and  grades  and  a  few  Devons  were  on  exhibition.  A 
very  good  lot  of  hogs  were  shown,  prominent  among  them  being  the  Chester 
Whites  and  Magees.  *'Some  of  our  citizens  seem  determined  to  have  a  better 
breed  of  hogs  than  the  'prairie  wind  splitters/  though  there  are  enough  of  the. 
latter  variety  in  the  county  yet  td  keep  up  the  stock  if  any  prefer  them."  ®® 

Sixty-four  horses  were  entered  for  exhibition  and  a  good  sized  lot  enclosed 
with  a  rope  was  prepared  for  their  accommodation. 

Under  the  head  of  horticulture  there  were  one  hundred  twenty-seven  entries^ 
G.  P.  Wood,  the  nurseryman  at  Springdale,  showing  twenty-nine  varieties  of 
apples.  The  potato  exhibit  was  especially  fine,  the  ''Prince  Albert"  taking  the 
first  premium.  There  were  sixty-five  entries  imder  the  head  of  "Domestic  Manu- 
factures," fifteen  of  which  were  for  molasses.  The  quality  of  the  latter  product  is 
mentioned  as  superior  to  the  southern  product  in  every  sense.  A  fair  specimen 
of  dry  sugar  was  shown  by  J.  H.  Painter.  The  process  was  explained  and  was 
practical  enough  if  followed. 

Several  lots  of  honey  in  which  the  sectional  hive  seems  first  to  have  been  shown 
and  described.  This  effect  was  produced  by  tacking  some  three  cornered  pieces  to 
the  upper  side  of  the  box  to  which  the  comb  was  attached.  In  the  mechanical 
department  a  broadcast  seeder  made  by  Mr.  Springstead  of  Onion  Grove  attracted 
much  attention.  It  appeared  to  do  the  work  evenly  and  so  near  the  ground  that 
the  prairie  wind  could  have  very  little  effect  upon  it. 

A  family  near  by  furnished  meals  to  the  hungry  and  several  eating  "shanties" 
were  on  the  premises.  The  attendance  was  estimated  as  high  as  two  thousand 
and  the  managers  were  more  than  ever  confirmed  in  their  opinion  that  the  country 
is  the  place  for  a  fair,  not  near  any  town  where  attention  can  be  divided.®^ 

The  state  organization  urged  a  tmion  of  all  societies  for  the  promotion  of  agri- 
cultural interests  and  this  led  to  the  one  county  fair  in  later  years.  District  fairs 
were  not  discontinued  at  once  for  other  parts  of  the  county  were  represented  be- 
fore the  county  seat  became  the  center  of  the  annual  exhibition. 

The  present  secretary,  C.  F.  Simmermaker,  has  furnished  the  following : 

A  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Cedar  County,  held  in  the  Court  House  in  Tipton, 
November  9,  1861,  marks  the  next  step  in  the  agricultural  organizations  in  the 
county.  At  this  meeting  J.  K.  Snyder  was  made  chairman  and  F.  Butterfield  sec- 
retary. The  object  of  the  meeting  was  to  organize  The  Cedar  County  Agricultural 
Association,  and  after  discussing  the  matter,  the  following  committee  was  named 
to  draft  Articles  of  Incorporation  and  Constitution  and  By-Laws :  Geo.  B.  Sar- 
gent, Chairman ;  Joseph  H.  Leech,  Mathew  Springsteed,  H.  N.  Washbume,  and 
Carlisle  Curtis.  The  following  committee  was  appointed  to  select  grounds  for 
the  association :  J.  A.  Huber,  H.  N.  Washburne,  Moses  Bunker,  John  W.  Brown, 
and  Henry  Sherwood. 

The  sectMid  meeting  was  held  November  25,  1861,  when  the  Articles  of  Incor- 
poration and  By-Laws  were  adopted.  The  incorporators  were:  Wm.  Fraseur, 
Robert  McKee,  W.  W.  Aldrich,  Wm.  R.  Edge,  Wm.  M.  Knott,  Jesse  Bradshaw, 
H.  C.  Piatt,  C.  P.  Sheldon,  J.  K.  Snyder,  Henry  Sherwood,  A.  Holtslander,  Geo. 
B.  Sargent,  M.  Springsteed,  Myron  Qeason,  Jas.  Jennings,  Harvey  Leech  and 
H.  N.  Washbume.    The  first  crfficers  of  the  society  were :  Geo.  B.  Sargent,  Pres- 


ident ;  M.  Springsteed,  Vice  Pres. ;  A.  Hdtslander,  Secretary ;  Joseph  K  Snyder, 
Treasurer;  Directors  were  chosen,  one  from  each  township  in  the  county. 

A  third  meeting  was  held  Jan.  22,  1862.  A  proposition  of  William  H.  Tuthill, 
to  lease  the  society  twenty  acres  of  ground  for  five  years,  on  which  to  locate  the 
fair  grounds,  the  first  year  free  and  at  $12.50  per  annimi  thereafter,  was  accepted. 
The  first  fair  was  held  early  in  September,  1862.  The  displays  were  not  extensive, 
but  were  the  best  possible  to  be  secured  at  that  early  day.  The  fair  was  held  on 
the  grounds  east  of  Tipton  leased  of  Mr.  Tuthill.  The  first  address  was  delivered 
by  Hon.  Wells  Spicer.  Annual  fairs  were  held  on  these  grounds  until  the  fall  of 
1866,  when  the  Society  purchased  forty-two  acres  of  ground  of  J.  W.  Kynett; 
these  grounds  are  located  west  of  the  dty  and  are  the  grounds  owned  by  the 
present  Cedar  County  Fair  Association,  and  were  purchased  from  Mr.  Kynett, 
April  16,  1866,  for  $1,596.  The  society  contracted  debts  to  the  extent  that  they 
were  obliged  to  reorganize,  and  in  accordance  a  meeting  was  held  in  the  Court 
House  at  Tipton,  Dec.  27,  1871,  when  the  old  Cedar  County  Fair  Association  was 
formed.  John  C.  Lyle  was  called  to  the  chair  and  R.  W.  Starr  was  Secretary. 
Articles  of  Incorporation  and  By-Laws  were  adopted  at  this  meeting.  The  first 
ofiicers  were:  H.  C.  Piatt,  President;  J.  C.  Lyle,  Vice  President;  W.  L.  Mc- 
Croskey,  Secretary ;  Geo-  E.  Beatty,  Treasurer.  The  first  annual  meeting  of  the 
association  was  held  the  second  week  in  September,  and  the  fair  was  essentially  a 
success.  Meetings  were  held  each  year  of  1873,  1874,  1875  ^uid  1876,  the  asso- 
ciation slowly  gaining  grounds  all  the  time,  when  in  1877,  the  banner  fair  was 
held.  The  receipts  that  year  were  $1,562  and  the  expenditures  were  $1,416.  The 
balance  in  the  hands  of  the  Treasurer,  $145.  The  amotmt  of  state  allowance  this 
year  was  $200,  making  a  balance  of  $345.  The  officers  that  year  were :  H.  W. 
Bailey,  President ;  Wm.  McNeal,  Vice  President ;  S.  V.  Yates,  Secretary ;  W.  L. 
McCroskey,  Treasurer.  Directors,  Moses  Bunker,  Jas.  H.  Fulwider,  Chas.  Ham- 
mond, Wm.  M.  Knott,  Alex  Buchanan,  Henry  Walters,  J.  H.  Gunsolus,  J.  T. 
Hudelson,  Wm.  McNeal  and  N.  C.  Millhouse.  The  fair  was  a  success  for  several 
years  when  the  management  allowed  the  moral  tone  of  the  fair  to  go  to  the  bad, 
and  saloons  and  gambling  were  the  leading  features  of  the  fair,  the  association 
became  involved,  the  officers  decided  that  a  fair  would  not  pay  at  Tipton  and  in 
accordance  the  last  meeting  of  the  old  Cedar  County  Fair  Association  was  held 
during  the  fall  of  1888,  and  from  that  date  until  the  fall  of  1891,  Tipton  was 
without  a  fair.  The  grounds,  however,  were  owned  by  the  association  xmtil  May 
2,  1 891,  when  they  were  sold  to  the  Tipton  Fair  Association  for  $2,800,  with  the 
understanding  that  a  fair  was  to  be  reorganized.  At  this  time  the  retiring  officers 
of  the  Cedar  County  Fair  Association  were,  D.  T.  Hedges,  President ;  H.  L.  Huber, 
Secretary.  Directors,  S.  R.  Neiman,  W.  W.  Aldrich,  J.  C.  Reichert,  R.  Swartz- 
lender  and  J.  H.  Gunsolus. 

The  Tipton  Fair  Association  was  organized  during  the  year  of  1891,  with 
forty-two  stockholders.  The  first  officers  were :  Harm  Piatt,  President ;  Geo.  E. 
Beatty,  Vice  President;  W.  E.  Elijah,  Treasurer,  and  John  T.  Moffit,  Secretary. 
The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  Sept.  i,  2,  3  and  4, 1891,  and  was  a  great  success 
as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  report  made  by  Secretary  Moffit  at  the  annual 
meeting  Dec.  5,  1901 : 


Cash  paid  for  grotuids $2,800.00 

Paid  for  permanent  improvements,  buildings,  $803.40 ;  drill- 
ing well,  $302.50;  lumber,  $16843  5  work  on  track,  $100 ; 

hardware,  posts  and  labor,  etc.,  $210.83  >  total 1492.96 

Expenditures  of  fair 2,706.68 

Total  expenditures $7,099.64 

The  receipts  were : 

42  shares  of  stock $4,200.00 

Receipts  from  fair 3,506.15 

Track  and  pasture  receipts 101.00 

Total  receipts ; $7,807.15 

Net  profits  from  fair,  $808.51. 

The  same  officers  had  charge  of  the  1892  Fair,  which  was  held  the  first  week  in 
September.  It  was  during  this  year  that  the  Tipton  Driving  Park  Association  was 
organized.  This  society  was  in  charge  of  the  same  officers  as  the  fair  association, 
but  was  conducted  independently,  the  meetings  being  held  during  the  month  of 
October.  Large  purses  were  put  up,  and  strings  of  fast  horses  were  here,  the  fast- 
est that  ever  went  over  the  Tipton  track.  These  fall  meetings  were  continued 
during  the  years  of  1893  and  1894,  when  they  were  called  oflf,  being  a  failure 
financially.  It  was  during  the  early  history  of  the  Tipton  Fair  Association  that 
the  present  fioral  hall  was  erected,  cattle  and  horse  stalls  were  built  as  well  as 
stock  pens,  and  in  these  days  the  fair  was  a  great  success  as  an  entertainment  as 
well  as  financially.  Much  credit  for  the  great  success  of  the  fair  should  be  given 
Secretary  Moffitt,  for  his  labors,  as  the  success  of  any  fair  depends  largely  on  the 
secretary.  Mr.  Moffitt  was  Secretary  four  years,  when  he  was  elected  as  President. 
The  association  held  eighteen  annual  meetings,  the  last  ones,  however,  were  not  a 
success  from  a  financial  standpoint;  there  was  much  dissatisfaction  among  the 
stockholders  and  those  interested  in  the  fair ;  the  outside  people  failed  to  give  the 
fair  the  support  they  should ;  the  attendance  was  not  as  large  as  in  former  years 
and  the  society  contracted  debts  to  the  extent  that  they  were  compelled  to  sell  the 
grounds.  The  last  meeting  was  held  Sept.  8,  9  and  10,  1908.  The  fair  was  a  suc- 
cess as  an  entertainment,  but  not  in  dollars  and  cents,  hence  a  meeting  was  called 
early  in  December,  to  see  if  the  grounds  could  be  sold  to  a  new  association.  At 
this  meeting  a  committee  composed  of  W.  L.  Lyle  as  chairman  was  appointed  to 
sell  stock,  and  over  one  hundred. signatures  were  secured  in  a  short  time,  which 
resulted  in  forming  the  present  Cedar  County  Fair  Association. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  new  association  was  in  the  Court  House  in  Tipton, 
Jan.  4,  1909.  The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  F.  H.  Milligen  and  C.  F.  Sim- 
mermaker  acted  as  Secretary.  The  name  adopted  was  the  Cedar  County  Fair 
Association.  The  Articles  of  Incorporation  and  By-Laws  were  adopted  at  this 
meeting.    The  following  officers  were  elected  : 

President,  P.  W.  Moflfett ;  Vice  President,  Frank  Smith ;  Secretary,  C.  F.  Sim- 
mermaker;  Treasurer,  D.  L.  Diehl.  Directors:  Tipton,  Geo.  W.  McLarand; 
Center  Township,  Wendell  Miller ;  Fairfield,  J.  G.  Cessford ;  Red  Oak,  Jas.  Spear ; 
Iowa,  Joe  Kingsbury;  Linn,  C.  A.  McCormick;  Springdale,  Al  Hemingway; 


Gower,  Geo.  H.  Preston ;  Dayton,  Ward  Benson ;  Fremont,  C.  E.  Hoyman ;  Pio- 
neer, J.  C.  Caldwell ;  Inland,  H.  W.  Franco ;  Rochester,  Jas.  Hill ;  Cass,  Glen  Agnc. 
The  first  Directors*  meeting  was  held  Jan.  21,  1909,  when  the  dates  of  the  first 
annual  meeting  were  set  as  Sept.  7,  8  and  9,  1909.  At  this  meeting  the  various 
Superintendents  were  ai^inted  and  other  business  of  importance  transacted. 
The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  Cedar  County  Fair  Association  was  a  great  suc- 
cess as  an  entertainment  and  as  a  stock  show  surpassed  anything  ever  held  in  Cedar 
County.  Herds  of  cattle  that  took  prizes  at  the  State  Fair  were  there  as  well  as 
the  best  horses  in  this  locality.  The  fair  was  also  a  success  financially,  the  net 
profits  being  $350.00.  At  the  annual  meeting  held  in  the  Court  House  in 
Tipton  on  Jan.  12,  1910,  the  same  officers  were  elected  with  the  exception  of  sev- 
eral directors,  the  new  directors  elected  being  W.  S.  Uhler,  Ed  Cosgriflf  and  Oliver 
Johnson.  At  this  meeting  Secretary  Simmermaker,  read  the  report  of  the  First 
Annual  Meeting  which  was  as  follows: 

Receipts  from  sale  of  94  shares  of  stock $4,700.00 

Receipts  from  all  sources  from  the  1909  fair. .  2,681.95 

Total $7*381.95 

Disbursements — Paid  on  grounds $5,000.00 

Premiums  and  other  expenses  of  fair 2,333.84 

Total  $7,335-84 

Cash  cm  hand $     46.11 

The  amount  paid  the  Tipton  Fair  Association  for  the  forty-two  acres  of  ground, 
including  all  buildings,  was  Six  Thousand  Dollars.  During  the  summer  of  1909 
the  new  association  added  many  improvements  to  the  grounds.  At  a  stockholders' 
meeting  held  at  the  Court  House,  March  5,  of  that  year,  the  matter  of  erecting  a 
new  amphitheater  was  brought  up  and  discussed,  was  carried  and  the  following 
building  committee  appointed :  W.  S.  Uhler,  J.  A.  Yoder,  G.  W.  McLarand,  J.  G. 
Cessford  and  Joe  Kingsbury.  A  new  building  was  erected,  being  24x182  feet 
with  a  seating  capacity  of  about  2^00,  and  at  a  cost  of  about  $1,500.  The  con- 
tract was  let  to  H.  G.  Willey  at  day  labor.  Other  new  buildings  were  erected  and 
the  track  improved. 

The  Cedar  County  Com  and  Stodc  Judging  Institute  is  held  annually  at  the 
county  seat.  It  was  organized  in  1908  and  has  for  its  purpose  the  competitive 
exhibit  of  domestic  and  farm  products  of  the  nature  suggested  in  its  title.  The 
annual  meetings  thus  far  have  had  set  programs  with  lecturers  irom  abroad  and 
the  prize  com  and  other  products  have  been  sold  at  auction  sometimes  at  what 
seems  fabulous  prices.  Recently  the  exhibit  has  been  conducted  on  a  plan  under 
the  direction  of  the  Iowa  Homestead,  an  agricultural  paper.  The  officers  at  this 
date  are,  Geo.  H.  Escher,  President;  Mrs.  W.  P.  Wolf,  Vice  President;  L.  J. 
Rowell,  Secretary,  and  W.  J.  Moore,  Treasurer, 

A  recent  exhibit  of  the  Poultry  and  Pet  Stock  Show  indicates  its  prosperity. 
It  was  organized  in  1908  and  has  held  two  meetings  in  the  month  of  December 
each  year.  The  present  officers  are,  Wm.  Wisener,  President ;  W.  L.  Van  Metre, 
Vice  President;  Robt.  Sproat,  Treasurer,  and  R.  M.  Gregg,  Secretary. 

Brick  Store  Built  by  William  Baker 

Old  Brick  Kegideoce  of  William  Green  Rochester  Mercantile  Company 

Main  Street,  Rocheater 


'*^'*K   IX 



^*'  ^l^ATiUHM 


In  the  very  early  records  of  the  commissioners'  proceedings  provision  was 
made  for  attending  to  the  wants  of  the  poor.  This  was  not  systematic  until  the 
estaUishment  of  the  poor  farm  in  187 1.  The  fanp  was  purchased  and  buildings 
erected,  the  first  cost  of  equipment  being  given  as  $1,750.  In  the  spring  of  1871 
county  bonds  were  issued  to  pay  oflF  the  cost  of  the  farm.  Six  years  after  it  was 
established  there  were  fourteen  persons  cared  for  at  the  time  the  report  was  made. 
The  last  report  of  the  steward  contains  the  following  data :  Number  of  inmates, 
36,  26  poor  and  10  insane ;  there  were  five  deaths  during  the  year  1909.  The  farm 
stock  Jan.  i,  1910,  included,  horses  and  mules,  7 ;  cattle,  56;  and  hogs,  32.  A  full 
report  of  receipts  and  disbursements  is  on  file  with  the  county  auditor  as  submitted 
to  the  Board  of  Supervisors.  The  result  shows  the  average  cost  per  week  for  each 
inmate  to  be  $1.42.   This  includes  the  permanent  improvements. 


G.  G.  Wright,  Chairman,  Springdale  Township Third  District 

F.  L.  Sheldon,  Center  Township Second  District 

Fred  Goldsmith,  Da}rtcm  Township First  District 

J.  H.  Onstott,  Pioneer  Township Fifth  District 

August  Hinrichs,  Springfield  Township Fourth  District 

P.  H.  Schneider,  Qerk  (County  Auditor). 


Cedar  County,  Wisconsin  Territory,  Rochester,  April  2, 1838. 
1838-39— Moses  B.  Church  (also  Qerk  of  District  Court  and  Recorder). 
1840-42— Wm.  K.  Whittles^. 
1843-44 — ^Robt.  M.  Long. 
1845.48— Wm.  K.  Whittfesey. 
1849-50 — Samuel  D.  McCalley. 
1851-55 — (No  record.) 

1856  to  Aug.  1857 — ^Wells  Spicer  (County  Judge). 
From  August,  i857-s8-S9--George  Smith  (County  Judge). 
i860     — W.  P.  McCowan  (County  Judge). 
1861-64— Alonzo  Shaw  (  also  Clerk  of  Court) . 
1865-68 — Sylvanus  Yates. 
1869     — WiUiam  EUiott. 

1870-73— E.  M.  Brink  (first  Auditor  elected  in  the  fall  of  1869). 
1874-79 — ^Moreau  Carroll. 
1880^7— E.  M.  Elliott. 
1888-92 — ^A.  C.  Laubscher. 
1893-96— Geo.  W.  ShaflFer. 
1897-02 — Paul  H.  Downing. 
1903-05 — ^W.  A.  Hamm. 
1906-10— P.  H.  Schneider. 

♦Note. — 1856-1860,  no  Board  of  Commissioners,  the  County  judge  acted  in- 


Rochester,  April  2, 1838,  Cedar  County,  Wisconsin  Territory. 
1838     —James  W.  Tallman. 


1839  — Elisha  E.  Edwards  (till  October). 

1839-44— George  McCoy  (from  October  '39  to  October  '44). 

1844     — ^Patterson  Fleming. 

1847-48— James  H.  Robinson  (Iowa  as  a  state  admitted  Dec.  28,  1846) 

1849-50— Charles  S  wetland. 

1851-55— (No  record.) 

1856-57— John  H.  Bireley. 

1858-59— George  Huber. 

1860-61— Jesse  L.  Bradshaw. 

1862-65— David  Platner. 

1866-75— John  D.  Shearer. 

1876-79— A.  B.  Maynard. 

1880-85— Wm.  C.  Kelley. 

1886-89— W.  E.  Elijah. 

1890-93— Frank  Nachbar. 

1894-97— James  S.  Moffit. 

1898-99— D.  A.  Downing. 

1900-03— R.  M.  Ellyson. 

1904-08— B.  F.  Barclay. 

1909-ia— Brady  Piatt. 


Rochester,  Cedar  County,  Wisconsin  Territory,  April  2,  1838. 
1838-39 — Christian  Holderman. 

1840  — E.  E.  Edwards. 
1841-45— Preston  J.  Friend. 
1846     — R.  M.  Long. 

1847-49— William  K.  Whittlesey  (died  September,  1849). 

1851-56— (No  record.) 

1857-60— H.  C.  Piatt  (also  Recorder). 

1861      — Samuel  Wampler  (also  Recorder). 

1862-67 — Geo.  P.  Ingman  (also  Recorder). 

1868-71— Edwin  H.  Pound. 

1872-73— T.  C.  McClelland. 

1874-77 — Samuel  Wampler. 

1878-79— Geo.  Huber. 

1880-87—0.  H.  Helmer. 

1888-91— John  Coutts. 

1892-95— R.  R.  Leech. 

1896-99— Harm  Piatt. 

1900-03— J.  E.  Bartley. 

1904-08— H.  H.  Rath. 

1909-10— E.  C.  Gillam. 


Rochester,  Cedar  County,  Wisconsin  Territory,  April  2,  1838. 
1838— from  May  28  to  Nov.  24,  1838— Robert  G.  Roberts. 



Nov.  24,  1838-42— William  K.  Whittlesey  (also  Oerk  of  County  Corns,  and 

1843-44 — ^Robt.  M.  Long  (also  Qerk  of  County  Corns,  and  Recorder). 

1845-48 — ^William  K  Whittlesey  (also  Qerk  of  County  Corns,  and  Recorder). 

1849-50 — Samuel  D.  McCalley  (also  Qerk  of  County  Corns,  and  Recorder). 

1851-55— (No  record.) 

1856  to  August,  '57 — ^Wells  Spicer  (County  Judge). 

From  August,  '57-'58-'59— Geo.  Smith  (County  Judge). 

1859     — G.  P.  Ingman  (also  Qerk  of  Coms.) 

1860-64 — ^Alonzo  Shaw  (also  Clerk  of  Coms.) 

1865-68 — Sylvanus  Yates  (also  Qerk  of  Ccwns.) 

1869     — ^William  Elliott  (also  Qerk  of  Coms.) 

1870-72— William  Elliott. 

1873-76— W.  H.  Van  Ness. 

1877-80— T.  C.  Prescott. 

1881-86— Jesse  James  (died  in  oflSce). 

1886     — J.  H.  Neiman  (appointed  to  fill  vacancy). 

1887-90 — ^J.  D.  Shearer. 

1891-94 — D.  A.  Downing. 

1895-96— J.  C.  Freguson. 

1897-02 — ^I.  J.  Hamiel. 

1903-06— W.  W.  Little. 

1907-10 — George  McLarand. 


1838-39 — Moses  B.  Church  (also  Clerk  of  Coms.  and  Clerk  of  Court). 

1840-42 — ^Wm.  K.  Whittlesey  (also  Clerk  of  Ccwns.  and  Qerk  of  Court). 

1843-44 — ^R.  M.  Long  (also  Qerk  of  Coms.  and  Clerk  of  Court). 

1845-48 — ^Wm.  K.  Whittlesey  (also  Clerk  of  Coms.  and  Qerk  of  Court). 

1849-50— Samuel  D.  McCalley  (also  Qerk  of  Coms.  and  Qerk  of  Court). 

1851-55 — (No  record.) 

1857-60— H.  C.  Piatt  (also  Treasurer). 

1861      Samuel  Wampler  (also  Treasurer). 

1862-66— Geo.  P.  Ingman  (also  Treasurer). 

1867-72 — ^Jesse  James. 

1873-82— C.  W.  Hawley. 

1883-84 — Geo.  Huber. 

1885-92— Geo.  W.  Miller. 

1893-94 — C.  A.  Ridenour. 

i895-96^Shuler  French. 

1897-02 — S.  A.  Jennings. 

1903-06— W.  S.  Beatty. 

1907-08 — ^Alex.  Buchanan,  Jr. 

1909-10 — ].  D.  Reid. 


1860-61 — ^Jas.  McClung  (first  Supt) 
1862-63— Wm.  P.  Wolf. 



1864-65— C.  A.  Pound. 
1866-67— E.  C.  Rigby. 
1868-69— E.  L.  Bassett 
1 87071— A.  B.  Oakley. 
1872-75— C.  W.  Rollins. 
1876-81— Eunice  E.  Frink. 
1882-83— Virginia  M.  RobWns. 
1884-89— Mrs.  A.  N.  Filson. 
iSgo-gs—W.  L.  Etter. 
1896-99— J.  W.  Maricer. 
1900-03 — ^Aurora  Goodale. 
1904-10— Geo.  H.  Kellogg. 


1887-88— Ed.  I.  McCoy  (first  Attorney  elected). 
1889-90 — R.  G.  Cousins. 
1891-96— S.  S.  Wright. 
1^-1902— C.  O.  Bding. 
1903-04— C.  J.  Lynch. 
1905-08— John  T.  Moffit. 
1909-10— J.  C.  France. 

Note.— In  1838-39  Rochester  was  the  county  seat  until  1840  when  Tipton  was 
made  C.  S. 

Note. — Prior  to  1887  the  District  Attorney  presided  instead  of  County  Atty. 


1839  — ^Andrew  Russell. 

1840  — (  No  record. ) 
1841-43— John  T.  Tomlinson. 
1844-45— Thos.  Gracy. 

1846  to  Oct.  5— B.  Wedcs. 

1846     —William  Hoch  (from  Oct.  5  to  April  5,  '47). 

1847-50— Alonzo  Shaw. 

1851-55 — S.  Dewell. 

1856     —Geo.  Whistler. 

1857-61— Martin  G.  Miller. 

1862-64 — ^James  McQtmg. 

1865-67— F.  A.  Gates. 

1868-73— Martin  G.  Miller. 

1874-75— F.  A.  Gates. 

1876-77— Martin  G.  Miller. 

1878-79— S.  Y.  Yates. 

1880-81— F.  A.  Gates. 

1882-83 — ^Jas.  Ingman. 

1884-87— John  Zuck. 


1888  — S.  T.  Hedges. 

1889  — ^Jdin  Zuck. 

1890  — Geo.  D.  Bardwell. 

1891  — D.  H.  Dallas. 
1892-95— John  Zuck. 
1896-97 — S.  A.  Handley. 

1898-99— J.  Q.  Zuck  (John  Zudc,  Deputy). 

1900-02 — F.  G.  Reeder. 

1903     — ^U.  S.  Brink  elected  but  failed  to  qualify,  John  Zuck  appointed. 

1904-05 — Otis  Lcefers. 


1839     —Harvey  H.  Burnap. 

1840-45 — (No  record.)  * 

1856-57— ^James  Huff. 

1858-63 — (  No  record. ) 

i864-65--Geo.  W.  Smith. 

1866-67— T.  James. 

1868-69— William  H.  Hammond. 

1870-71 — ^A.  Parsons. 

1872-75— B.  Wilhehn. 

1876-81 — ^L.  L.  Sweet. 

1882-83- B.  Wilhehn. 

1884-87— W.  F.  Morehead. 

1888-89— M.  H.  Somes. 

1890-91 — H.  R.  Saum. 

1892-93 — ^Henry  Schumacher. 

1894-95 — ^H.  R.  Saum  elected  but  failed  to  qualify,  M.  H.  Somes  appointed. 

i896^_W.  C.  Bills. 

1898-1903 — L.  L.  Kennedy. 

1904-05 — ^S.  F.  Witmer. 

1906-08 — ^Dr.  J.  H.  Meyhaus. 

1909-10— A.  M.  McCormick. 



Qerk,  Frank  Laubscher Buchanan 

Justice,  Henry  S.  Brown Lisbon 

ConstaUe,  W.  E.  Koppenhaver Buchanan 

Trustees,  Harry  Dodds  Tipton 

Martin  Kuncl Solon 

D.  E.  Frederidc Tipton 

Assessor,  Geo.  Gaul Tipton 



Ocric,  S.  A.  Jennings Tipton 

Justices,  JcAn  W.  Argo Tipton 

J.  E.  Hartley Tipton 

Constables,  D.  W.  Claric Tipton 

J.  J.  Diltz Tipton 

Trustees,  Wendell  Wilier Tipton 

R.  Roberdee Tipton 

W.  P.  Rochholz Tipton 

Assessor,  R.  M.  Reeder Tipton 


Oerk,  E.  C.  Dean „ Qarence 

Justice,  C  G.  Oliver Qarence 

Constable,  E.  F.  Delamater .Clarence 

Trustees,  Jolm  Bauman Clarence 

A.  R.  Bixler Qarence 

Ed  Cosgriff Clarence 

Assessor,  W.  S.  Robinson Qarence 


Clerk,  J.  G.  Cessford Tipton 

Constable,  Chris.  J.  Kline Qarence 

Trustees,  H.  D.  Butterbrodt Tipton 

Henry  Meier Qarence 

Wm.  Burk  Tipton 

Assessor,  John  Kroeplen Tipton 


Qerk,  R.  Meyer Durant 

Justice,  E.  F.  Jockheck Durant 

Constables,  August  Bierkamp Sunbury 

John  Bierkamp Durant 

Trustees,  Henry  Gruemmer Durant 

Louis  Paustian Sunbury 

Wm.  Miller,  Sr Sunbury 

Assessor,  H.  D.  Thiering Wilton 


Qerk,  Scott  Hamilton Stanwood 

Justice,  J.  N.  Boling Stanwood 

Constables,  William  S.  Graft Stanwood 

Dennis  Welch Mechanicsville 

Trustees,  J.  W.  McConkie Olin 

W.  S.  Pirie Stanwood 

H.  P.  Thomas .Mechanicsville 

Assessor,  George  Findlay *s Stanwood 


1 1 

/vni*    i.KNirx   AND 
B  L 



Qerk,  John  Loftus Cedar  Valley 

Justice,  R  C.  Heacock West  Branch 

Trustees,  Rudolph  Stroppel West  Branch 

Wm.  Cahill West  Branch 

Anton  Slach West  Branch 

Assessor,  Walter  Harden West  Branch 


Qerk,  R  J.  Johann Bennett 

Justices,  G.  C.  Bannick Bennett 

H.  W.  Franco .Bennett 

Constables,  Hennan  Dresselhaus Bennett 

R.  C.  Schneckloth Bennett 

Trustees,  Ferd.  Goettsdi Bennett 

Henry  Ahrens Bennett 

Geo.  Regennitter Bennett 

Assessor,  J.  A.  Miller — , Sunbury 


Qerk,  Chas.  R.  McCann West  Liberty 

Justice,  W.  H.  Phelps .......> West  Branch 

Trustees,  W.  H.  Phelps West  Branch 

C.  H.  Jc^son West  Branch 

H.  T.  Swart West  Liberty 

Assessor,  C.  K.  Pierce West  Branch 


Qerk,  A.  R.  Albaugh Mechanicsville 

Trustees,  W.  L.  Crawford Mechanicsville 

G.  C.  Statler Mechanicsville 

S.  H.  Treichler Lisbon 

Assessor,  A.  G.  Hemingway »t Lisbon 


Qerk,  Henry  Richmann ^ Lowden 

Justices,  C.  A.  Robison Massillon 

Carl  Wenndt Lowden 

Trustees,  W.  E.  Brink Lowden 

Werner  Deke Lowden 

.    Wm.  Ruprecht Massillon 

Assessor,  A.  E.  Emerson Massillon 


Qerk,  A.  F.  Fairchild Mechanicsville 

Justice,  Geo.  W.  Fall Mechanicsville 

Constable,  J.  J.  DeWald Mechanicsville 


Trustees,  John   Kerwin    Mechanicsville 

C.   F.   Platner    Mechanicsville 

L.  H.  Andre Mechanicsville 

Assessor,  J.  C.  Ferguson LislxMi 


Otrk,  Homer  A.  Dorcas Tipton 

Trustees,  James  J.  Spear Stanwood 

Wm.  Chappell  Tipton 

A.  M.  Moffit Tipton 

Assessor,  H.  J.  Safley  Tipton 


Clerk,  T.  H.  Ridenour Tipton 

Justice,  W.  F.  Horn Tipton 

Constable,  F.  A.  Kester Tipton 

Trustees,  S.  C.  Baker Tipton 

Adam  Kensinger Tipton 

J.  C.  Kirkpatrick Tipton 

Assessor,  Elliott  Anderson Tipton 


Oerk,  Norris  Wilson ^.Downey 

Justices,  O.  C.  Pennock West  Branch 

John  Cornwall Downey 

Trustees,  Geo.  C.  Shrader  : West  Branch 

T.  B.  Pidd Downey 

Peter  J.  Thomas West  Branch 

Assessor,  I.  B.  Fawcett West  Branch 

ConstaUe,  M.  L.  Marks West  Branch 


Qerk,  Fred  Pauls Lowden 

Justice,  Henry  Ruprecht,  Jr. Lowden 

Constable,  Wm.  C.  Schmidt Lowden 

Trustees,  L.  E.  CcMirad Bennett 

F.  H.  Dircks Lowden 

Aug.  Meyer Lowden 

Assessor,  George  Wischmann Lowden 


Qerk,  I.  N.  Kiser Wilton 

Justices,  Geo.  H.  Laucamp Wilton 

Chas.  D.  Kiser Wilton 

ConstaUes,  A.  W.  Straub Tipton 

W.  L.  Rorick Wilton 

Trustees,  W.  W.  Chapman  Wilton 


Geo.  H.  Laucamp Wiltcm 

W.  H.  Haima Wilton 

Assessor,  Geo.  Karns Wilton 



Land $  4,714,822 

Town  property % 826,835 

Personal  property 1,930,231 

Railroad  property 752,587 

Telegrs4>h  and  telephone  property 44,482 

Express  property 3,362 

$  8,272,319 


State  tax $28,125.88 

Special  S.  U.  1 1,65446 

Special  I.  A.  C 1,65446 

State  Nwmal 827.23 

$  32,262.03 


County   $33>o89.27 

Poor   9,926.78 

Insane 4,136.15 

Poll   2,35900 

Dog 1,834.00 

$  51,345.20 


Bridge $28,953.1 1 

County  road 8,272.31 

Township  road  24,236.26 

Delinquent  road , .       471.00 

$  61,932.68 


Teachers $57,38561 

Contingent  20,729.96 

School  house 6,252.15 

County  school    8,272,31 

School  building  bond 6,751.97 

$  99>392.oo 


Grave  Yard 617.46 





Water  $  5,979.01 

Corporation   16,016.88 

Electric  Light 4,868.65 

Gas  Lig^t 2,510.85 

Library  Maintenance 1,851.09 

Bond  390.05 

Sidewalk 137-25 

Delinquent  road  tax 409.00 

Improvement 2,003.53 

$  34.166.31 

Total  tax  levied $279,715.68 




Since  the  founding  of  most  of  the  towns  in  the  county  came  before  i860,  the 
changes  are  now  difficult  to  follow.  Only  a  few  are  living  who  carry  in  mind  the 
events  of  interest  during  the  fifty  years.  Records  are  only  a  matter  of  cold  figures 
in  the  majcHity  of  cases  and  the  Ufe  of  what  has  occurred  is  really  wanting  on 
account  of  no  vital  record  having  been  kept  of  current  events.  What  seems  now 
of  great  importance  to  one  trying  to  collect  data  of  this  kind  is  lost  for  all  time. 
Tins  is  clearly  illustrated  when  one  wishes  to  verify  some  fact  or  secure  a 
complete  account  of  an  historical  point  in  the  county  that  has  surrounding  it  some- 
thing of  great  value  if  it  could  be  had.  Justice  cannot  be  done  in  every  particular 
because  personal  recollections  vary  and  records  are  not  at  hand. 

The  first  location  and  survey  of  any  town  or  village  must  be  credited  to  those 
who  settled  Rochester  in  1836.  The  old  records  in  the  <^ce  of  the  county  auditor 
in  the  county  seat  are  largely  the  record  of  a  few  individuals.  Among  these  names 
occur  the  ones  first  concerned  in  the  founding  of  the  village  which  takes  its  name 
of  the  great  city  in  the  state  of  New  York — ^Rochester.  Stephen  Toney  and  George 
McCoy,  brothers-in-law,  came  to  Cedar  County  late  in  the  summer  of  1836,  settled 
on  the  site  of  the  present  village  of  Rochester  and  near  this  site  McCoy  built  the 
first  cabin  and  located  a  ferry.  Toney  afterwards  located  not  far  from  him, 
building  a  double  log  cabin.  This  was  destined  to  be  the  first  county  seat,  the  first 
ferry,  the  first  in  many  respects  for  it  had  hopes  of  becoming  a  city  not  less  im- 
portant than  that  of  its  name  elsewhere.  The  other  surrounding  territory  evidently 
expected  this  for  settlers  came  in  this  direction  and  we  first  find  the  group  formed 
in  that  region.  At  this  time  the  point  for  commerce  was  at  the  "Mouth  of  Pine,'' 
frequently  referred  to  in  connection  with  all  the  county  matters  of  that  early  day. 
"Mouth  of  Pine"  was  a  creek  which  finally  finds  its  way  into  the  Mississippi  ten 
miles  above  Muscatine  and  this  is  about  twenty-five  miles  from  Rochester — not 
far  in  those  days.  Here  at  the  mouth  of  Pine  creek  lived  Ben  Nye  who  ran  a  store 
and  mill  on  one  side  and  another,  who  was  called  "Wicked  Bill,"  or  plain  William 
Gordon,  lived  on  the  upper  side  of  the  creek.  The  latter  being  a  surveyor  was  in- 
vited by  Toney  and  McCoy  to  "lay  out"  a  town  on  the  Cedar  River.  This  was  done 
in  August  after  their  arrival  and  the  surveyor  took  his  pay  in  lots.  Visions  came 
and  went  then  even  as  now  and  the  lots  probably  gave  the  owner  little  trouUe. 



In  the  summer  of  1836,  Rev.  Martin  Baker,  who  has  left  his  personality  in 
Yariou$  ways  in  the  history  of  the  county,  settled  with  his  son  William  at  the 
month  of  Crooked  Creek  and  leaving  his  son  in  charge  of  the  claim  returned  to 
Indiana  for  his  family,  three  sons  and  one  daughter  with  two  grandchildren.  The 
family  settled  on  this  claim  in  the  fall  of  1836,  and  the  father  continued  to  reside 
here  until  1846,  the  year  of  his  death.  It  is  said  that  the  first  religious  services 
held  in  the  county  were  at  the  home  of  Rev.  Baker  soon  after  his  arrival  from  his 
journey  for  his  family.** 

Col.  Henry  Hardman  came  to  the  township  in  July,  1836,  and  settled  on  the 
farm  now  owned  by  John  Jeffers.*^  His  son.  Cordis  Hardman,  operated  the  ferry 
at  Rochester  for  many  years.  In  1837  H.  D.  Brown  came  to  the  village.  He  built 
a  house  for  the  original  proprietor  of  the  site,  Stephen  Toney,  on  the  Uock  where 
afterwards  the  Hardman  house  stood,  and  this  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  shingled 
house  in  Cedar  County.  This  man  Brown  afterwards  became  a  catnnetmalcer  in 
Tipton  when  it  was  made  the  county  seat  and  the  future  of  the  river  town  was  not 
so  evidently  prosperous. 

Duncan  McLaren  came  to  the  township  in  1837  uid  made  his  claim  north  of 
the  mouth  of  Rock  Creek.    He  afterwards  removed  to  Rochester,  where  at  this 
date  his  widow  still  resides.^    At  this  point  in  the  history  of  this  town  we  find 
the  mention  of  the  first  mill  in  the  county  and  its  plan  of  operation.    It  had  a  s^- 
nificant  name,  ''The  Little  Savior,"  and  was  not  erected  for  profit  since  no  charge 
was  made  for  its  use.    It  was  located  two  miles  east  of  Rochester  in  1836  by 
Aaron  Porter.    Mills  began  to  be  in  demand  from  the  very  banning  since  the 
pioneer  must  depend  on  what  he  could  raise  and  have  ground  into  flour  for  his 
living.    The  Freeman  Mill  was  begun  on  Sugar  Creek  in  1837,  but  was  not  in 
operation  until  1838.    Like  the  "old  stone  mill"  of  so  much  interest  to  older  gen- 
erations and  not  much  less  to  the  younger  ones,  the  race  of  the  Freeman  mill 
was  cut  through  the  solid  rock.    Stephen  Toney  sold  his  mill  site  to  a  William 
Green,  who  built  a  saw-mill  on  the  creek  road,  a  half  mile  north  of  Rochester. 
This  is  called  the  first  saw-mill  in  the  county.    This,  after  having  been  in  use  for 
many  years,  was  removed  and  like  many  other  "first  things,"  it  has  but  a  memory 
to  mark  the  spot.    Another  public-spirited  citizen  from  the  state  of  Ohio,  which 
furnished  so  many  settlers  to  Cedar  County,  Willliam  Green,  came  to  the  county 
in  1837  and  settled  at  Rochester.    He  is  commended  for  his  liberal  ideas  and 
this  one  may  say,  as  mentioned  in  the  first  chaipter,  was  a  diief  characteristic  of 
the  early  comer  to  the  open  country  of  this  state.    The  present  location  of  the 
"Beltz  Mill"  was  originally  the  site  of  a  saw  mill  and  grist-mill  built  by  Christian 

Judging  from  accounts  given  of  him  this  Stephen  Toney,  founder,  was  a 
thrifty  character,  losing  no  (q>portunity  to  improve  his  financial  prospects  and 
drive  a  bargain  giving  the  big  end  to  himself  not  far  different  from  later  and 
more  numerous  settlers  in  this  same  county.  Indians  love  "fire-water,"  and  while 
now  the  courts  are  laboring  by  all  possible  means  to  convict  the  man  who  sells 
"fire-water"  to  an  Indian,  it  was  not  then  a  matter  of  vital  interest  to  the  United 
States  officers  whether  one  redskin  or  even  two  got  more  than  he  needed  of  this 
same  "fire-water."  So,  as  the  story  goes,  when  Toney  found  a  great  caxnp  of 
"Sac  and  Foxes"  near  Rochester,  said  to  be  as  many  as  five  hundred,  he  prepared 


«  L 


for  an  immediate  speculation  in  disposing  of  his  full  barrel  and  the  full  return  in 
trade  amounted  to  Indian  property  enough  to  restore  his  stock  of  liquid  many 
fold.  Chief  Poweshiek  came  to  the  rescue  of  his  braves  and  some  think  he  ''got 
even"  with  Toney  in  the  conclusion  of  the  parley.  The  oldest  settler  tells  of  these 
Indians  to  this  day,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  anyone  can  vouch  for  the  event 
that  happened  so  long  ago.  One  can  only  surmise  the  conditions  that  must  have 
existed  and  that  did  exist  long  after  this  time  when  the  white  man  bought,  or 
traded  with  the  unsuspecting  red  man,  who  was  often  ruined  by  the  gift  or 
purdiase  of  fire-water  even  sooner  than  his  white  brother.  Too  late,  the  govern- 
ment has  discovered  the  damage  to  its  wards. 

In  1838  a  hotel  was  built  in  Rochester,  which  since  was  known  as  the  Hard- 
man  House.  These  hostelries  were  all  through  the  country  as  soon  as  parties 
began  making  journeys  by  regular  trails,  and  each  point  had  something  aldn 
to  what  one  now  calls  a  hotel.  Charles  Swetland,  a  well-known  character,  and 
who  left  his  mark  on  Tipton  afterwards,  came  to  the  village  of  Rochester  in 
1837.  Nelson  Hastings  opened  a  store  in  1839.  Geo.  McCoy,  Justice  of  the 
Peace,  and  once  County  Sheriff,  had  conducted  a  store  in  1837.  These  store 
supplies  must  be  brought  from  the  base  of  distribufion  at  "Mouth  of  Pine,**  where 
Ben  Nye,  McCoy's  father-in-law,  kept  a  store.  After  a  decade  we  hear  of 
McCoy  returning  from  California  and  finding  his  wife  at  her  father's  house» 
where  she  had  been  taken  because  of  neglect,  he  became  enraged  it  seems  and  in 
a  quarrel  which  followed  he  killed  Mr.  Nye.  Then  he  rettutied  to  the  coast 
His  name  appears  frequently  in  the  county  records  and  one  of  the  very  first 
cases  before  the  courts  as  a  territory  he  is  the  plaintiff. 

A  legal  survey  of  Rochester  was  made  in  1840  by  John  J.  Tomlinson,  Sur- 
veyor. The  proprietors  then  were  Toney,  Freeman  and  Fulwider.  It  lay  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Cedar  in  section  two  of  that  ccMigressional  township.  This  was 
the  year  that  Tipton  was  surveyed  as  the  county  seat,  but  the  greater  population 
was  in  Rochester. 

S.  A.  Bissell,  afterward  County  Judge,  settled  here  at  an  early  date,  with 
odiers  who  later  moved  from  the  vicinity.  In  1836  came  the  Halliday  family  and 
setUed  the  farm  where  the  "Whittlesey  Mills,"  afterward  "Sugar  Creek  Mills," 
were  built.  In  the  same  month  Wm.  Phelps  settled  in  Iowa  Township,  four  miles 
from  the  village,  and  the  families  of  William  and  Emanuel  Young  came  to  the 

In  '37  and  '38  the  Pavis  and  Amett  families  settled  near  Hector  Sterrett, 
who  came  here  in  1836.  Crane  and  McNaughton  settled  in  Rochester  in  the 
spring  of  '39,  and  John  Ridgway  came  soon  after.  The  latter  lived  for  a  time 
wiA  Daniel  Hare,  whose  grave  as  now  remembered  is  covered  over  with  grass  in 
the  old  cemetery.  Ridgway  has  the  credit  for  possessing  the  first  tailor  shop  in 
the  county. 

Joseph  Crane,  whose  fame  rests  in  connection  with  the  county  seat  fight, 
opened  the  first  r^fular  Macksmith  shop  in  Rochester  in  1838.  His  first  woric 
was  for  Geo.  McCoy.  So  far  as  records  go  Dr.  S.  B.  Grubbs  was  the  first  resi- 
dent  physician.  One  Henry  preceded  him,  but  was  not  held  in  the  highest  respect 
hy  those  who  needed  a  doctor.  It  spears  that  he  moved  to  the  Pedee  settlement 
in  1840  and  may  be  referred  to  elsewhere. 


Before  1840,  in  addition  to  the  foregoing,  the  three  Clines,  two  Coltons  and 
Wm.  Green  had  settled  here.  The  latter  burned  the  first  kiln  of  brick  in  this 
county.  Bodfish,  the  millwright,  came  in  '39,  and  Andrew  Wilson  settled  on  the 
claim  of  Aaron  Porter  in  '39.  The  two  Foremans  settled  one  and  a  half  miles 
east  on  Toney's  claim.  All  these  are  lost  to  any  atlas  published  and  since  names 
are  now  far  different,  the  only  way  to  locate  these  points  of  residence  is  through 
access  to  records  of  the  county.  In  1840  Coffey  and  Chasteen  came  to  Rochester 
and  in  1842  Nathan  Howe  settled  near  by.  The  business  of  the  village  then  ran 
about  as  follows :  Adam  Graham  kept  a  grocery  on  the  block  facing  where  the 
Hardman  House  stood.  Timothy  Newton  had  a  general  store  on  the  comer 
north  of  the  old  hotel  building.  Coffey  kept  a  hotel  for  many  years.  Nelson  C. 
Swank  was  running  a  cooper  shop,  but  after  the  death  of  Graham  he  continued 
the  store  for  a  time  until  his  own  death.  S.  A.  Bissell  was  then  probate  judge 
and  justice.  Dr.  Meredith,  who  afterward  died  at  Cedar  Falls,  and  Dr.  Rickey, 
afterward  of  Keokuk,  were  the  resident  doctors  at  this  time.  Wm.  Finefield 
came  here  and  opened  a  blacksmith  shop,  1844.  Blacksmithing  became  an  exten- 
sive business  at  this  time,  for  we  find  Nicholas  Stutzman  engaging  in  the  same 
year  with  Finefield  and  another  one  the  year  following.  John  Foy  built  the 
second  hotel  on  Water  street — ^this  sounds  more  metropolitan — ^which  was  after- 
wards purchased  by  the  conspicuous  citizen,  Chas.  Swetland,  and  moved  to  the 
comer  of  Main  and  Third  streets,  where  it  ceased  to  be  a  hotel,  and  now  no  one 
looks  for  such  a  place  in  the  village,  although  a  former  dweUing  house  offers 
hospitality.  This  brick  house  was  built  by  Wm.  Green  for  a  residence  long  ago. 
It  stands  at  the  end  of  the  long  bridge. 

Before  the  steam  mill  in  1857  a  number  of  brick  buildings  were  erected  for 
business  purposes.  One  of  two  stories  by  William  Baker  still  standing,  and 
another  by  Dr.  Noah  Green,  a  third  by  T.  J.  Newton.  The  three-story  brick 
steam  flouring  mill  did  good  service  for  a  time,  but  like  all  the  other  mills  in  this 
vicinity  was  finally  dismantled  and  moved  to  Qarence  by  James  Cess  ford,  who 
purchased  it  at  sheriff's  sale.**  This  was  not  the  only  mill  property  that  fell 
under  the  hammer  in  those  days.  An  incident  in  the  history  of  Rochester  is  the 
reported  discovery  of  silver  in  paying  quantities  and  the  formation  of  companies 
to  exploit  that  discovery.  Experts  came  to  examine  the  ore  and  assays  of  ore 
made  which  reported  silver  in  paying  per  cents.  Shafts  were  sunk,  machinery 
procured  and  then  the  usual  result  happened — ^another  vain  search  for  silver 
where  the  dollar  dug  only  paid  a  small  per  cent  of  the  dollars  spent  in  digging. 
One  company  lasted  about  two  years  and  was  composed  of  the  best  and  most  influ- 
ential citizens  of  Rochester  and  that  vicinity.** 

"Our  neighboring  town  of  Rochester  has  for  some  time  been  on  the  standstill 
as  to  its  growth  and  prosperity,  but  this  season  (1857)  it  will  take  a  long  step 
forward  and  make  it  possible  for  it  to  compete  with  any  town  in  the  state."** 

The  particular  improvement  contemplated  is  the  building  of  a  steam  mill,  the 
foundations  of  which  are  already  in.  It  is  to  be  38  by  68  feet,  three  stories,  and 
built  of  brick.  It  will  be  built  by  Dr.  N.  Green  and  M.  Bailey.  Dr.  Green  is  an 
enterprising  man  and  will  push  forward  the  mill  to  an  early  completion.  The 
stone  work  for  the  foundation  is  done  and  the  frame  work  for  the  three  run  of 
stone  with  which  the  mill  is  supplied.    The  Itmiber  is  mostly  on  the  ground  and 


the  brick  in  the  kihi  is  ready  for  burning.  The  cost  of  the  mill  is  considerable 
and  it  will  be  equal  to  any  mill  in  this  part  of  the  state.  This  will  give  an  impetus 
to  the  trade  and  business  of  Rochester  and  will  not  only  be  an  ornament  to  that 
town,  but  a  credit  to  the  entire  county.  This  mill  was  doing  a  fine  business  in 
October,  1857,  grinding,  with  two  run  of  stone,  at  the  rate  of  four  hundred 
bushels  per  day.  One  run  of  stone  was  for  com  and  buckwheat  and  two  for 
wheat.  Building  material  was  cheaper  at  Rochester  than  in  very  many  places. 
Stont  plentiful  in  the  vicinity  and  the  brick  for  the  mill  were  burned  within  two 
rods  of  the  location.^ 

But  the  hand  of  time  is  not  charitable  and  now  all  that  promised  so  much, 
all  that  meant  so  much  to  the  former  builders  is  no  more,  for  where  brick  and 
mortar  once  held  firm  walls  the  short  space  of  a  little  more  than  a  half  century  has 
left  but  ruins  or  at  most  what  will  soon  be  ruins.  He  who  saw  the  city  in  those 
early  days,  who  heard  in  his  imagination  the  rumble  of  wheels  as  in  the  original 
city  of  Rochester  fame  was  never  to  be  so  much  as  near  his  ideal,  and  like  all 
other  visions  it  was  only  temporary.  New  life- may  sometime  appear,  for  the 
country  is  still  very  new.  There  is  plenty  of  time  for  a  new  city  to  grow  where 
the  old  was  planned.  Just  now  Rochester  is  the  enterprising  center  of  interest 
for  sunmier  campers,  and  only  awaits  the  coming  interurban,  discussed  elsewhere, 
to  be  restored  to  its  former  activity.  Scnne  old  landmarks  remain — ^the  dd  hotel, 
opposite  the  Mercantile  Compan/s  store;  the  old  "Ferry  House"  on  the  river 
bank,  which  at  one  time  was  kept  by  Cordis  Hardman.  There  was  once  a  distillery 
just  south  of  this.  Some  say  the  site  of  the  steam  mill  is  washed  away  by  the 
erosion  of  the  river  current  against  the  bank.  Some  old  dwelling  houses  remain, 
and  Water  Street  is  still  there.  The  sand  is  still  very  deep  and  the  automobile 
is  not  popular.  Across  the  Cedar  the  camping  grounds  are  becoming  an  annual 
resort  for  many  from  a  distance,  and  the  contrast  of  the  long  ago  and  what  the 
future  promises  is  to  be  imagined.  Living  in  this  village  are  scxne  who  came  to 
the  township  in  1837.  The  widow  of  Duncan  McLaren,  mentioned  early  in  the 
history  of  Rochester,  still  resides  here.  The  children  of  Adam  Bair,  one  of  the 
pioneers,  remain  to  connect  the  past  and  present  In  one  old  building  the 
Masonic  fraternity  still  have  a  lodge  full  of  interesting  history,  which  is  further 
discussed  by  those  who  know  its  past. 

We  are  told  by  the  veteran  stage  driver  that  Mississippi  boats  did  load  flour 
at  the  mill  on  the  bank  of  the  river  for  he  saw  them  doing  so  when  a  boy.  We 
have  no  reason  to  dispute  the  matter,  but  it  is  hard  to  realize  that  this  was  true 
when  we  see  the  present  worn  condition  of  the  surroundings. 

The  county  seat  of  Cedar  County  and  its  location  is  a  matter  of  history  during 
the  years  irom  1839  to  the  final  settlement  in  1852.  At  the  latter  date  the  decision 
was  final  and  judging  from  present  conditions  no  fears  need  be  entertained  of 
the  question  hereafter.  From  1840  to  the  present  time  events  have  transpired 
changing  the  current  of  history,  but  leaving  the  landmarks  as  glides  to  trace  the 
path  the  pioneers  attempted  to  follow.  Here  and  there  alcMig  the  way  one  finds 
serious  breaks  in  the  record,  but  there  are  those  yet  living  who  can  recall  events 
covering  this  allotted  life  of  man  since  the  ^wn  of  Tipton  was  first  thought  of, 
even  before  a  stake  had  been  driven  to  mark  its  site. 


Twelve  miles  from  the  north,  the  east,  the  south,  the'west,  the  first  mark  was 
made,  about  which  the  future  town  was  to  grow.  Some  of  these  facts  had  to  be 
touched  upon  when  discussing  county  organization  and  govemmei^  but  the 
immediate  data  of  town  history  must  fcdlow  here.  A  former  citizen,  one  who 
was  a  boy  in  this  vicinity,  has  made  a  running  commentary  on  the  early  times  in 
the  pioneer  accounts  in  his  own  good  and  personal  way,^^  but  a  little  rq>etition  in  a 
new  form  will  not  detract  from  previous  references.  Town  history  may  grow 
monotonous  because  of  the  want  of  personal  Account,  and  this  cannot  be  wholly 
supplied  at  this  time.  It  is  fortunate  that  some  record  has  been  made  from 
which  one  can  draw,  otherwise  the  task  would  be  almost  endless. 

The  original  plot  of  Tipton  was  certified  to  by  the  county  conmiissioners, 
William  Miller,  Daniel  Comstock,  and  John  G.  Foy,  and  was  sworn  to  before 
W.  A.  Rigby,  who  built  the  first  house  in  Red  Oak.  The  town  plot  was  sur- 
v^ed  by  J.  Tomlinson,  who  surveyed  most  of  the  roads  in  the  preliminary  county 
government,  and  this  plot  was  filed  for  record  June,  the  first  day,  1840,  at  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  the  precise  time  at  which  the  county  began  its  present 
legal  existence.^ 

The  original  plot  contained  forty-nine  blocks  of  twelve  lots  each,  with  streets 
eighty  feet  wide  and  alleys  sixteen  feet,  the  blocks  being  three  hundred  feet 
square  and  numbered  in  tiers  f  rcMn  east  to  west. 

Jennings's  Addition  was  made  to  Tipton  June  17th,  1840,  by  Charles  Jennings. 
Starr's  Addition  in  1855.  This  was  from  eighty  acres  lying  directly  west  of  the 
original  plot  Moore  and  Culbertson's  Addition  was  made  in  1857,  Long's  Addi- 
tion in  1858. 

The  survey  of  Tipton  was  made  officially  in  1840  by  the  authorized  surveyor, 
J.  J.  Tomlinson,  who  made  the  survey  of  Rochester  referred  to  on  a  previous  page. 
This  was  May  20,  1840.  The  streets  were  the  usual  eighty  feet  in  the  original 
plot,  although  one  might  find  some  less,  and  lots  fifty  by  one  hundred  and  forty- 
two  in  dimensions.  The  order  came  from  the  county  commissioners  on  April 
18,  1840,  and  the  surveyor's  plans  were  24)proved.  A  public  square  was  provided 
for  near  the  center  of  the  quarter  section  which  had  been  pre-empted  for  a  town 
site.  Henry  W.  Higgins  named  the  town  for  his  friend.  General  Tipton  of 
Indiana.  One  is  led  to  think  that  Tipton,  Indiana,  and  possibly  Tipton,  Missouri, 
may  have  been  named  for  the  same  military  man.  The  only  building  then  on  the 
site  was  a  log  cabin  built  by  Wm.  M.  Knott,  whose  life  some  one  should 
write.  This  cabin  was  first  used  as  a  county  clerk's  office  by  Wm.  K.  Whit- 
tlesey, who  moved  there  from  Rochester  after  the  re-location  of  the  county 
seat  Here  also  the  county  commissioners  met  in  1840.  One  speaks  of 
the  removal  of  the  county  seat  with  considerable  respect  for  the  under- 
taking, but  as  a  matter  of  fact  all  the  county  possessed  was  contained, 
it  is  said,  in  a  ''candle  box."  Few  of  us  know  much  about  even  a 
candle  box.  Charles  M.  Jennings  built  a  cabin  in  that  portion  now  known  as 
Jennings'  Addition  in  1840,  this  being  the  first  public  house  in  the  place.  It  was 
afterward  used  for  church  purposes.  John  Culbertson  kept  hotel  for  many  years 
in  a  house  located  on  the  present  site  of  the  town  hall.  He  was  a  member  of 
one  of  the  earliest  firms  in  the  mercantile  line,  being  the  junior  partner  in  the  firm 
of  Friend  and  Culbertson.    Among  the  arrivals  in  1840  were  John  P.  Cook, 






who  was  closely  identified  with  the  interests  of  the  town  for  many  years ;  Walker 
and  Davis,  carpenters,  and  John  R.  McCurdy — all  these  were  men  without  fami- 
lies. Cook  built  the  first  store  room  in  Tipton  in  the  year  he  came,  on  the  comer 
where  W.  H.  Tuthill  later  had  a  drug  store,  and  the  comer  now  occupied  by  the 
National  Bank.^^  This  store  contained  the  first  stock  of  gxxxls  sold  in  the  town. 
John  R.  McCurdy  was  the  first  tailor  here  and  built  a  shop  near  the  site  of  Whan 
and  Adams's  store  on  the  west  side  of  the  square,  near  where  Rumble's  grocery 
is  now.  Preston  J.  Friend  built  a  log  cabin  not  far  from  the  same  site,  and 
William  R.  Rankin,  Tipton's  first  lawyer,  soon  moved  to  a  house  just  north  of  the 
Palmer  House,  which  stood  where  the  Cobb  block  is  now.  Rankin  is  referred  to 
in  connection  with  the  county  seat  fight  and  territorial  politics  when  he  sought 
office  for  himself.  William  Cummins  so(m  separated  from  his  partnership  with 
Culbertson  and  built  a  house  of  frame  material  on  the  north  side  of  the  square, 
diinl  door  east  from  the  corner,  once  occupied  by  Perrien  Dean  as  a  store  site. 
There  Cummins  opened  a  saloon. 

It  was  in  March,  1841,  that  Judge  W.  H.  Tuthill  came  to  the  village,  and  soon 
after  purchased  the  store  of  John  P.  Cook,  which  business  he  continued  for  some 
two  years  longer.  Friend  and  Culbertson  organized  and  conducted  the  next 
general  business.  The  first  physician  to  locate  in  Tipton  was  Dr.  Harvey  G. 
Whitlock,  who  tried  many  trades  or  professions. 

A  discussion  has  arisen  as  to  the  first  child  born  in  Tipton,  but  the  credit  is 
given  to  two  names,  and  since  no  one  now  seems  able  to  determine  the  only  means 
of  making  record  is  to  give  the  two,  Jacob  Tipton  Haight  and  John  Tipton 
Culbertson,  allowing  the  reader  to  take  his  choice.  Thence  seems  to  be  no  differ- 
ence of  o{Hnion  regarding  the  girl,  since  only  one,  Sallie' Friend,  claims  that  honor. 
It  is  perhaps  fortunate  that  there  is  no  second  claimant,  since  the  quarrel  might 
never  end.  The  surveyor,  Tomlinson,  built  a  house  on  the  comer  northeast  of  the 
square  in  1841,  and  the  house  now  occupied  by  Basil  Wiggins  is  near  the  site. 
This  was  the  home  of  Williard  Hammond,  who  ran  a  general  store  here  after 
1849,  jcoming  from  Cedar  Bluffs  for  that  purpose.  In  1840  Geo.  McCoy,  whom 
we  have  fully  met  in  Rochester's  history,  built  a  house  and  planted  a  cottonwood 
tree  in  the  yard  which  grew  to  great  size  in  later  years.  It  was  located  on  the 
comer  of  Sixth  and  Cedar  Streets,  where  Hotel  Tipton  now  stands.  In  1841  a 
house  was  built  for  W.  H.  Tuthill  near  the  house  now  known  as  his  residence,  and 
in  its  day  recognized  it  as  one  of  the  best,  which  stands  under  the  stately  pine  trees 
at  the  comer  of  Seventh  and  Cedar  Streeets.  Addison  Gillett,  mentioned  in 
pioneer  accounts  as  being  unfitted  for  the  scenes  of  the  new  country,  opened  a 
general  store  on  the  west  side  of  the  square  in  '43.  His  death  occurred  a  few 
years  later.  The  first  hamess  maker  here  was  J.  A.  Sangston,  who  after  a  short 
time  was  succeeded  by  Austin  Parsons.  The  latter's  business  has  not  stopped  to 
this  day,  since  his  son,  M.  A.  Parsons,  continues  it  at  the  old  stand.  It  is  one  of 
the  two  businesses  that  have  continued  through  a  half  century.  Edward  Godden, 
plasterer  and  stone  mason  of  the  time,  is  living  now  in  the  north  part  of  town. 

E.  M.  MacGraw  is  known  as  the  first  wagon  maker  and  J.  S.  Tuthill  followed 
him  in  the  same  trade.  Small  buildings  had  large  names  in  those  days,  one  bearing 
the  significant  title  of  "Tontine,"  was  used  as  post  office  and  clerk's  office  when 
Culbertson  was  appointed  district  clerk.     Richard  Hall  was  a  physician  and 


druggist  in  '44  to  '49,  when  the  California  fever  struck  the  town,  taking  a  number 
away  in  search  of  gold.  The  Friend  and  Culbertson  store  was  opened  in  1847. 
In  the  same  year  Alonzo  Shaw,  one  of  the  most  active  of  Tipton's  oldest  citizens 
until  his  removal  to  California  two  years  ago,  and  Col.  Smith  bought  the  hotd 
of  Culbertson  and  conducted  it  until  1850,  when  Samuel  Tomlinson  bought  it. 
William  Morton  also  opened  a  store  about  1847  in  a  two-story  building  which 
stood  formerly  where  Whan  and  Adams's  brick  building  was  erected,  as  before 
mentioned.  The  latter  building  was  erected  in  1876.  The  Hammond  stcwe  was 
north  of  the  square  in  the  building  now  used  by  Otis  Wilson  as  a  plumbing 
shop.  His  family  became  prominent  in  Tipton  affairs,  but  death  and  removal 
have  left  few  of  them.  One  landmark  here  must  not  be  forgotten — the  first 
brick  store  building  in  the  place.  This  is  the  long  building  on  the  comer  used  by 
the  Savings  Bank  at  the  present  time  and  other  business  below,  while  the  offices  of 
Hon.  John  T.  M<^t  are  above.  On  the  comer  diagonally  across  from  this 
building  recently  used  by  the  Elwood  store  is  the  building  erected  by  Charley 
Swetland,  who  came  here  in  1853  from  the  California  gold  fields.  He  is  one 
referred  to  frequently  in  Rochester  history,  coming  there  in  1837.  He  also 
built  the  frame  block  on  the  comer  south  of  the  public  square  used  recently  by 
Ross  as  a  place  of  amusement.  Kizer,  Crew,  and  Tumer  began  business  here 
with  a  general  stock  of  goods.  This  same  Swetland  b^;an  to  publish  "The 
Advertiser"  in  November,  1853,  and  to  complete  his  story  he  failed  in  business 
and  died  in  Utah,  far  from  the  scenes  of  his  intense  activity.  It  is  worth  while 
in  passing  to  say  that  the  '^ Advertiser"  files  are  complete  from  his  time  to  the 
present  issue.  Some  time  during  the  editorial  labors  of  D.  C.  Mott,  1893,  to  June, 
1897,  the  missing  files  were  returned,  making  a  valuable  record  which  is  pre- 
served, parts  of  it  in  bank  vaults. 

In  August,  1854,  W.  H.  Hammond,  known  as  the  "tinner,"  opened  a  hard- 
ware store.  A  drug  and  grocery  combined  (a  queer  combination  one  would 
think)  was  then  located  in  the  old  frame  building  of  Friend  and  Culbertson, 
which,  if  information  is  tmstworthy,  was  almost  opposite  the  "Palmer  House" 
on  Cedar  Street  or  near  the  present  site  of  the  Geiger  building.  It  is  said  that 
the  town  increased  one-fourth  in  size  this  year.  Misfortune  came  in  the  form  of 
fire  in  1870  and  destroyed  the  brick  building  erected  in  1857  by  Shaw  and  Bogly 
on  the  comer  now  occupied  by  the  National  Bank  building.  Samuel  Tomlinson 
built  the  brick  the  second  door  from  Cedar  Street  east,  north  of  the  square,  where 
Brotherlin  and  Gordon's  store  is  now,  in  1855  and  the  building  three  doors  east 
about  the  same  time. 

The  following  are  the  recollections  of  Tipton  in  1845  by  Alonzo  Shaw,  who 
came  here  in  July  of  that  year: 

"In  the  court  house  block  was  a  two-story  frame  building  about  40x50  feet; 
the  court  room  was  cm  the  ground  floor,  with  hall  and  stairway  on  the  south. 
It  fronted  to  the  south  and  the  clerk's  oflice  was  in  the  southwest  comer,  a  room 
about  12x16  feet.  The  upper  story  was  divided  into  four  rooms  for  office  rooms. 
The  Masonic  lodge  had  one  room-  rented.  The  treasurer  and  recorder  had  one 
room ;  it  was  all  one  office  then.  The  judge  of  the  court  was  Mr.  Williams,  of 
Muscatine,  a  Pennsylvanian,  who  held  the  crffice  by  appointment  of  the  president, 
a  comical  old  democrat  who  could  play  the  violin  and  clarionet  and  tell  as  good  a 



<^.'k      1.KNi*X     AND 


Story  as  anyone  present  He  came  up  here  to  hold  court  on  a  regular  term,  and 
the  Williams  boys  from  the  Wapsie  (or  Lowden  now)  and  the  Walton  boys  from 
Sugar  Credc  had  running  horses.  They  weren't  very  long  in  getting  up  a  bet  of 
$50  on  a  side.  The  race  was  to  come  off  at  2  o'clock  p.  m.  on  the  old  Muscatine 
road,  between  the  place  now  owned  by  Chas.  Swartzlender  and  the  Cottrell  black-* 
smith  sh<^.  It  appeared  as  if  every  man  in  the  county  was  here.  The  judge 
came  into  the  court  house  at  two  o'clock  p.  m.  and  called  the  court,  and  behold 
there  was  the  sheriff  and  two  attorneys ;  even  the  grand  jury  had  gone  to  the  race. 
The  judge  ordered  court  adjourned  until  the  next  morning  at  nine  a.  m.,  and  went 
over  to  the  Culbertscm  hotel  and  spent  the  balance  of  the  day  playing  on  the  violin. 
In  the  evening  the  judge  and  the  attorneys  gathered  in  the  hotel  for  a  social. 
There  was  John  P.  Cook,  Scott  Riclmian,  Stephen  Whicher  and  others,  singing 
songs,  telling  stories,  and  having  a  jolly  good  time  until  midnight,  when  J.  C. 
Culbertson,  J.  P.  Cook  and  some  others  were  so  exhausted  that  they  could  not 

"In  block  twenty-five,  south  of  the  court  house,  there  was  but  one  house.  It 
was  the  one  recently  torn  down  by  Roy  McKee.  A  man  from  Virginia  by  the 
name  of  Epperson  lived  there.  He  had  quite  a  family  of  girls.  He  was  a  drink- 
ing  man  and  when  in  those  moods  told  some  very  large  stories.  To  illustrate: 
He  said  in  Virginia  where  he  lived  it  was  near  the  hot  springs,  and  in  the  fall  of 
the  year  when  the  hog^  got  fat,  all  they  had  tp  do  was  to  drive  the  hogs  through  a 
spring  and  then  out  through  a  crabapple  thicket  and  they  were  ready  to  Imife 
and  hang  up. 

''In  block  17,  east  of  the  court  house  there  were  but  two  buildings;  one 
was  a  two-story  hewed  log  jail  about  16x32,  the  lower  story  having  two  rooms. 
It  was  built  double  like  a  fort,  with  one  window  in  each  cell  made  of  iron  rods 
crossed,  and  Asa  Young,  when  he  was  put  in  there  for  stabbing  Sheriff  Pat 
Fleming  with  a  pen  knife,  said  he  'Didn't  like  to  look  out  o'  them  ten  o'  diamonds.' 
The  upper  story  was  intended  for  the  jailor.  It  was  built  by  J.  K.  Snyder  and 
stood  on  the  west  end  of  Mrs.  Stafford's  lot,  being  lot  i,  block  17.  The  other 
building  in  said  block  17  was  Addison  Gillett's,  now  occupied  by  Basil  Wiggins, 
it  being  a  part  of  the  old  back  part  of  said  residence,  and  was  sold  to  Willard 
Hammond  in  1849. 

''Block  19,  west  of  the  court  house,  had  but  two  buildings  upon  it  and  they 
belonged  to  Dr.  Richard  Hall.  One  was  a  small  frame  building  occupied  as  his 
residence,  standing  back  from  the  street,  and  in  front  of  which  was  a  small 
frame  building  occupied  by  said  doctor  as  a  drug  store.  I  think  they  stood  on 
lot  4  of  block  19. 

"Block  II,  north  of  the  court  square,  had  but  two  buildings  and  a  small  stable. 
A.  Gillett  had  a  small  general  stock  of  goods  in  a  small  frame  building  about 
16x24  f^^  standing  on  lot  5  in  said  block  11,  near  where  Brotherlin's  drug  store 
now  stands,  and  that  was  the  only  store  in  Tipton,  except  Dr.  Hall's  drug  store. 
The  Fleming  hotel  stood  right  where  the  cottage  stands  today.  It  was  a  small 
story  and  a  half  building  at  that  time.  There  was  a  small  stable  back  on  the  alley, 
and  those  were  all  the  buildings  then  on  block  11. 

"In  block  10,  northwest  diagonal  from  the  court  square,  there  were  but  two 
buildings  and  a  stable.    A  large  two-story  log  house  about  20x36  feet  stood  on 


lot  I  in  said  block  lo,  and  a  man  by  the  name  of  Lee  and  his  family  lived  there. 
There  was  a  shed  addition  on  the  west  side  about  12  feet  wide,  and  John  Stubble* 
field's  father  was  nmning  a  saddle  and  harness  shop  in  it.  This  was  where  the 
First  National  Bank  now  stands. 

"The  old  J.  C.  Culbertson  hotel,  the  most  prominent  place  in  Tipton  at  that 
time,  was  located  where  the  City  Hall  now  stands.  It  was  a  two-story  frame 
building  about  16x32  feet,  with  a  porch  the  length  of  the  front  and  a  story  and  a 
half  log  building  in  the  rear  as  an  ell,  used  as  a  dining  room  and  kitchen,  16x20 
feet,  and  a  small  stable  on  the  alley.    These  were  all  the  buildings  on  block  10. 

"The  first  store  in  Tipton  was  started  in  the  log  house  on  the  comer  where 
the  Natbnal  Bank  now  is.  J.  P.  Cook  brought  an  old  stock  of  goods  from  die 
mouth  of  Pine  Creek  on  the  Mississippi,  below  Davenport,  and  started  a  store  in 
this  building.  After  a  time  Judge  W.  H.  Tuthill  came  to  Tipton.  He  had  pre- 
viously located  at  Moscow",  buying  a  saloon  there  and  running  it  about  six  months. 
But  selling  whisky  wasn't  congenial  to  the  Judge  and  he  sold  out  and  came  to 
TiptCHi  and  bought  J.  P.  Cook's  store,  and  was  consequently  the  second  merchant 
of  Tipton.  The  Judge  having  been  raised  in  the  city  of  New  York  and  having 
his  full  share  of  egotism,  the  pec^le  sought  to  reduce  his  pride  and  make  a  western 
man  of  him.  In  the  spring  he  went  to  St.  Louis  for  goods  to  rq)lenish  his  store. 
Our  elections  were  then  held  in  the  spring  of  the  year.  While  the  Judge  was 
absent  they  elected  him  for  constable,  having  no  idea  that  he  would  accept  it 
under  any  circumstances,  but  the  Judge  disai^>ointed  them.  He  accepted  the 
ofiice,  qualified  and  made  ont  of  the  best  constables  they  ever  had. 

"As  an  illustration  of  western  character.  Col.  Preston,  late  of  Marion,  Iowa, 
father  of  Judge  Preston,  had  located  in  Iowa  City  in  the  early  forties,  a  graduate 
of  the  law,  and  stuck  out  his  shingle.  When  the  next  election  came  he  was  nomi- 
nated for  constaUe.  There  was  a  noted  Newfoundland  dog  in  the  town  and  the 
men  wrote  tickets  putting  on  the  name  of  the  dog,  which  was  elected  constable. 
It  made  the  colonel  quite  out  of  patience  to  be  treated  in  that  way  and  he  pulled 
down  hb  shingle,  left  town  and  located  in  Marion,  where  he  became  one  of  ttie 
most  popular  and  noted  prosecutors  in  the  law  in  the  state  of  Iowa. 

"In  block  5,  due  north  of  10,  there  were  but  two  buildings.  One  was  a  story 
and  a  half  frame  house  occupied  by  Jacob  A.  Haight  and  hb  family.  His  wife 
died  here  and  in  1849  ^^  ^^^^  o^^i*  ^^^  plains  to  Oregon.  His  son  Charles  lives 
near  The  Dalles  in  Oregon.  The  other  building  was  a  blacksmith  shop  built  by 
Robert  Adams,  and  afterwards  was  burned,  it  being  the  first  building  burned  in 

"In  block  4,  east  of  block  10,  there  were  two  buildings.  On  lot  8  there  was  a* 
log  house  16x24  feet,  occupied  by  Dr.  Whitlock,  with  a  family  of  five  children. 
The  doctor  was  a  character.  While  a  very  good  physician  he  was  always  in 
trouble  with  some  one,  and  his  associaticms  were  bad;  he  was  said  to  have  be- 
longed to  the  Mormon  church.  Tipton  rejoiced  when  he  and  his  family  left  for 
California  in  1849.  On  lot  10  in  said  Mock  4  was  the  residence  of  Wm.  H. 
Tuthill,  a  small  story  and  a  half  frame  house. 

"In  Jennings's  addition  to  Tipton,  on  lot  8  in  block  3,  was  a  log  house  where 
Mr.  HuflF  and  his  wife  lived ;  it  was  where  Peter  Monk  now  lives.  Mr.  HuflF  was 
a  brother-in  law  of  Solonum  Aldrich ;  he  went  to  California  in  1849. 


Old  Hammond  elore  nhoviu  third  from  the  ri);ht. 

'r  .it 


»'X     VND 







''On  lots  5  and  6  in  block  4,  Jennings's  addition  to  Tipton,  was  a  house  and 
bam.  They  were  built  by  John  P.  Code  and  he  lived  in  the  house.  It  was  the 
old  part  of  the  house  where  E.  C.  Gillam  now  lives.  I  bought  the  J.  P.  Cock 
house  and  lots  and  he  moved  across  the  street  into  a  house  then  vacant  on  lot  i  in 
Uock  5.  Capt.  Wm.  Dean  afterwards  purchased  the  property.  He  tore  down  the 
old  house  and  built  the  present  one  thereon. 

''Then  on  lots  5  and  6  in  blodc  10,  Uncle  Abraham  Lett  lived  in  a  frame 
house  with  an  Iowa  staUe  north  of  the  house,  and  an  80-acre  farm,  it  being  a 
part  of  the  Hartwell  (dace. 

"On  the  first  Monday  morning  of  January,  1846, 1  saddled  my  horse  and  rode 
to  Dtibuque  to  the  land  office  and  entered  a  quarter  section  of  land,  it  being  the 
8a  acres  now  the  Sherwood  farm,  and  the  80  acres  now  a  part  of  the  J.  W.  Reeder 
farm,  lying  on  the  road  and  j<Mning  on  the  south  the  county  farm. 

"There  was  a  small  story  and  a  half  house  standing  on  lots  5  and  6  in  Mock 
9,  as  near  as  I  can  now  locate  it,  empty.  It  belonged  to  the  Cummins  estate,  he 
having  died  in  that  house,  the  widow  having  moved  away.  She  afterwards 
became  the  wife  of  the  Rev.  John  W.  Kynett.  The  only  other  house  then  standing 
in  Tipton,  including  the  Jennings  addition,  was  the  old  Petrikin  house,  quite  a 
large  two-story  frame  building,  standing  on  block  7  in  said  Jennings  addition. 
It  was  s<Mnewhat  dilapidated  at  that  time,  having. been  previously  used  for  public 
meetings  of  all  kinds  and  for  a  scho(^  house.  This  includes  all  the  buildings 
standing  in  Tipton  in  1845,  and  there  wasn't  a  tree  growing  of  any  kind  except  a 
crabapple  and  plum  grove  thicket  with  a  few  scrub  oak  cm  Uodc  14.  Some  of 
those  scrub  oaks  are  now  large  trees.  It  seems  strange  to  me  that  growth  of  trees 
in  fifty  years  will  make  such  a  change  in  the  surface  of  a  prairie  country,  and 
the  denuding  of  a  country  of  its  timber  makes  fully  as  much  change. 

"In  the  early  '40s  I  bought  tot  i  in  block  19,  for  $25.  Within  a  year  the 
Congregationalists  wanted  it  to  build  a  church  on,  and  gave  me  $75  for  it,  and 
the  church  stood  there  until  the  land  became  valuable  for  business  purposes. 

"I  built  the  first  brick  house  in  Tipton  in  1850.  The  house  has  since  been 
built  over  and  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Ab  Kdler. 

"The  only  person  living  in  Tipton  that  was  living  here  in  1845  is  Mrs.  Ellen 
McQure,  she  being  the  daughter  of  Abraham  Lett.  All  others  have  either  died 
or  moved  away.'* 

Manby  and  Ingman  began  business  as  clothiers  in  the  new  Ttnnlinson  build- 
ing in  1856. 

Casad  and  Gilmore  opened  their  "Great  Western  Qothing  Emporium"  in  Sep- 
tember, 1856.  They  bought  out  the  firm  of  Manby  and  Ingman  in  '57  and  con- 
tinued their  business  at  the  same  stand  for  many  years.  This  business  is  con- 
tinued by  Gilmore  and  Rhoelk  at  this  time  at  the  same  stand,  one  of  two  in  Tipton 
of  such  kmg  standing.  At  that  time  there  were  four  hotels  in  the  place  and  much 
business  activity,  but  no  railroad  yet,  and  this  prevented  rapid  growth.  Under 
die  chapter  on  transportation  will  be  found  the  struggle  for  an  outlet  by  rail. 
What  occurred  during  war  times  must  be  told  elsewhere. 

The  town  of  Tipton  was  incorporated  in  1852,  when  the  first  attempt  at  organi- 
zation was  made.  No  regularly  organized  council  attempted  to  do  business, 
according  to  "Advertiser"  files,  until  1855.    The  paper  for  July  22,  1854,  states 


that :  '^e  are  now  on  the  second  year  of  our  town's  incorporation,  and  as  yet 
nothing  has  been  done  1^  the  councihnen  toward  so  much  as  an  organization  to 
do  business.  We  su£Fered  the  incumbency  of  one  set  of  town  officers  for  fourteen 
long  months  without  any  activity.  At  our  last  town  election  we  changed  hands 
on  our  Board  of  Town  Supervisors  and  hope  we  have  profited  by  the  bargain, 
but  as  3ret  we  have  no  assurance  that  they  will  do  any  better  than  the  old  ones.'' 
From  a  further  statement  tiie  first  active  council  must  have  met  the  following 
year,  for  it  reads  as  follows :  "At  the  first  meeting  of  the  Town  Council,  Mon- 
day, August  6,  185s,  J.  W.  Cattell  was  elected  pi;^sideht  and  Geo.  Bagley  cleric 
At  a  meeting  held  on  Saturday,  August  11,  S.  S:^19aniels  and  Wells  Spicer  were 
appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  new  charter."^*^^  In  November,  1855,  ^^ 
people  voted  against  a  city  charter,  but  two  years  later  approved  it,  so  that  it  was 
incorporated  in  1857  subject  to  an  act  of  the  assembly.  An  election  was  held  in 
February  on  the  question  and  it  is  supposed  to  have  carried  since  officers  under 
the  charter  were  elected  the  following  April.  In  1865  the  old  charter  was  aban- 
doned and  the  town  came  under  the  general  law  of  the  state  relating  to  corpora- 
tions. From  the  council,  records  the  following  is  taken:  "On  motion  a  com- 
mittee of  two  was  appointed  to  circulate  a  petition  for  signature  of  those  who  were 
in  favor  of  abandcming  the  old  charter  and  organizing  under  the  present  law. 
Parsons  and  Smith,  committee.  A  petition  with  fifty-six  names  in  favor  of 
abandonment  was  presented.  The  election  on  the  subject  was  called  and  duly 
carried  with  only  one  dissenting  vote.  Presumption  is  in  favor  of  the  conclusi<m 
that  reorganizaticm  took  place  at  once,  although  records  are  wanting  on  the 

The  population  of  Tipton  in  1858  was  given  by  the  census  then  taken  as 
1,285 — ^three  colored  and  three  in  jail.  It  was  about  this  time  that  property  took 
on  a  large  increase  in  value,  for  it  is  menticmed  in  a  very  enthusiastic  way  that  in 
a  sin^e  transaction  the  entire  amount  of  $2,000  was  paid  in  cash,  an  unheard-of 
thing  up  to  this  date.  This  was  due  to  the  new  railroad  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  county,  the  C.  I.  &  N.  (C.  &  N.  W.) 

In  1881  the  first  project  for  lighting  the  town  is  referred  to  when  a  Mr. 
Brown,  representing  the  Brush  Electric  Light  Company,  met  with  the  council 
and  a  number  of  business  men,  and  laid  before  them  the  proposition  which  was 
substantially  as  follows :  The  parties  proposing  the  plant  stood  ready  to  make 
an  investment  of  seven  or  eight  thousand  dollars  and  to  erect  upon  an  iron  tube 
forty  feet  above  the  court  house  cupola  four  lights  of  2,000  oindle  power  -each, 
warranted  to  furnish  good  and  satisfactory  light  for  at  least  half  a  mile  in  all 
directions,  and  to  furnish  and  maintain  the  same  for  an  annual  rental  of  five 
hundred  dollars  per  annum.  This  upon  condition  that  the  town  furnish  the  neces- 
sary care  of  the  engine  and  that  twelve  business  houses  agree  to  light  with  elec- 
tricity at  an  annual  rental  of  seventy-five  dollars  each.  Only  twelve  could  be 
supplied  with  the  generator  in  contemplation  and  ten  at  this  time  bad  agreed 
to  do  so. 

The  same  company  at  this  time  had  a  plant  at  Dubuque  ready  for  trial  when 
the  moan  did  not  shine,  and  it  was  to  go  from  there  to  DesMoines  for  trial.  The 
agent  offered  to  bring  it  here  for  trial  on  the  way  to  DesMoines  if  tiie  cost  was 
borne  locally  and  it  was  adopted  if  satisfactory.*^* 















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In  accordance  with  the  plan  it  came  about  in  May,  1882,  that  a  practical  test 
of  the  Brush  light  was  made  in  Tipton.  A  temporary  structure  was  erected 
abore  the  court  house  cupola  and  three  globes  suspended  from  the  top.  The 
description  of  the  arc  lamp  is  made  very  minute  in  the  statement  "that  it  con- 
sisted of  a  glass  globe  surrounding  two  carbon  points  or  sticks  made  of  ground 
coke  pressed  into  shape  and  thinly  coated  with  copper,  with  only  sufficient 
apparatus  to  hold  them  in  position  and  permit  the  upper  one  to  slide  up  and  down, 
etc"  The  complete  analysis  of  the  process,  now  familiar  to  every  school  boy, 
was  at  that  time  a  marvel. 

On  the  night  trial  three  lamps  of  three  thousand  candle  power  each  produced 
the  impression  that  was  expected.  The  general  verdict  from  the  observers, 
which  included  the  entire  population  of  the  town  and  ccMisiderable  of  the  sur- 
rounding country  was  enthusiastically  in  favor  of  the  light.  The  council  at  once 
passed  a  resolution  agreeing  to  pay  the  five  hundred  dollars  annually  for  five 
years  and  the  subscribers  for  the  twelve  individual  lights  were  soon  secured.  A 
stock  company  was  organized  with  a  capital  of  five  thousand  dollars  to  finance 
the  company,  the  shares  being  placed  at  fifty  dollars  each  to  encourage  a  large 
number  of  stockhdders.  The  company  when  org^ization  was  completed  adopted 
the  name,  "The  Tipton  Electric  Light  and  Power  Company,"  and  the  first  stock- 
holders numbered  twenty,  holding  shares  from  one  to  twenty. 

In  July,  1882,  the  tower,  one  hundred  and  fifty-six  feet  high,  was  completed 
and  temporary  connections  made  for  illumination.  This  plant  was  used  for  sev- 
eral years,  when  it  was  burned  and  later  an  ordinance,  number  fifty-five,  was  sub- 
mitted for  approval  of  the  voters  of  the  corporation  which  granted  the  privilege  of 
operating  a  plant  for  ten  years  to  a  company. 

An  enterprise  of  considerable  importance  at  the  time  was  the  construction  of 
the  old  steam  mill  in  1850  by  a  joint  stock  company.  It  had  a  capacity  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  bushels  per  day,  but  its  operation  was  not  continuous.  In 
December,  1886,  this  old  mill  went  up  in  smoke.  Its  original  cost  was  about 
twelve  thousand  dollars,  in  the  hands  of  the  original  stockholders,  J.  P.  Code, 
Judge  Tuthill,  Samuel  Long,  Jr.,  and  others,  which  amount  would  be  equivalent  to 
double  that  now.^^^  The  Shearers  owned  it  for  some  years  and  ran  it  success- 
fully until  the  days  of  making  flour  from  wheat  grown  at  home  had  passed.  It 
then  became  a  mill  for  feed  and  meal  only  in  the  hands  of  D.  Meyers,  who  had 
possession  when  it  burned. 

The  city  water  works  were  first  mentioned  in  a  practical  way  in  August, 
1887.  At  that  time  Judge  Treichlcr  reported  $1,300  raised  by  subscription  to 
commence  the  drilling  of  a  deep  well.  From  September,  1887,  to  April,  1888,  the 
well  was  put  down  2,000  feet.  The  attempt  was  made  to  secure  a  flowing  well 
and  a  depth  of  2,699  ^^^t  finally  reached  by  the  contractor  before  drilling  ceased. 
The  last  two  hundred  feet  cost  the  stmi  of  $1440,  the  total  cost  amounting  to 


After  the  construction  of  the  deep  well  in  '87  and  '88  the  proposition  to  vote 

bonds  for  water  works  was  submitted  to  the  people.    The  vote  took  place  in 

August  of  the  latter  year  and  stood  271  in  favor  of  the  proposition  to  32  against 

it    The  amount  voted,  seven  thousand  dollars,  provided  mains  for  four  blocks 

only,  the  remaining  portion  of  the  town  being  left  for  some  future  extension  of 


mains.  The  cost  of  the  well,  2,6ggy2  feet  deq),  was  given  as  $8,8iS  for  the 
drilling  akme,  and  the  bond  issue  was  to  provide  for  its  immediate  use. 

The  lowest  bid  on  the  standpipe  when  bids  were  opened  in  the  fall  of  1888 
was  $11^300  for  brick  118  feet  high.  This  alone  being  beyond  the  amount  voted 
for  the  purpose,  the  council  was  compelled  to  wait  for  further  expression  of  the 
public  opinion  on  the  subject.  This  meant  the  postponement  of  any  action  for 
this  year.  In  1889,  January  15,  bids  were  opened  for  the  construction  of  die  city 
water  works.  The  lowest  bidder,  George  C.  Morgan  of  Chicago,  was  awarded  the 
contract  for  the  entire  work.  The  bid  as  made  was  $9,997,  but  some  additions 
where  increased  cost  was  necessary  due  to  change  in  plans  were  made  to  this  price. 
Some  discussion  occurred  at  that  time  relative  to  the  location  of  the  water  tower, 
whether  on  the  highest  point  in  the  corporation  or  at  the  well.  At  a  later  meeting 
of  the  city  council  it  was  put  on  the  property  already  owned  by  the  town  for 
economy's  sake. 

There  are  many  items  of  interest  in  connection  with  the  town  life  that  have  no 
real  sequence  as  to  the  results  that  may  come  from  them.  A  suggestion  here  and 
there  that  at  the  time  bears  no  fruit,  yet  a  long  time  after  it  can  be  traced  in  the 
actions  taken  by  individuals  or  authorities.  This  is  illustrated  by  the  time  it 
took  to  secure  fire  protection  in  any  of  the  smaller  towns.  Not  until  severe 
catastrophe  had  come  upon  the  town  did  any  movement  to  secure  apparatus 
succeed.  In  1870  n^otiations  were  opened  to  secure  a  fire  engine,  but  none  was 
purchased  until  1875.    The  first  investment  amounted  to  $2,000. 

This  is  not  necessarily  connected  with  tiie  great  improvement  in  residence 
property  in  1892,  yet  it  may  have  some  bearing  on  the  investment  of  capital  in 
such  form.  In  addition  to  the  taking  on  of  city  improvements  in  1896  Tipton 
became  a  city  of  the  second  class  when  it  was  divided  into  three  wards  as  now. 

During  the  year  1898  the  improvements  were  especially  noted,  an  amount  given 
as  sixty  thousand  dollars  being  invested  in  buildings,  both  residence  and  business 
property.  The  papers  made  special  note  of  tiie  growth  during  diat  year.  The 
hotel  built  by  a  stock  ccxnpany  had  been  completed  in  1894.^^^  About  1901  the 
paving  proposition  came  before  the  council,  which  resulted  in  the  work  com- 
mencing in  the  business  section  in  October  of  that  year.  This  was  laid  tiien  on 
two  sides  of  the  square  and  business  section  only.  The  brick  paving  in  the  busi- 
ness street  soudi  of  the  square  and  the  residence  portion  of  Fourth  Street,  or 
that  which  is  called  the  Boulevard,  was  completed  in  the  fall  of  1903.  Since  that 
time  it  has  been  in  litigation  either  on  the  part  of  the  town  or  property  headers 
for  a  number  of  years  after  the  ccmtractor  pronounced  his  part  of  the  work 
finished.  The  courts  have  decided  in  the  end  that  the  work  was  not  done  accord- 
ing to  specifications  and  for  that  reason  the  contractor  has  never  been  able  to 
collect  his  money.  The  supreme  court  has  said  that  the  ccmtract  must  be  com- 
pleted exactly  as  specified. 

The  present  city  officials  are :  Mayor,  Dr.  W.  A.  Grove ;  Qerk,  Chas.  Foy ; 
Councilmen,  L.  F.  Kuhn,  W.  T.  Gilmore,  L.  J.  Rowell,  Paul  Downing,  Ed.  S. 

Among  the  first  settlers  in  Springdale  Township  was  E.  K.  Morse,  then  a 
young  man,  who  entered  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Muscatine  County  line  not  far 
from  the  west  line  of  Cedar.    This  was  near  the  present  site  of  Downey.    Here 

Wasbin^ton  Street,  Looking  Wes 

r  •    ,*     ,v'     1,1  r.  .^  A   ^  I 


he  buiU  a  cabin  and  afterward,  about  1840,  sold  this  claim  to  Andrew  and  Wm. 

These  two,  with  A.  G.  Smith,  Enos  Nyce,  George  Barnes  and  Chester  Cole- 
man formed  the  first  settlement  in  the  township.  Their  nearest  mill  was 
Rock  Island  or  Moline.  The  Indians  were  numerous  in  this  neighborhood  then 
and  they  were  not  willing,  exactly,  to  surrender  these  happy  hunting  grounds  to 
the  white  man.  They  did  not  hesitate  to  remove  fences  nor  to  run  their  ponies 
through  growing  crops.  In  this  connection  it  may  be  mentioned  that  they  were 
charged  with  the  murder  of  a  pioneer  preacher  by  the  name  of  Atwood.  None 
of  them  could  be  found  whose  guilt  was  certain  enough  to  make  the  execution 
of  a  penalty  possible.  In  1847  J^^^  Larue,  Simeon  Barnes,  and  in  1849  A.  B. 
Cornwall,  Reuben  Elliott,  Hanson  Gregg  and  John  Wright  had  settled  in  the 

One  authority  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  settlement  of  this  township  proper 
did  not  b^n  in  earnest  until  about  1850.  Since  this  territory  west  of  the  river 
was  all  in  cme  township  at  first  it  may  be  difficult  to  tell  just  the  point  of  time 
in  the  settlement  of  individuals.  Not  until  1853  was  this  township  made  a  sepa- 
rate jurisdiction.  It  then  included  part  of  the  present  township  of  Gower,  and 
remained  so  for  two  years.  The  first  justices  were  Thomas  James  and  Joseph 
Chase;  Constable,  Levi  Coppock;  Trustees,  Moses  Vamey  and  Samuel  Macy. 
The  first  election  was  held  in  1852  at  the  Springdale  post  c^fice. 

J.  H.  Painter  began  improvements  in  th^  northeast  comer  of  the  township  in 
1849.  During  the  two  or  three  years  following  a  number  of  families  settled  in 
this  vicinity. 

The  Society  of  Friends  built  their  meeting  house  near  Springdale  in  1851,  and 
it  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  house  for  such  purposes  in  the  county.  It  was 
built  of  gravel  and  had  a  cement  roof  and  was  used  for  a  number  of  years.*^* 

The  mail  service  through  this  section  was  furnished  by  a  stage  line  from 
Davenport  to  Iowa  City  cared  for  by  George  Albin  and  his  son,  Joseph  Albin,  who 
is  now  a  very  interesting  pioneer  of  West  Branch,  and  his  account  given  recently 
is  found  elsewhere.  Told  by  himself  the  story  is  full  of  life,  and  one  may  under- 
stand how  the  early  settlers  in  this  township  waited  for  their  mail  service  from  day 
to  day  on  the  ten-hour  trips.  Much  trouble  was  experienced  by  those  driving 
heavy  loads  when  they  came  to  the  sloughs  of  uncertain  depth  of  mud  and  water, 
and  the  doubling  of  teams  or  unloading  was  often  the  only  method  of  finally  and 
surely  landing  on  the  other  side.  Temporary  bridges  were  often  carried  away  and 
must  be  returned  by  human  eflFort  since  teams  could  not  be  brought  to  the  point 
of  lodgment.  The  neighborly  nature  of  men  was  best  shown  in  the  distress  of 
stranded  loads  in  these  swamps,  which  after  years  of  settlement  and  cultivation 
of  the  soil  have  practically  disappeared. 

The  early  settlers  of  Springdale  Township  must  be  also  the  early  inhabitants 
of  Iowa  Township,  since  at  this  time  all  the  territory  lying  west  of  tihe  river  was 
in  one  division,  being  one  of  the  five  first  organized  by  the  county  commis- 
sioners. John  H.  Painter,  Ann  Coppock,  the  mother  of  the  boys  Edwin  and 
Barclay,  who  are  fully  spoken  of  in  the  John  Brown  chapter,  are  among  the  first 
settlers.    Levi  Leland  and  Levi  Fawcett,  whose  name  still  remains  among  the 


present  land  owners  of  the  township,  Moses  Vamey,  whose  descendants  still 
reside  in  the  vicinity,  and  Dr.  Gill,  all  came  in  1850. 

After  1850  the  settlement  was  more  rapid  and  the  first  store  was  opened  in 
1851  by  Louis  Schofield  and  Thomas  Winn.  The  latter  is  mentioned  in  another 
connection  when  he  went  to  Harper's  Ferry  on  the  mission  of  mercy  to  Edwin 
Coppock.  Winn  was  the  postmaster  when  the  Albins  carried  the  mail  from 
Davenport  to  Iowa  City.  Jesse  Bowersock  settled  in  Iowa  Township  in  1844, 
afterwards  in  Springdale,  where  he  kept  a  store  as  he  had  on  his  land  in  the 
former  home.  Macy  and  Fawcett  later  had  a  store  on  the  same  site.  Thomas 
Fawcett  still  lives  in  the  township,  having  been  there  all  these  years.  Jonathan 
Maxson,  now  of  West  Liberty,  also  had  a  mercantile  business.  He  has  since 
been  postmaster  of  West  Liberty  for  some  seventeen  years.  Thomas  James,  who 
was  prominent  in  county  affairs  and  the  father  of  Jesse  James,  county  clerk,  was 
once  in  business  here.  His  widow  still  survives  at  the  age  of  more  than  ninety 
years.  Her  picture  accompanies  the  reference.  Elwood  Macy,  referred  to  above, 
will  be  mentioned  in  the  discussion  of  the  Cedar  County  members  of  the  State 

There  is  an  old  blacksmith  shop  in  Springdale  that  gives  evidence  of  long  use. 
This  was  established  in  an  early  day.  The  first  one  referred  to  in  the  place  -was 
built  by  Eli  Heald  about  1853.  Ed.  ManfuU  and  Sol.  Heald  succeeded  each  other 
in  the  wagon  repairing  and  smith  woiic  In  an  early  day  the  making  of  carriages 
was  a  prosperous  industry  conducted  by  D.  Schooley.  Then  was  the  time  that 
the  home  product  was  consumed  on  the  spot  and  the  shop  that  could  repair  and 
produce  the  entire  product  had  the  advantage.  The  agricultural  societies  offered 
inducements  to  the  maker  of  the  useful,  and  at  this  time  the  man  who  a>uld 
improve  upon  the  tools  then  in  use  was  sure  to  have  plenty  to  encourage  him.^<^* 

The  old  business  of  cheesemaking  and  like  products  under  the  co-operative 
plan  was  once  in  order  in  the  township,  and  one  called  the  CcAd  Stream  Cheese 
Factory  was  operated  by  a  stock  company.  It  was  located  on  the  southeast  comer 
of  section  two  and  now  appears  on  the  map  as  a  creamery.  The  old  West  Branch 
factory  is  also  run  as  a  creamery. 

Springdale  has  not  changed  much  with  the  passing  years.  It  still  has  no 
railway  service  and  must  depend  on  rural  delivery  and  the  telq)hone  for  com- 
munication with  the  neighboring  towns.  Just  now  there  is  a  movement  to  secure 
the  proposed  interurban  from  Iowa  City  to  Davenport,  which  would  give  ccm- 
nection  with  the  main  lines  of  road  and  with  the  county  seat.  The  business  inter- 
ests of  Springdale  are  in  the  hands  of  a  few  people  as  compared  to  the  time  when 
the  railroad  was  further  removed. 

This  part  of  Cedar  is  one  of  the  richest  and  most  desirable  of  the  farming 
communities  that  are  the  pride  of  the  county.  Of  high  moral  tone,  distinctly 
religious,  and  sensible  in  all  things  that  make  for  good  citizenship,  one  can  under- 
stand its  prosperity  and  influence  in  public  affairs. 

A  Springdale  correspondent  gives  in  a  sympathetic  way  th^  sketch  of  a  man 
who  belongs  in  history  under  many  titles.  Educational  interests  knew  him  well ; 
church  interests  knew  him  better;  government  service  was  acquainted  with  his 
best  efforts;  many  articles  on  public  questions  came  from  his  pen;  but  all 
human-  advancement  knew  him  best.    This  man  was  Lawrie  Tatimi,  who  came 


to  Springdale  in  1844.  In  July,  1871,  he  was  appointed  by  President  Grant 
United  States  Indian  Oxnmissioner  with  headquarters  at  Fort  Sill,  Oklahoma. 
The  call  came  to  him  without  preliminary  notice  and  he  respc«ided,  and  with  the 
assistance  of  his  wife  served  seven  thousand  Indians  for  a  period  of  four  years. 

For  many  reasons  this  man  is  known  through  written  productions.  ''Our 
Red  Brothers  and  the  Peace  Policy  of  President  Grant"  is  said  to  be  largely  his 
work.  His  magazine  articles  are  nimierousand  the  pen  was  always  a  favorite 
method  of  bis  to  give  utterance  to  high  ideals  of  citizenship.  His  last  production 
was  a  letter  to  a  Des  Moines  daily  giving  expression  to  his  opposition  to  the 
Boer  War.    He  died  in  January,  1900. 

The  landmark  of  Centredale  is  the  old  stone  house  built  by  Joseph  Ball  in 
1862.  Its  history  is  about  as  follows :  Centredale  was  established  on  the  farm 
of  Mr.  Ball  when  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.,  now  part  of  the  Rock  Island  system,  was 
built  thnmgh  there.  In  the  year  1850  John  Ball  came  to  the  vicinity  of  Centre- 
dale,  two  years  later  James  Ball,  and  in  1854  John  S.  Smith  and  son.  There  was 
a  district  school  house  here  and  the  railroad  used  it  as  a  depot  until  one  could 
be  built  The  school  building  was  afterward  used  as  a  store.  In  1862  the  house 
mentioned  above  was  erected  as  a  farm  dwelling  and  is  for  the  time  quite  modem. 
The  great  effort  it  required  and  the  time  it  took  to  get  the  material  together 
is  the  matter  of  interest.  The  stone  came  from  near  the  quarry  now  known  as 
Bealer's,  nine  miles  from  the  site  of  the  house,  and  they  were  hauled  with  ox 
teams,  which  required  the  greater  part  of  three  years  to  complete  the  work  of 
gathering  the  stone,  sand,  and  lime  for  the  stmcture.  The  land  where  this  house 
stands  was  entered  by  Joseph  Ball  in  1840,  or  about  that  date,  but  the  family  were 
not  destined  to  occupy  the  land  n<M'  house  for  any  length  of  time,  all  but  one  being 
called  by  death.  B.  F.  Ball,  the  survivor,  left  the  county  for  California  in  1873. 
Later  he  built  a  beautiful  home  of  stone  and  pressed  brick  resembling,  so  it  is 
described,  the  old  house  at  Centredale,  at  an  expense  of  sixty  thousand  dollars. 
Just  as  the  story  is  told  almost,  the  family  is  brdcen  by  death  and  the  estate  of  the 
former  owner  of  the  old  house  was  given  as  three  hundred  thousand  dollars. 

Centredale  is  but  a  small  station,  but  the  story  of  the  old  house  may  give  it  a^ 
setting  of  interest. 

Most  of  the  history  of  Downey  is  told  in  connection  with  Springdale  township, 
but  its  name  is  not  mentioned  only  by  reference  to  settlers  in  that  vicinity.  It 
is  in  the  extreme  southwest  part  of  the  county  and  must  be  reached  from  the  other 
parts  by  means  of  the  Rock  Island  through  West  Liberty.  The  name  comes 
from  Hugh  D.  Downey,  the  man  who  laid  out  the  town.  The  land  on  which  it  is 
situated  was  entered  by  James  B.  Berryhill  in  1852,  and  afterwards  transferred  to 
Mr.  Downey,  who  afterwards  sold  the  site  of  the  town  to  A.  B.  Cornwall,  when 
it  was  resurveyed.  Downey  has  at  the  present  time  a  school  building  of  sufficient 
pretensicms  to  meet  the  needs  of  a  town  much  larger  in  population  and  has 
attempted  to  raise  the  standard  of  the  schools  far  beyond  most  districts  of  the 
valuation.    An  elevator  and  bank  are  among  the  recent  improvements. 

The  town  of  Durant  was  laid  out  and  platted  by  Benjamin  Bra3rton  in  1854,  a 
civil  engineer  then  in  the  empk>y  of  the  Rock  Island  railway.  The  name  Brayton 
remained  with  the  town  for  some  time,  but  it  finally  took  its  present  title  from 
T.  C.  Durant,  of  Union  Pacific  railroad  fame,  who  pledged  himself  to  give  eight 


hundred  dollars  for  the  erecticm  of  a  public  school  building.  The  town  is  r^;u- 
larly  laid  out  and  the  streets  are  eighty  feet  in  width,  running*  ahnost  according 
to  the  points  of  the  compass. 

Durant  is  about  twenty  miles  west  of  Davenport  and  is  situated  in  one  of  the 
richest  farming  communities  in  the  state.  In  another  part  of  this  book  is  found 
a  statement  of  its  banks  which  shows  something  to  prove  the  assertion.  Accord- 
ing to  the  records  the  town  was  incorporated  in  April,  1867,  after  it  had  been 
platted  for  thirteen  years.  H.  C.  Loomis  and  A.  D.  Peridns  filed  the  petitioo. 
The  first  mayor  was  Allen  Nesbitt,  a  justice  of  the  peace  at  the  time.  In  the  sur- 
vey of  1854  two  large  squares  were  left  for  public  purposes— one  in  the  east  and 
one  in  the  west  part  of  the  village.  In  the  accompanying  picture  the  present 
condition  of  the  west  square  is  shown — ^filled  with  the  shade  trees  put  there  in 
the  early  days  of  the  town. 

The  earliest  settlers  in  this  vicinity  were  David  and  Geo.  Walton,  who  opened 
their  claims  three  miles  west  in  connection  with  their  father,  David  W.,  in  May, 
1836.  When  this  was  written  they  were  said  to  have  been  the  oldest  settlers  in 
the  county,  and  this  is  not  now  disputed.  The  names  of  Walton  do  not  now 
appear  in  the  township  as  holders  of  the  land  which  they  opened  to  settlement  so 
long  ago,  but  in  Sugar  Creek.  The  change  has  come  in  the  natural  exchange  of 
real  prc^erty  and  for  other  reasons  which  cannot  now  be  discussed. 

Harrison  Gray  came  to  this  neighborhood,  but  settled  in  Muscatine  County 
and  does  not  therefore  now  concern  the  writer,  since  the  matter  must  belong  to 
another  county  so  far  as  his  history  of  a  later  time  goes. 

In  March,  1854,  Joseph  Weaver,  a  graduate  of  Princeton  College,  who  had 
mastered  the  law  under  Judge  McCandles  of  the  United  States  courts  in  western 
Pennsylvania,  and  who  had  spent  some  time  in  the  law,  came  to  the  vicinity  and 
entered  his  farm,  commencing  active  work  upon  it  at  once.  He  was  not  accus- 
tomed to  the  trials  of  the  new  farmer,  and  gives  the  expression  to  his  feelings  in 
the  following:  "This  was  my  first  da/s  work  on  a  farm  and  well  do  I  remember 
it.  Trudging  along  on  the  plowed  ground,  dust  flying  in  thick  clouds  all  about 
us,  when  night  came  we  looked  more  like  the  South  African  than  office  bleached 
lawyers.  I  thought  as  I  returned  from  the  field  at  evening,  sore  and  dusty,  and 
so  weary  that  if  this  was  farming  in  Iowa  I  guess  Til  quit"  But  he  did  not  quit 
and  afterward  was  glad  of  it. 

The  first  settlers  in  this  vicinity  came  from  New  Haven,  Conn.,  and  they  were 
soon  followed  by  those  from  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  the  New 
England  states.  The  first  building  erected  in  Durant  was  one  by  James  Young, 
a  carpenter,  for  C.  M.  Loomis.  It  was  a  one-stoiy  structure  and  was  used  hf^ 
the  owner  for  a  residence  only  a  short  time  when  he  returned  east,  having  been 
overcome  with  that  dread  disease — homesidaiess.  No  buildings  of  that  originah 
time  are  now  standing.  After  they  served  their  various  purposes  they  were  re- 
placed and  so  remodeled  as  to  be  beyond  recognition. 

The  second  building  is  interesting  for  the  reason  that  it  was  for  the  office  of 
the  first  physician.  Dr.  Bills,  and  while  planned  for  his  use  it  was  rented  at  once 
for  a  home  by  a  Mr.  Cunningham,  and  he  soon  found  himself  running  the  only 
hotel  in  town  with  a  dozen  or  more  patrons  and  a  house  twelve  by  sixteen  feet 
in  dimensions.    When  Mr.  Fisher  wrote  the  "History  of  Durant,"  from  which 




i    \k     I 'MvARY 

*pr^'R.    LENaX    AND 

T:  M'iA    Pi/rNTiATKWfl 

It  L 


these  facts  are  drawn,  Dr.  Bills  had  put  this  building  to  a  more  humble  use,  and  it 
was  the  oldest  building  standing  on  its  original  foundation. 

The  third  building  in  the  town  was  the  depot.  One  does  not  always  find  such 
a  building  used  for  so  many  purposes,  perhaps  seldom  one  better  say,  for  it 
furnished  the  church  for  many  years  and  here  the  school  meetings  were  held  when 
the  matter  of  educational  equipment  was  discussed.  This  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  building  erected  for  the  express  purpose  of  depot  service  in  the  state  of 
lovxL  The  hotel  was  built  by  the  proprietors  of  the  town.  Cook  and  Sargent,  of 
Davenport.  It  was  leased  by  Mr.  Downs,  the  first  station  agent  in  the  town  and 
the  proprietor  of  the  first  store.  In  the  fall  of  1855  the  Western  Stage  Ccwnpany 
opened  a  line  from  this  place  to  Tipton,  continuing  it  for  three  months,  for  which 
they  received  from  the  proprietors  of  the  town  five  hundred  dollars.  The  same 
fall  the  railroad  track  was  laid  through  here  and  now  people  came  thick  and  fast 
to  settle  the  new  town.  The  manufacture  of  brick  was  undertaken  here  in  the 
summer  of  '56,  but  owing  to  some  difficulty  with  the  railroad  it  was  given  up. 

The  post  office,  which  had  been  at  Centre  Grove  on  the  Hanson  Farm,  was 
moved  to  town  in  '56  and  John  E.  Whittlesey  became  the  first  postmaster. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  first  shipment  of  produce  was  six  barrets  of 
game.  This  was  sent  out  on  the  passenger  train  then  running  from  this  place  on 
January  10,  1856.  The  first  wheat  shipment  )vas  one  hundred  and  ninety-eight 
bags  to  Hull,  Purvis  and  Co.,  Davenport.  The  first  car  of  wheat  was  loaded  in 
February,  '56,  and  was  also  consigned  to  Davenport.  It  must  be  ranembered 
here  that  these  are  the  very  first  rail  shipments  ftx)m  this  county.  The  first  car  of 
wheat  to  Chicago  went  out  in  the  fall  of  1857.  ~  The  first  car  of  onions  was 
shipped  to  Davenport  by  B.  P.  Putnam  in  1857.  The  first  freight  received  was 
two  cars  of  luniber  for  H.  S.  Downs  in  1856.  A  lumber  yard  was  established  in 
1857  by  Allen  and  Williams. 

The  first  birth  in  the  town  was  a  daughter  of  Isaac  Gilbert,  December  12, 
1857,  and  she  was  named  Mary  Durant  and  received  from  the  founders  of  the 
town  the  prcmiised  warranty  deed  to  lot  five  in  block  ten.  From  inference  it  is 
concluded  that  the  first  passenger  train  came  through  or  to  Durant  in  the  winter 
of  '55.  The  first  Sunday  school  was  organized  in  1855  ^^^  continued  many  years 
as  a  union  school.  Rev.  Thomas  Dutton  came  to  Iowa  as  a  missionary  in  '43, 
locating  north  of  the  village  in  i866.^<^^  His  name  is  still  familiar  to  those  inter- 
ested in  the  Sunday  schools  of  the  vicinity. 

Item. — ^"A  New  Store  in  a  New  Place."  We  call  the  attention  of  our  readers 
to  the  new  advertisement  of  the  "Farmers'  Store  of  W.  O.  Ludlow  of  Durant. 
This  town,  it  will  be  remembered,  is  the  only  town  on  the  line  of  the  Mississippi 
and  Missouri  Railroad  in  this  county  and  is  destined  to  be  a  place  of  no  small  note. 
We  (Wells  Spicer)  passed  through  there  on  the  cars.  We  did  not  have  time  to 
stop,  but  did  have  time  to  witness  many  valuable  improvements;  conspicuous 
among  these  is  a  new  church,  the  steeple  of  which  can  be  seen  for  many  miles 
across  the  prairies.  Also  the  store  of  Mr.  Ludlow,  who  now  bespeaks  a  share 
of  Cedar  County  patronage."  *<>« 

Officials  of  Durant  at  present  datc^  E.  F.  Jockhedc,  Mayor;  W.  H.  Crecilius, 
Treasurer;  Paul  Samberg,  Qerk;  Councilmen,  Herm.  Branch^  Gus.  Thiel,  Geo. 
Hamann,  A.  F.  Schiele,  Hugo  Boldt. 


When  the  Qinton  branch  of  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.,  now  known  as  the  Rock  Island, 
became  an  assured  proposition  (1884),  it  was  also  certain  that  a  new  town  would 
be  platted  in  Inland  township.  Inland  had  been  a  post  office  and  had  some 
business,  but  the  railroad  had  left  it  to  the  north,  and  a  station  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  county  was  necessary. 

Nels  Stanton  and  Dick  Hill  were  the  prime  movers  in  the  matter,  and  these 
men,  in  conjunction  with  Piatt  and  Carr,  and  Mr.  Bennett,  the  right-of-way  man 
for  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.,  and  for  whom  the  town  is  named,  constituted  the  commit- 
tee to  select  a  site  for  the  new  town. 

After  some  deliberation  the  new  site  was  located  on  forty  acres  of  the  Long 
farm,  belonging  to  two  of  the  committee.  Hill  and  Stanton.  Stock  shipments 
were  begun  as  soon  as  cars  could  be  obtained.  T.  S.  Chapman  put  in  the  first 
stock  of  lumber  and  Mr.  Hopldnson  built  the  first  blacksmith  shop.  M.  G.  Block- 
man  began  to  buy  grain  in  the  fall.  Jiohn  Tem^deton  opened  the  first  business 
house,  moving  frcmi  Inland.  Drs.  Colton  and  B<xnan  came  from  Inland  and 
established  a  drug  store.  W..G.  Bevier  opened  a  branch  lumber  yard  in. charge 
of  Walter  Swartzlender.  Two  hotels  were  established  early  in  the  town  and  b1\ 
lines  of  business  developed  rapidly. 

The  former  town  of  Inland  has  been  swallowed  up  by  the  later  development  of 
a  railroad  town  to  the  south,  to  which  place  the  business  went  when  Bennett  was 
laid  out  in  1884.  The  Postens  at  the  grove,  which  took  their  name,  were  the  first 
settlers  in  this  vicinity  in  1836.  The  oldest  living  pioneer  of  this  vicinity  is 
"Uncle  John  Ackerman,"  now  in  his  ninety-second  year  and  willing  and  able  to 
tell  of  his  life  with  the  Indians  when  the  prairie  was  still  without  habitation  and 
no  white  man  near.  His  adventures  are  thrilling  and  his  experiences  full  of  that 
which  makes  the  conunon  events  of  life  seem  tame.  Mr.  Ackerman  is  now  living 
a  short  distance  east  of  Bennett  and  enjoys  the  telling  of  the  stories  of  his  early 
days.  In  1839  a  tavern  was  established  in  order  to  accommodate  the  travelers  on 
the  Davenport-Marion  road  not  far  from  the  present  town  of  Bennett.  This 
was  conducted  by  J.  C.  Hallock  at  the  suggestion  of  John  P.  Cook,  a  resident  of 
Tipton.  Thomas  Curtis  was  the  first  settler  at  Inland  village.  Here  he  kept  a 
public  house  and  established  a  wagon  repair  shop. 

Inland  had  the  promise  of  any  town  then,  but  after  it  had  attained  the  growth 
expected  of  such  a  place  in  the  lines  of  business  generally  followed  in  the  villages 
it  an  disappeared  when  the  moving  began.  The  early  mail  service  was  as  in  other 
places  overland  from  the  nearest  point  of  general  delivery,  and  the  marketing 
must  be  done  at  Davenport,  the  point  of  distribution  of  manufactured  goods. 
Bennett  is  now  the  junction  of  the  Davenport  branch  and  the  Clinton  division  of 
the  Rock  Island,  and  has  ccmsiderable  business  of  railroad  nature.  The  trains 
are  run  to  make  connections  here,  and  this  is  a  point  of  division  of  the  traffic. 
Bennett  provided  for  water  works  in  1902  and  has  a  system  with  good  supply, 
using  a  pressure  system  for  distribution  instead  of  a  tower,  as  is  the  custom  in 
most  of  the  county  towns. 

The  present  officers  of  Bennett  are :  Mayor,  H.  W.  Dammann ;  Qerk,  J.  B. 
Vaughn;  Treasurer,  E.  P.  Wingert;  Coundlmen,  James  Plater,  Henry  Ruser, 
J.  H.  Abraham,  H.  R.  Chapman  and  H.  Heineman. 


/    y  V 

t .  /  .V    i.;.i\ARY 

Ti..^r.}S  F.,t  n:  at;, me 



Another  town  was  platted  west  of  Stanwood  on  the  line  between  Fremont  and 
Pioneer  townships.  This  tract  belonged  to  David  Dorwart,  and  under  the  same 
arrangement  with  the  railway  company  as  other  towns  he  secured  the  location  of  a 
town  site  about  the  year  1857.  Previous  to  this  in  1854  or  '55  John  Onstott  and 
D.  H.  Comstock  laid  out  the  original  town  of  Mechanicsville.  The  original  plat 
comprised  about  sixty  acres  and  lay  in  the  western  part  of  what  is  now  the  main 
portion  of  the  town.  The  land  between  the  "Iroquois"  tract,  as  the  easten\ 
portion  Ijring  over  the  line  in  Fremont  was  formerly  called,  and  the  original  plat 
of  Mechanicsville  was  laid  out  in  lots  in  order  to  unite  the  two,  and  thus  a  tract 
of  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres  was  included  in  the  town  plat.  The  depot  was 
then  located  on  the  western  portion  instead  of  as  at  first  anticipated.  The  town 
being  thus  in  two  townships  at  one  time  caused  some  difficulty  about  elections,  as 
one  officer's  election  was  contested  on  the  grounds  of  votes  from  another  town- 
ship b^ing  cast  for  him.  The  town  gets  its  name  from  the  character  of  the  first 
settlers  in  the  western  part  of  the  town,  and  was  given  the  place  by  Mr.  Onstott 
They  were  mechanics  and  the  owner  himself  was  such,  so  the  name  was  well  taken, 
although  it  is  frequently  abbreviated  by  those  using  it  much  in  correspondence. 

Mechanicsville  suffered  from  a  severe  fire  in  1883,  which  destroyed  the  south 
side  of  the  business  street.  No  means  qi  fighting  the  fire  were  at  hand  beyond 
the  ordinary  "bucket  brigade,"  and  m^ny  narrow  escapes  were  experienced.  The 
water  system  has  since  been  established  and  protection  is  ample.  The  electric 
lighting  plant  was  first  put  into  service  in  1899  by  Helmer  and  Dawson,  and  was 
commended  as  of  first-class  constructicm.  The  history  of  the  organizations  of 
the  town  are  given  in  other  connections.  The  cuts  accompanying  the  chapter  give 
some  idea  of  the  prosperity  of  the  corporation. 

The  original  town  was  in  the  south  half  of  section  thirteen  of  Pioneer  town- 
ship, and  the  Iroquios  addition  lies  to  the  east,  extending  over  the  line  into  Fre- 
mont, the  Batdorf  addition  lying  wholly  in  that  township  according  to  record,*^® 
and  it  would  seem  proper  in  this  case  to  do  as  Lowden  has  done — arrange  to  get 
the  entire  town  into  one  township  if  there  is  no  constitutional  objection.  Fewer 
additi(ms  have  been  made  to  the  original  plat  perhaps  because  the  enlargement 
was  made  in  the  beginning  when  the  depot  was  placed  on  the  western  portion 
after  the  eastern  part  had  been  platted. 

The  town  officers  reported  now  include:  Leonard  Hines,  Jr.,  Mayor;  J.  H. 
Onstatt,  Recorder;  H.  E.  Gibeaut,  Treasurer;  Councilmen,  Lines  Bennett,  O.  J. 
Davison,  Geo.  Nagle,  F.  W.  Leech,  and  L.  H.  Andre. 

Onion  Grove  Station  was  the  name  first  given  to  the  stopping  place  of  the 
trains  on  the  Chicago  and  N<^hwestem  railway,  then  known  by  the  name  as  often 
written  in  the  chapter  on  transportation,  the  Chicago,  Iowa  and  Nebraska.  The 
name  is  suggestive  of  the  neig:hborhood  of  the  grove  two  miles  north  of  the 
present  site  of  the  town,  where  the  familiar  wild  onion  grew  in  abundance  at  that 
time,  perhs^s  not  now  to  be  had  at  all.  A  similar  plant  may  be  found  in  the  tim- 
ber, but  the  quality  is  far  different  from  the  prairie  kind  one  may  come  upon  in 
the  open  land  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state.  The  post  office  at  Onion  Grove 
was  first  supplied  from  the  route  running  from  Iowa  City  to  Dubuque  and  once 
to  Galena,  111.,  when  Alonzo  Shaw  said  he  rode  two  hundred  miles  each  week  on 
horseback  to  carry  out  his  contract.    One  may  read  his  own  words  in  the  chapter 


on  the  subject  of  transportation.  Dayton  township  was  named  at  a  late,  com- 
paratively late,  date,  since  it  is  on  record  as  being  made  from  Polk,  once  the 
fractional  part  of  ''Waubespinicon"  township.  The  banks  of  Mill  Creek  supplied 
the  traveler  with  the  necessary  onion  portion  of  his  meal  if  he  desired  such 

The  Northwestern  passing  two  miles  irom  this  post  office  caused  its  removal, 
and  the  lack  of  euphony  in  the  name  led  in  to  the  change  in  1862.  Strictlyj 
speaking  the  name  Qarence  comes  from  the  Latin,  clarus,  meaning  famous,  but 
that  was  not  supposed  to  be  the  reason  for  its  adoption  now  as  some  town  of  the 
same  name  in  the  parent  state  suggested  it  here  to  the  one  who  selected  it 

A  vacant  freight  car  served  for  the  first  station  some  distance  east  of  the 
present  station  near  the  McNeil  farm  then. 

The  town  of  Qarence  as  now  platted  lies  in  sections  22,  23,  26,  and  26  and  was 
originally  laid  out  by  the  land  cempany  organized  for  the  purpose  of  ccmtroUing 
the  town  sites  along  the  line  of  road  then  building.  Joseph  Ball  was  the  owner 
of  the  forty  acres  on  which  the  original  plat  was  made,  but  he  sold  to  the  town 
company.  It  is  not  stated  whether  this  Joseph  Ball  is  the  same  one  who  settled 
early  in  the  history  of  the  county  near  Centredale,  but  one  may  suppose  the  two 
to  be  identical.  The  other  part  of  the  original  plat  belonged  to  James  Laughrey, 
which  the  company  also  purchased. 

The  r^naining  part  of  the  section  on  which  the  forty  acres  platted  from  sec- 
tion 27  lay  was  purchased  in  1865  ^^y  F^^  Hecht,  M.  K.  H.  Reed,  and  A.  Piatt, 
with  the  exception  of  the  northwest  quarter,  and  that  portion  known  as  Hecht's 
addition  was  made  to  the  town  of  Clarence.  The  school  building  and  water  works 
are  located  upon  this  addition.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1866,  according  to 
the  records,  and  secured  public  improvements  since  then  in  the  form  of  water 
works  in  1890,  and  a  municipal  gas  plant  was  voted  upon  in  1895,  when  the  ladies 
had  the  rare  privilege  of  voting.  The  system  is  pronounced  a  success  and  was 
the  first  plant  of  the  kind  in  the  county.  Qarence  enjoys  the  reputation  also  of 
having  the  only  public  watering  fountain  for  man  and  beast  in  the  county  so  far 
as  discovered. 

The  oldest  business  building  in  Qarence  is  the  one  occupied  by  C.  Peterson 
as  a  boot  and  shoe  store  on  the  north  side  of  Lombard  Street.  This  was  the 
store  once  occupied  by  Friend  and  Culberts<Mi,  who  established  a  branch  store 
from  their  Tipton  business  house  with  Mr.  Fred  Hecht  as  clerk.  In  i860  the 
firm  of  Friend  and  Culbertson  built  across  the  street  and  later  were  succeeded  by 
Hecht  and  Policy.  The  line  of  business  of  the  towns  as  conducted  in  the  early 
history  of  their  organization  has  changed  in  many  particulars.  What  then  was 
in  demand  made  the  production  of  many  things  at  home  possible,  and  the  manu- 
facture on  the  large  scale  had  not  then  been  felt  as  to-day.  The  idle  sh(q>s,  the 
empty  hotels  and  store  rooms  indicate  to  the  observer  the  rapid  changes  in  the 
service  of  all  the  towns  that  once  flourished  in  the  new  country  before  maiicets 
became  so  frequent  or  movement  so  swift.  Firms  are  constantly  changing  until 
it  is  impossible  to  enumerate  all  that  may  have  been  engaged  in  any  one  line  of 
business  in  a  single  decade.  In  the  largest  town  in  Cedar  County  almost  every 
business  house  in  the  town  has  changed  hands  in  the  past  ten  years. 



The  manufacture  of  goods  of  doomtic  use  in  an  agricultural  region  was  ex- 
tensive until  the  great  factories  with  millions  of  capital  took  the  market  from  the 
small  producer.  In  all  the  towns  of  this  county  the  industry  concerned  with 
making  of  farm  implements  and  iron  work  was  carried  on  in  the  vicinity  until 
these  things  were  made  wholesale  ready  to  use  without  the  intervention  of  the 
mechanic,  until  now  the  occupations  of  the  first  days  have  gone  to  find  in  many 
cases  nothing  to  take  the  place  of  the  former  trade.  The  man  who  manufactured 
barrels  and  casks,  who  made  baskets  or  harrows,  b  now  out  of  that  particular 
occupation  since  he  can  no  longer  compete  with  the  machine  and  massed  capital. 

All  this  line  of  work  was  carried  on  in  Clarence  in  an  early  day,  but  now  the 
manufacture  of  such  things  as  found  forty  years  ago  is  not  thought  of  in  any 
serious  way.  To-day  the  repair  shc^  comes  the  nearest  to  the  needs  of  the  farmer 
and  ready  made  goods  meet  the  demand. 

The  old  mill  that  used  to  stand  at  Rochester  after  having  fulfilled  its  mission 
there  was  removed,  as  mentioned  in  another  connection,  to  the  neighborhood  of 
Clarence  when  James  Cessford  bought  it  at  sheriff's  sale.  That  mill  had  made 
flour  for  shipment  down  the  Cedar  river  by  boat  loads,  and  at  the  present  time 
the  only  mill  in  the  county  that  makes  flour  is  the  Nelson  mill  at  Durant 

Clarence  was  incorporated  in  1866  under  the  general  laws  of  the  state  and 
the  first  mayor  was  James  De  W<rff . 

The  present  mayor  is  S.  S.  Crittenden;  CoUndlmen,  S.  L.  McLeod,  John 
Greig,  Hosea  Ballou,  Fred  G<ddsmith,  A.  S.  Rossman ;  Town  Qerk,  F.  W.  Crow ; 
Treasurer,  H.  A.  Jons. 

The  original  town  nearest  to  the  location  of  Stapwood  was  called  Floumoy, 
about  one-half  mile  east  of  the  station.  The  owners  of  the  town  site  were  S.  H. 
and  Wm.  C.  Maley  and  William  Preston.  Some  time  in  September,  1868,  they 
began  n^otiations  with  the  C.  &  N.  W.  railroad  authorities  to  erect  a  station  house 
for  passengers  and  freight  and  lay  the  necessary  sidetracks  to  accommodate  the 
traffic  and  give  this  place  every  facility  furnished  other  towns  along  the  line.  In 
consideration  for  such  service  the  proprietors  of  the  town  as  menticxied  agreed 
to  give  the  company  every  alternate  lot  throughout  the  plat  and  four  acres  for 
railway  yards. 

Up  to  the  middle  of  January,  1869,  no  signs  of  any  town  appeared  where 
Stanwood  now  stands  beyond  the  survey  and  a  small  sidetrack.  On  January  20th 
of  that  year  Mr.  W.  W.  Allen  began  the  first  house.  By  the  time  spring  opened 
there  was  a  substantial  growth  of  some  thirty  buildings.  ]chn  Dorcas  of  Red 
Oak  began  the  second  house  in  Stanwood.  The  delay  in  erecting  a  depot  was  due 
to  the  press  of  business  of  the  con:q>any  and  the  town  proprietors  were  early 
assured  of  the  building  in  the  spring  of  1869.  At  this  time  Mr.  H.  P.  Stanwood 
was  assistant  superintendent  of  the  C.  &  N.  W.,  and  for  him  the  town  was  named. 
This  was  the  nearest  stati<Hi  to  Tipton  and  from  there  the  county  seat  was  supplied 
until  its  road  was  completed  in  November,  1872. 

The  Northwestern  railway  maintains  extensive  equipments  for  the  supply  of 
water  and  fuel  at  Stanwood  and  the  improvements  of  the  company  make  the 
future  of  the  junction  one  of  security.  Trains  must  stop  here  for  coal  and 
water  and  passengers  must  be  allowed  to  land  for  the  Tipton  connection. 
Additional  sidetracks  are  being  laid  to  accommodate  the  traffic  at  this  point. 


There  has  been  some  rumor  of  a  northern  coimectioa  which  would  be  of  great 
additicHial  benefit  to  Stanwood.  The  first  town  of  Floumoy  is  forgotten  except 
by  the  oldest  settlers,  and  there  are  CMily  a  few  left  who  remember  the  time  when 
this  was  open  land  before  the  road  was  built.  The  history  of  schools,  churches, 
and  other  public  organizations  belcmgs  in  its  proper  chapter. 

The  Mayor  of  Stanwood  is  James  George;  Chris.  Stoecker,  Qerk;  Council- 
men,  Ed.  Gruber,.  M.  H.  Rice,  W.  C.  Jackson,  H.  F.  Haesemeyer,  E.  J.  Bemstorf, 
Their  regular  meetings  are  on  Monday  night,  the  first  in  the  month. 

In  1858  the  railroad  reached  Lowden,  the  first  stopping  place  of  the  Chicago 
&  Northwestern  in  Cedar  County.  The  first  settlers  of  this  vicinity  came  in  '39, 
among  them  being  some  names  very  familiar  to  the  early  settlers  of  tfie  county — 
John  C.  Parr  and  his  four  sons ;  William  Parr  and  his  five  sons,  and  John  Parr, 
the  brother  of  the  other  two.  It  was  James  VanHom  who  entered  the  site  of  the 
present  village  of  Lowden  in  1839.  This  was  an  early  day  for  this  r^on,  since 
settlement  did  not  increase  very  rapidly  until  after  1850,  when  the  entire  county 
felt  the  rapid  growth  of  population.  Not  only  here  but  into  other  sections  people 
began  to  find  their  way  more  readily. 

July  5,  1858,  the  railway  was  completed  to  this  station  and  pushed  westward 
a  little  later.  Not  far  from  this  point  the  junction  with  a  line  .to  Tipton  was 
pr(q>osed,  which  proposal  was  never  accepted  or  the  ccmnection  now  would  be  east 
and  west  instead  of  north  and  south. 

I'he  Iowa  Land  Company  had  a  hand  in  the  settlement  of  this  place,  as  in 
many  of  the  other  towns  along  the  line.  Seven  acres  were  donated  to  the  com- 
pany by  James  VanHom,  and  Thomas  Shearer  gave  up  five  more,  making  twelve 
in  the  original  town  site,  which  lies  in  section  two  of  Springfield  township.  This 
was  surveyed  for  the  company  on  behalf  of  its  agents,  Horace  Williams  and 
Milo  Smith,  known  now  as  Judge  Milo  P.  Smith  of  Cedar  Rapids,  and  it  was 
called  "Louden"  after  the  Ohio  home  of  Thomas  Shearer,  Loudenville,  Ohio^ 
The  name  now  is  now  spelled  with  a  "w,"  Lowden,  when  referring  to  the  post 
office.  Several  additions  have  been  made  to  the  original  site.  Shearer  has  made 
two  on  the  east,  J.  D.  Shearer  one  on  the  north.  Walker  and  Meyer  have  added 
to  the  east  side.  Peterson  two  additions  on  the  north,  Denson,  Hahn  and  Banks 
each  small  additions  in  the  same  part  of  the  town  since  Reed's  additicm  came  up 
to  the  section  line. 

The  town  was  originally  in  two  townships,  or  was  after  the  additions  had  been 
made  over  the  section  line  into  Massillon  township,  and  a  petition  wa$  presented 
to  the  board  of  supervisors  to  detach  a  part  of  the  northern  township  anc[  add  it 
to  Springfield,  which  was  done.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1869  with  Wm. 
McGarvy  as  the  first  mayor.  J.  D.  Shearer  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace  and 
held  this  office  from  1857  to  1865,  when  he  became  sheriflf  of  the  county  for  ten 

One  of  the  oldest  business  firms  in  the  county  is  found  here,  having  a  con- 
tinuous  business  life  of  fifty  years — ^the  Peterson  Brothers  formerly,  now  Freund 
&  Co.  They  do  a  general  merchandise  business,  carrying  everjrthing  that  the 
vicinity  could  demand  and  doing  a  private  banking  business  in  connection. 

Among  the  oldest  residents  of  the  place  are  M.  L.  Banks,  Henry  Moore, 
Henry  Heiner,  David  Kimball,  who  are  able  to  pve  the  history  of  the  town. 



kr"n\.  tr^'vx  AND 

B  L 


Before  the  railway  had  reached  the  town  site  a  store  had  been  put  into  opera- 
tion by  Wm.  Dttgan,  who  built  the  first  house  on  the  prairie  here  where  the  road 
was  in  prospect  Huff  and  Henry  formed  a  partnership  soon  after  this  in  the 
mercantile  business. 

Lowden  has  been  a  stopping  place  for  all  trains  except  those  carrying  a  full 
service  for  the  needs  of  passengers  and  an  eating  house  furnished  the  hungry 
man  with  his  necessary  meal.  This  has  been  an  important  part  of  the  railway 
yards  here  and  the  double  track  line  has  made  it  a  busy  place  in  the  past  For 
miles  it  seems  the  straight  track  tends  to  the  westward  without  a  curve  so  far  as 
the  eye  can  reach  from  the  station,  and  the  surrounding  country  is  rich  enough 
for  the  most  exacting. 

For  a  town  of  its  size  Lowden  has  the  best  city  hall  in  the  county.  Its  pdblic 
school  building  is  one  of  latest  design  both  in  construction  and  equipment, 
and  the  location  is  ideal.  The  town  maintains  a  municipal  gas  plant  on  the  same 
plan  as  Qarence. 

G.  F.  Reinldng  is  the  present  Mayor;  E.  R.  Struck,  Clerk;  Councilmen,  J.  H. 
Andersen,  C.  Boettger,  H.  Gassier,  D.  W.  Conrad,  H.  R.  Griesback. 

Soon  after  Carlisle  had  been  planned  five  miles  south  of  the  present  town  of 
Lowden,  another  village  was  laid  out  four  miles  north.  The  second  had  more  to 
make  it  a  success  since  it  lies  near  a  stream  and  happened  to  be  in  the  line  of  a 
railway  afterward.  Its  survey  was  completed  in  1854  before  the  signs  of  any 
railway  in  the  vicinity,  and  now  the  little  town  of  Massillon  has  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty  inhabitants.  It  is  near  by  the  Wapsepinicon  and  on  a  branch  of  the 
Milwaukee.  This  place  was  originally  known  as  "Benson's  Ferry,"  named  for 
Joseph  Denson,  who  first  settled  here  and  established  it.  In  this  place  now  is  a 
bridge  of  some  eleven  hundred  feet.  This  was  one  of  the  partnership  bridges 
originally  erected  by  the  farmers  paying  one^half  and  the  county  the  other  ]}alf. 
A  new  one  has  taken  its  place,  which  is  the  one  referred  to  above. 

The  town  was  resurveyed  and  platted  in  1875  by  F.  A.  Gates,  then  county 
surveyor,  at  the  request  of  three  citizens  and  assented  to  by  a  fourth  one  of  the 
original  proprietors  of  the  town,  Mr.  William  Williams.  The  first  settlements 
were  made  in  this  r^on  in  1840.  Jdin  Shriver  came  here  in  July  of  that  year. 
His  son  Hiram  resides  in  Lowden  at  this  writing.  Williams,  mentioned  above, 
came  in  '40  and  Abraham  Williams  in  1841.  Like  many  others  in  1850  he  crossed 
the  plains  to  California  and  was  more  successful  than  many.  In  1843  the  Thorns 
came  to  this  township,  also  the  Morton  family.  M.  D.  Keith,  Ira  Brink,  and 
Levi  VanSickle  came  in  1850.  H.  A.  Emerson  was  identified  with  this  region 
for  over  half  a  century.  Geo.  Jeffrey  came  in  1851,  and  Hon.  J.  M.  Kent  in  '52. 
He  represented  the  district  as  senator  in  the  eighth  and  ninth  general  assemblies. 
F.  A.  Gates  settled  her«  in  1853  ^^^  afterward  served  the  cotmty  as  surveyor  for  a 
period  of  five  years.  Settlers  came  from  this  time  very  rapidly  and  the  railroad 
through  the  northern  part  of  the  county  made  this  community  one  of  the  first 
to  be  served.  Today  Massillon  is  a  village,  small  in  trades  and  business,  but 
delightfully  situated  on  the  stream  with  the  poetical  Indian  name.  Surrounded  by 
a  rich  country  it  gives  one  the  impression  of  comfort  without  anxiety,  security 
without  needed  defence.  An  eye  for  the  interesting  points  and  a  pen  to  describe 
must  bel(mg  to  the  one  who  wrote  this :    "The  Wapsipinicon  majestically  winds 


its  way  along  the  fine  timber  lands  on  the  north  and  east  of  the  village.  To  the 
east  are  the  rocky  bluffs,  which  have  been  washed  by  'Wapsie  waters'  for  many 
ages  so  far  as  we  know.  Here  are  the  famous  natural  wells.  Here  is  where  the 
people  for  miles  around  spend  many  happy  hours  in  the  summer  seasons.  From 
the  farm  of  Henry  Ruprecht,  a  half  mile  southeast,  one  gets  the  best  view  of  this 
vicinity.  The  little  hamlet,  the  river,  the  ponds  and  meadows,  the  bluffs,  the  rail- 
road and  wooded  lands  all  combine  to  make  the  place  worthy  of  a  painter's  brash, 
and  it  must  be  seen  to  be  appreciated."*^^ 

Cedar  Bluffs  has  figured  in  the  county  history  very  prominently  since  the  agita- 
tion of  the  bridge  construction  across  the  Cedar  at  some  point  to  accommodate 
the  people.  Mason's  Grove  was  the  nearest  point  of  settlement  in  the  b^;inning. 
Here  it  is  recorded  that  Jackemiah  Baldwin  (the  spelling  of  the  Christian  name 
has  this  form  on  the  county  records  and  there  seems  to  be  no  authority  for  spelling 
it  as  found  in  the  Old  History)  settled  in  the  year  1837,  bringing  his  three  sons 
and  being  accompanied  by  two  friends,  John  Malic  and  Geo.  Parks,  who  settled 
near.  Mason's  Grove  received  its  name  from  the  man  who  settled  there  in  the 
same  year,  but  a  little  later  in  the  season.  The  name  of  Mason  and  Baldwin  still 
24>pear  among  the  land  owners  of  this  neighborhood.  Our  friend  Tom  Baldwm 
of  Tipton  is  a  grandson  of  the  first  Baldwin  mentioned  and  also  a  grandson  of 
John  Finch,  who  came  to  the  county  in  1837  and  purchased  his  claim  o.f  Samuel 
Gilliland,  who  had  begun  improvements  in  that  part  of  Center  township. 

William  Kester  was  the  first  settler  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  in  that  part 
belonging  to  Cass  township.  He  died  very  early  in  the  history  of  the  place. 
Among  the  other  early  settlers  before  the  year  1840  were  Alexander  and  Prank 
Mofiit  with  their  father,  who  died  in  this  vicinity.  The  old  M<^t  homestead 
log  house  is  among  the  landmarks  of  the  township.  Mrs.  Jacob  Hardacre  and 
Mrs.  Wm.  Neeley  were  of  this  family. 

Of  these  pioneers  the  only  ones  remaining  are  Alexander  Moffit  and  Jacob 
Hardacre,  the  latter  living  in  Missouri. 

Washington  and  Gower's  Ferry  and  Cedar  Bluffs  are  names  for  the  same 
kxration  on  the  map,  having  been  applied  at  different  times  in  the  history  of  the 
place.  The  names  of  Gower  and  Hammond  are  associated  with  the  locality  as 
early  as  1839,  when  James  Gower  and  Willard  Hammond  bought  the  claims  of  a 
number  of  settlers  in  Cass  township.  Gower  operated  the  store  and  ferry  at  this 
point  about  1840  and  later  in  his  life  of  the  family,  but  eariy  in  the  state's  history, 
removed  to  Iowa  City.  He  is  mentioned  elsewhere  in  connection  with  the  county 
in  the  law-making  branch  of  the  state  government. 

Robert  Gower,  who  worked  so  faithfully  to  secure  a  bridge  at  this  point  and 
died  before  he  saw  it  accomplished,  came  to  this  settlement  in  1841  with  his  four 
sons.  For  Robert  Gower  the  township  was  named  and  his  son  Sewall  continued 
the  work  of  his  father  until  the  building  of  the  bridge  was  acccnnplished  in  1877. 

This  part  of  the  county  is  destined  at  some  time  to  be  the  center  of  an  industry 
as  yet  undreamed  of,  since  the  natural  advantages  have  been  seen  at  this  time  in 
the  preliminary  efforts  to  which  the  following  refers  : 

Attention  has  been  called  to  the  natural  advantages  which  this  site  offers  for 
the  construction  of  a  dam  to  furnish  water  power  for  turning  the  energy  of  the 
stream  into  the  form  of  electricity,  this  to  be  distributed  to  various  points  so  far 





as  feasible  to  be  redistributed  among  the  oxisumers  of  low  vcdtage  or  to  be  used 
in  the  driving  of  lines  of  cars  between  the  towns  lying  in  the  district.  Surveys 
have  been  made  to  determine  the  necessary  territory  to  be  ccmsidered  in  dam  area, 
and  it  is  well  known  that  the  site  is  one  of  the  very  best  in  the  country  for  such 
improvement.  So  long  ago  as  1876,  when  the  bridge  was  built  here,  the  advantage 
of  the  solid  rock  was  noted  and  described  by  a  scientific  journal,  the  Engineering 
News:  "There  is  a  narrow  gorge  in  the  river  just  below  where  the  channel  is 
hemmed  in  by  a  perpendicular  wall  of  magnesian  limestone,  forty  feet  high.  The 
channel  here  is  about  480  feet  wide  and  has  a  rock  bottom  and  the  water  at  its 
lowest  stag«  is  about  two  and  one-half  feet  deep.  The  stone  for  the  piers  and 
abutments  will  be  taken  from  the  magnesian  beds  in  the  vicinity.  The  stone  has 
very  regular  beds  so  that  the  work  of  cutting  will  be  small.''  Companies  have 
been  organized  to  exploit  this  power  and  the  time  will  not  be  li^g  until  the  wasted 
power  will  be  availaUe. 

When  the  Albins  carried  the  mail  and  the  passengers  from  Davenport  to  Iowa 
City  across  the  prairie  in  1849  there  was  no  sign  of  an  inhabitant  in  that  part  of 
the  county  where  West  Branch  is  now  located.  Only  the  station  on  their  stage 
line  a  short  distance  east  of  the  site.  To  this  place  David  Tattmi  and  a  few  others 
came  in  1850  and  they  were  followed  shortly  by  William  Townsend.  Then  the 
lines  of  travel  were  faintly  marked  and  no  one  could  depend  on  the  chance  of 
finding  his  way  without  previous  preparation.  The  well  known  settlers,  EH 
Hoover,  James  Townsend,  Thomas  Barrington,  Joseph  Steer,  and  Michael  King, 
came  in  '53.  The  rival  towns  of  West  Branch  and  Cameron  were  each  surveyed 
in  the  year  1869,  the  second  a  few  months  later  than  the  first,  taking  its  name 
fnmt  the  chief  engineer  of  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.  railway.  These  towns  retained  the 
names  but  a  short  time  when  the  present  title  covered  the  whole  corporadcm. 

Joseph  Steer  laid  out  the  town  of  West  Branch  in  May  of  1869,  acting  for 
John  M.  Wetherell,  whose  name  is  retained  for  one  of  the  streets  of  the  town. 
This  part  of  West  Branch  was  much  smaller  in  area  than  the  part  called  Cameron 
and  contains  now  most  of  the  business  secticm.  Many  additions  have  been  made 
to  the  original  site.  On  the  west  and  north  Steer^s,  Oliphant's  and  Witter's  addi* 
ticms,  and  on  the  east  Townsend's  and  Michener's  additions,  making  a  large  terri- 
tory, which  gives  roomy  lots  and  a  comfortaUe  appearance  to  the  residence  por- 
tion. West  Branch  has  a  good  system  of  dectric  lighting  and  an  efficient  water 
works  plant,  a  recent  well  furnishing  a  supply  that  seems  inexhaustible. 

The  trade  in  lumber  has  been  especially  marked  here,  the  town  supporting  two 
extensive  yards.  Its  business  section  has  some  excellent  buildings.  The  recent 
bank  building  which  was  purchased  by  the  Odd  Fellows  being  an  illustration. 
This  was  erected  in  1908. 

The  town  was  incorporated  in  1875  under  the  direction  of  J.  Steer,  James 
Townsend,  E.  Grinnell,  L.  J.  Miles,  and  W.  D.  Hanmiell,  as  commissioners  of  the 
election.    It  then  contained  about  three  hundred  inhabitants. 

Historically  the  most  interesting  building  is  the  old  home  of  James  Townsend 
where  the  travelers  of  the  days  of  the  stage  were  entertained  and  the  name  'Trav- 
eler's Rest"  was  applied  to  it  It  stands  to  the  left  on  the  road  toward  Springdale 
and  from  the  picture  in  this  volume  one  may  recognize  it  very  readily.  It  is  not 
now  on  its  original  site. 


West  Branch  has  a  post  office  building  that  is  especially  commendable  and  it 
is  distinguished  by  having  a  library  building  and  post  office  beyond  the  usual  town 
of  its  size.  The  government  approved  the  plans  of  the  present  postmaster  when 
he  submitted  them  and  the  lease  runs  here  for  ten  years  at  a  time.  The  special 
feature  that  cxie  is  first  called  upon  to  notice  is  the  entrance  built  to  acco(Qmodate 
the  puWic  in  all  kinds  of  weather.  Another  that  speaks  well  for  the  comfort  of 
the  postal  clerk  and  those  who  must  work  in  the  interior  is  the  skylight  which 
furnishes  the  illimiination  for  the  entire  room.  It  suggests  a  way  of  avoiding 
dark  rooms.  Mr.  Wickersham  arranged  the  plans  and  submitted  them  to  th^ 
proper  officials.    The  library  is  discussed  in  another  chapter. 

The  city  officers  of  West  Branch  at  this  date  are  below : 

Mayor,  L.  J.  Leech ;  Qerk,  A.  R.  Caviri ;  Councilmen,  D.  L.  Ball,  J.  T.  Butler, 
G.  C.  Hoover,  M.  W.  Munger,  and  P.  V.  N.  Myers. 

The  town  of  Cedar  Valley  is  best  discussed  in  connection  with  the  Bealer 
quarry,  since  the  quarry  is  the  making  of  the  town,  and  when  that  industry  stops 
it  must  of  necessity  cease  to  be  of  importance.  At  the  end  of  the  bridge  across 
the  Cedar  into  Gower  Township  the  village  contains  a  few  houses  for  business 
and  the  shops  of  the  quarry. 

Plato  and  Buchanan  may  be  included  in  one  paragraph.  The  name  of  the  first 
is  suggestive  of  Greek  philosophy  and  the  second,  as  some  may  suppose,  of  fhe 
former  president  of  the  United  States,  but  here  is  where  he  would  make  his  mis- 
take. The  fine  farm  home  of  Alex.  Buchanan  lies  to  the  north  and  it  is  well  that 
the  station  should  be  known  by  that  of  a  citizen  so  well  known. 

These  stations  are  for  the  accommodation  of  shippers  in  this  portion  of  the 
county  and  cannot  have  much  to  make  them  grow  into  towns  of  any  future  great- 
ness. They  came  into  being  in  1884  when  the  road  reached  that  part  of  the  county. 
Sunbury  is  another  of  the  smaller  towns  that  furnishes  a  nearby  outlet  to  the 
products  of  the  farmer  and  brings  the  supplies  he  needs  to  his  door ;  it  is  one  of 
the  last  to  be  platted  since  this  is  the  last  branch  of  railroad  to  be  built  in  the 
county  limits.  Its  principal  streets  are  Main,  then  Henry,  Hugo,  Herman,  and 

There  was  once  a  post  office  on  the  mail  route  from  east  to  west  across  the 
southern  part  of  the  county  in  Iowa  Township  proper,  since  one  must  always 
consider  that  all  lying  west  of  the  river  at  first  was  of  the  same  common  title, 
that  promised  to  be  a  village  of  some  hundreds  of  houses  more  or  less.  This  was 
Pedee  and  took  its  name  from  a  river  in  the  homeland  of  a  settler.  Long  before 
the  town  of  Springdale  became  the  center  of  reference  for  that  side  of  the  river 
the  post  c^ce  was  known  in  other  parts.  Here  John  Brown  came  and  in  1866  a 
writer  never  referred  to  any  place  as  the  headquarters  of  the  band  except  at  Pedee. 
The  first  inhabitant  here,  according  to  the  opinion  of  the  old  settlers,  was  the  man 
who  figures  in  the  earliest  records  of  the  pounty  courts  as  found  in  that  c^ce  today 
— Qement  Squires  and  his  family.  He  left  the  county  in  1840,  perhaps  because 
of  the  reputation  he  had  won  here. 

Robert  G.  Roberts,  whom  the  versatile  artist  has  drawn  in  cartoons  and  whom 
the  wit  has  made  to  say  queer  things  in  his  official  capacity  as  a  member  of  the 
territorial  legislature,  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  in  this  township.    When  he 


.     \  »    *■ 

l\  :•   \    l'U..\i  Y 

H  ^ 


came  is  disputed,  but  it  was  about  1837,  and  it  matters  little  now  as  to  the  exact 
minute  or  day  for  the  purpose  of  the  data  necessary  to  fix  him  as  part  of  the 
county's  possession  in  history.  George  Frain  is  the  authority  for  the  statement 
that  Mr.  Roberts  bought  his  claim  of  Squires  for  twenty  dollars  and  if  so  he  did 
a  good  deed  in  getting  rid  of  Squires.  The  experiences  of  these  settlers  were  not 
different  than  the  others  who  came  at  that  time.  The  usual  difficulties  confronted 
them  and  they  made  the  humblest  things  answer  for  the  time  being  until  they  could 
do  better.  Under  the  heading  of  outlawry  the  names  of  Stoutenburg  and  Warren 
appear  as  settlers  of  this  township  in  the  northern  part.  Ebenezer  A.  Gray,  a 
member  of  the  board  of  supervisors  and  a  most  valued  citizen,  with  his  family 
and  father,  Thomas  Gray,  came  to  the  township  in  '39,  settling  near  what  is  called 
Gray's  Ford,  a  point  much  discussed  at  the  time  of  the  bridge  controversy. 
William  Maxson,  a  brother-in-law  of  Mr.  Gray,  and  his  sons  Jonathan  and  Thad- 
deus  and  Kurtz,  came  at  the  same  time.  The  first  of  these  brothers  now  lives  in 
West  Liberty  where  he  has  been  postmaster  and  editor  of  the  paper  of  that  place. 
Thaddeus  Maxson  lives  in  Springdale  at  this  date,  spending  his  winters  in  Cali- 
fornia.   The  Grays  still  own  land  in  Iowa  Township. 

At  the  first  election  after  Iowa  Township  was  organized  in  1840,  Robert  G. 
Roberts,  E.  A.  Gray  and  Thomas  Lingle  were  appointed  as  judges.  Twenty  votes 
were  polled  then.  E.  A.  Gray  and  A.  G.  Smith  were  elected  as  justices  of  the 
peace,  and  Robert  G.  Roberts  was  elected  as  county  commissioner  for  this  town- 
ship (?). 

A  well  known  character  in  the  vicinity  whose  name  is  iattached  to  a  deed  g^ven 
by  Wm.  Maxscm  as  notary  was  William  Hoch.  His  name  indicates  that  he  was 
of  French  descent  and  he  is  said  to  have  been  conversant  with  many  languages 
and  been  held  in  high  regard  by  his  neighbors.  To  have  the  history  of  this  man 
alone  would  be  worth  many  hours  of  research,  but  where  shall  one  go  now  for 
his  story  in  the  brief  time  of  his  residence.  The  name  has  been  familiar  to  the 
writer  of  this  from  the  days  of  student  life  when  one  who  came  from  this  county 
and  must  have  been  a  descendant  of  the  same  family  was  a  member  of  the  classes. 

It  seems  that  the  ever-present  Stephen  Toney  was  once  postmaster  at  Pedee. 
The  first  post  office  was  located  near  the  timber  where  Elisha  Henry  was  the  gov- 
ernment's representative. 

In  the  spring  of  1837  the  surveying  of  township  lines  was  begun.  This  of 
course  refers  to  congressional  townships  only,  since  there  was  no  provision  yet 
for  the  naming  of  civil  townships  as  they  are  known  today,  even  if  the  lines  hap- 
pened to  correspond.  If  some  one  had  the  time  one  of  the  most  interesting  series 
of  maps  obtainable  could  be  made  from  the  history  of  the  civil  townships  of 
Cedar  County.  It  is  conmiended  to  the  future  county  auditor  as  an  interesting 
pastime  and  yet  of  illuminating  importance  to  the  office  over  which  he  presides. 
When  the  survey  tock  place  as  mentioned  above  the  laying  out  of  new  towns  that 
might  furnish  the  incentive  to  g^eat  growth  in  the  future  and  made  men  dream  of 
fortunes  over  night,  became  a  common  subject  of  thought.  Among  these  ventures 
one  is  of  importance,  since  here  the  first  store  in  the  county  opened  for  business. 
Centreville  was  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  four, 
now  in  Sugar  Creek  Township.    John  C.  Higginson,  Sheller  and  others  were 


interested  in  the  venture  as  the  future  county  seat  when  the  time  came  for  its 
settlement  Sargent,  Shelter  and  Company  opened  the  first  store  here.  How  long 
it  continued  is  not  now  a  matter  to  be  verified,  but  at  last  accounts  all  that  re- 
mained of  the  store  building  was  an  old  cellar  and  fireplace  not  far  from  the 
Muscatine  road^  and  the  home  of  W.  M.  Port. 



The  earliest  type  of  school  is  described  by  those  who  were  members  of  groups 
where  the  need  was  felt,  where  the  facilities  were  limited,  but  where  a  way  was 
found  to  provide  for  the  need.  While  they  are  much  alike  in  the  beginning,  each 
has  its  independent  history,  in  many  ways  suggestive  of  the  character  of  those  who 
were  concerned  in  its  estaUishment.  The  custom  of  previous  experiences  comes 
out  in  these  first  forms  and  the  improvements  in  accommodations  does  not  neces- 
sarily show  an  improvement  in  spirit  above  that  of  the  early  settler.  A  keen 
admiration  must  stir  the  present  generation  when  it  reflects  on  the  e:q>eriences, 
trials  and  courage  of  the  beginners  in  school  affairs.  The  name  school  is  given 
to  many  things,  but  there  is  only  one  pioneer  school,  only  one  that  can  stir  the 
imagination  to  a  point  that  makes  it  wish  for  the  real  preservaticm  of  a  type  school. 
In  these  pages  some  of  the  old  kind  are  described  and  incidents  related  which 
bring  the  past  into  view  preparatory  to  connecting  it  with  the  present,  that  there 
may  seem  to  be  no  gap  in  the  history  of  the  educational  forces  in  this  county.  It 
has  taken  a  long  time,  much  patience,  many  experiments,  many  failures,  and  more 
successes  to  produce  the  present  conditicHi.  Let  us  trace  the  matter  from  the 
beginning,  let  us  put  in  order  the  events  of  interest  so  far  as  they  may  be  profit- 
able :  ''The  school  house  was  built  of  logs  with  a  fire  place  in  one  end  of  it  which 
constituted  our  heating  plant.  The  seats  were  long  benches  running  the  entire 
length  of  the  room,  with  a  wide  plank  next  the  wall,  which  served  as  a  desk  and 
when  we  used  all  the  agility  we  possessed  in  changing  our  positions  so  that  we 
could  face  either  way — the  desk  or  the  center  of  the  room,  as  our  fancies  might 
dictate.  There  was,  of  course,  a  total  lack  of  school  apparatus  with  the  exception 
of  a  board  scrnie  two  feet  wide  by  four  feet  long  and  which  by  courtesy  was  called 
a  Uackboard,  although  the  paint  was  soon  dimmed  by  time  and  use. 

Notwithstanding  these  primitive  surrotmdings  we  were  fortunate  in  having 
teachers  who  somehow  inspired  us  and  who  required  us  to  learn  our  lessons.  At 
that  time  there  were  no  examinations  for  teachers  and  the  school  directors  were 
permitted  to  employ  whomsoever  they  pleased.  Whether  those  of  our  district 
were  more  competent  to  decide  who  were  fitted  to  give  instruction  than  those  in 
other  sections  of  the  country  I  do  not  know,  but  I  think  the  work  compared  quite 
favorably  with  the  work  done  in  a  majority  of  the  rural  districts  of  today. 



Our  main  battles  were  with  the  three  R's,  and  I  am  fully  persuaded  that  we 
were  able  to  read  as  intelligiently,  to  write  as  legibly,  and  to  spell  better  than  the 
average  high  school  graduate  of  today,  while  our  arithmetics  were  things  to  be 
studied,  not  guessed  at,  things  to  be  digested,  not  picked  at.    Grammar,  composi- 
tion and  literature  were  not  deemed  essential  and  were  utterly  neglected."    The 
writer  of  the  above  goes  on  to  say  that  "in  the  second  year  a  new  schoolhouse 
was  erected  which  we  thought  quite  elegant,  but  which  would  hardly  answer  even 
in  the  backwoods  at  this  time  in  our  history.    For  several  years  there  was  but  one 
school  house  in  the  township  and  pupils  came  three  or  four  (and  occasionally 
more)  miles  to  reach  the  school.    With  the  passage  of  the  law  requiring  examina- 
tions of  teachers  and  giving  a  general  supervision  of  the  work  the  conditicrti  of 
the  schools  improved.    The  Tipton  Union  School  (see  elsewhere)  was  an  impor- 
tant factor  in  preparing  teachers  for  their  work  in  these  early  days  and  as  other 
graded  schools  came  into  existence  the  teaching  improved  greatly.^^^    Probably 
the  first  school  in  the  county  was  in  Rochester  Township  at  the  hom^  of  Col. 
Henry  Hardman  and  it  is  described  by  a  family  jeJaticHi :    "The  same  room  which 
was  fitted  for  preaching  services  ('37  or  '38)  was  later  used  for  school  purposes, 
a  petition  was  circulated,  a  teacher  secured,  Moses  B.  Church,  who  was  the  fii^t 
clerk  of  the  Commissioners,  and  the  first  school  consisted  of  twenty  pupils.    The 
number  increased  so  rapidly  that  a  school  building  was  deemed  necessary.    The 
first  school  house  was  erected  by  the  people  of  this  same  neighborhood  about  one- 
half  mile  northwest  of  the  Hardman  residence.    It  was  named  *Hebron.'    This 
building  stood  for  a  number  of  years.    Now  a  modem  building  stands  to  maiic 
the  spot  where  the  first  one  stood  in  those  pioneer  days.    A  little  later  a  building 
for  school  purposes  was  erected  in  the  village  of  Rochester."  ^^* 

The  first  school  in  Iowa  Township  is  said  to  have  been  established  in  1845  and 
is  known  as  Pedee.  It  was  located  one-half  mile  north  and  one-half  mile  east  of 
its  present  site ;  the  school  house  was  on  the  east  side  of  Pedee  creek  on  the  north- 
east comer  of  the  farm  now  owned  by  Mr.  Mixell.^^*  The  earliest  school  in 
Farmington  Township  is  known  now  as  "Burr  Oak."  It  is  located  in  the  south- 
western part.  The  first  building  was  about  twelve  by  sixteen  feet  in  dimensions, 
built  of  rough  boards.  John  Quincy  Tufts,  a  farmer  residing  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, was  the  first  teacher.  The  second  school  in  the  township  was  established 
at  Durant.  The  district  was  organized  in  the  depot  on  the  evening  of  June  30, 
1856.  In  '57  a  tax  of  one  and  a  half  mills  was  voted  to  build  a  school  house.  Dur- 
ing the  winter  of  '57  school  was  taught  in  a  room  in  the  hotel  by  Lafayette  Parker 
at  Three  dollars  per  month  tuition,  (No  free  schools  then  in  Iowa. — ^Ed.)  Jan. 
II,  '58,  it  was  voted  to  erect  a  building  not  to  exceed  $800  in  cost.  Cook  and 
Sargent  gave  the  fractional  block  north  of  the  west  public  square,  and  a  building 
twenty-six  by  thirty  feet  was  erected  in  the  spring  of  '58.  In  1869  *  new  building 
was  erected  at  a  cost  of  3,500  dollars.  This  is  described  as  of  two  stories,  thirty- 
six  by  sixty  feet,  with  library,  recitaticMi  rooms  and  large  hall  above.  Durant  be- 
came an  independent  district  in  1857.  It  was  then  known  as  the  graded  school 
in  two  departments,  primary  and  grammar.  A  third  building  was  erected  in  1904 
at  a  cost  of  15,000  dollars.  It  has  four  rooms,  a  recitation  room  and  a  library. 
It  has  four  departments  now  instead  of  two  and  has  added  a  high  school,  employ- 
ing an  additional  teacher  during  the  winter  months.    The  new  school  laws  of  1856 


.  ,   *.  . 




«  L 


were  adc^ted  by  this  independent  district  in  1857.  The  first  trustees  were  Lewis 
Knowles,  E.  B.  Bills  and  John  S.  Whittlesey.  1^*  About  1854  the  first  schools 
were  established  in  Springdale  Township.  The  first  one  mentioned  was  located 
in  the  extreme  comer  of  the  township  on  the  farm  now  known  as  the  Henry 
Negus  property.  The  building  was  intended  for  a  dwelling,  but  since  no  house 
for  school  purposes  was  in  existence  this  was  used  temporarily.  Deborah  Harri- 
son was  the  teacher.  About  this  time  Highland  school  was  erected.  Ellen  Wil- 
liamson was  the  first  teacher  here.  A  year  or  two  later  the  Friends  conceived  the 
idea  of  erecting  a  building  for  a  select  school,  which  was  done,  and  it  was  located 
about  three-fourths  of  a  mile  northeast  of  Springdale.  Joel  Bean  was  one  of  the 
first  instructors.  Th^  land  near  the  school  building  was  laid  out  in  lots  and  sold. 
For  a  time  it  seemed  as  if  a  village  might  grow  up  here.  However  the  property 
was  sold  in  ^56  and  a  gravel  building  was  constructed  about  half  a  mile  west,  near 
the  cemetery.  This  was  also  conducted  by  the  Friends.  About  the  time  the  first, 
a  brick  building,  was  erected,  a  school  house  was  built  on  what  is  now  the  Arthur 
Milnes  place,  (^e-half  mile  west  of  Springdale.  This  was  a  district  school.  About 
i860  a  school  was  formed  at  Centerdale.  At  the  same  time  a  private  school  was 
conducted  by  Joel  Bean  and  wife  on  the  El  wood  Tatum  farm  east  of  West  Branch. 
But  these  schools  did  not  completely  satisfy  the  needs  of  the  time  as  felt  by  these 
people.  What  they  wanted  was  a  school  for  the  higher  branches  where  their  chil- 
dren could  pursue  those  subjects  without  going  so  far  from  home  to  completie  their 
education.  When  the  present  school  of  Springdale  was  completed  in  1867  and 
tried,  it  seemed  to  satisfy  the  need  and  the  Friends  schools  were  discontinued. 
Among  the  later  schools  Peat  Vale  is  one,  the  building  having  been  erected  in 
1873.    School  began  there  that  fall  with  an  enrollment  of  twenty-one.^^' 

Lawrie  Tatum  has  written  so  fully  of  the  Springdale  school  that  his  article  is 
quoted  largely  below. 

The  original  settlers  of  Springdale  neighborhood  were  principally  Friends,  the 
first  of  whom  located  there  in  1844.  In  a  few  years  a  church  organization  was 
eflfected,  and  some  years  later  district  schools  were  organized.  A  school  of  higher 
grade  was  demanded  and  in  about  i860  Friends  erected  a  brick  school  house  in 
which  school  was  commenced  in  1861.  It  was  ccwitrolled  by  Friends,  but  open 
also  for  non-members. 

Two  hindrances  to  the  school  were  soon  encountered.  While  it  was  a  benefit 
to  those  who  attended,  it  was  an  injury  to  No.  6  district  in  Iowa  Township  and  No. 
I  district  in  Springdale  Township,  in  reducing  the  size  of  those  schools  by  with- 
drawing from  them  the  more  advanced  and  energetic  students.  It  was  also  a  heavy 
expense  on  the  patrons  to  financially  sustain  the  school  in  addition  to  the  l^al  tax 
for  the  support  of  the  district  schools.  To  obviate  the  injurious  eflPect  on  the  two 
district  schools  and  to  have  a  school  of  as  high  a  g^ade  and  more  general  in  its 
character,  it  was  decided  by  the  Friends  and  the  two  districts  for  the  Friends' 
school  to  be  discontinued,  and  combine  the  small  district  No.  6  in  Iowa  Township 
with  Springdale  district  No.  i  and  enlarge  the  boundaries  to  about  three  miles 
square,  including  territory  in  Springdale,  Iowa,  and  Gower  Townships,  and  or- 
ganize "an  Independent  School  District'*  and  have  a  school  of  high  grade. 

The  records  of  the  district  state,  "At  a  meeting  of  l^^l  voters  of  the  proposed 
Independent  District  of  Springdale,  held  loth  month,  loth,  1866,  nineteen  votes 


were  polled  for  the  organization  of  said  district  and  three  against  it/'  In  a  mat- 
ter of  so  much  importance  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  every  voter  would  wish 
to  cast  a  ballot  on  that  occasion.  If  that  was  the  fact,  and  there  were  but  twenty- 
two  voters  in  the  district,  it  certainly  showed  a  great  deal  of  energy  for  so  few  to 
shoulder  so  important  an  enterprise. 

The  Independent  District  of  Springdale  was  organized  Oct.  19,  1866,  by  elect- 
ing the  following  named  officers :  President,  Dr.  H.  C.  GtU ;  Vice  President,  El- 
wood  Macy ;  Secretary,  Emma  Rood ;  Treasurer,  Peter  Thomas ;  Directors,  Elisha 
N^^  for  three  years,  John  F.  Carson  for  two  years,  Townsend  Thomas  for  one 
year.  In  December,  1866,  a  lot  was  purchased,  containing  three  and  a  half  acres, 
for  four  hundred  and  twenty-five  dcrflars,  upon  which  to  build  the  house,  whidi 
was  46x48  feet,  two  stories  high,  with  two  school  rooms  on  each  floor.  The  par- 
tition between  the  rooms  on  the  second  floor  was  made  to  be  raised  so  as  to  throw 
the  two  rooms  together  when  necessary.  The  house  also  contained  ample  halls 
and  cloak  rooms. 

D.  B.  Morrison,  who  lived  in  the  district,  was  employed  to  build  the  house, 
which  cost  $8,054.09,  including  stoves,  double  desks  and  well.  The  foHowing 
spring  shade  and  ornamental  trees  were  planted  on  the  lot  by  voluntary  help. 

The  writer  was  elected  president  of  the  board  at  the  second  election  and  re- 
elected for  several  years.  The  school  board  took  the  position  that  the  course  of 
study  should  be  such  as  to  qualify  a  student  to  enter  the  freshman  class  in  the 
University  or  any  of  the  coll^;es  of  the  state.  As  no  catalogues  have  been  found 
for  the  first  eleven  years,  and  to  be  positive  that  the  memory  of  the  writer  is  cor- 
rect, the  oldest  inhabitants  have  been  appealed  to  in  order  to  ascertain  what  they 
recollected  of  the  high  standard  of  the  school  in  the  early  days. 

Cyrus  Lindley,  the  first  principal,  who  taught  the  winter  term  of  1867-8,  writes 
from  Whittier,  Cal. :  "Yes,  it  was  the  intention  to  prepare  pupils  for  the  freshman 
year."  Hon.  Elwood  Macy  writes :  "If  my  memory  serves  me  right,  when  Qyrus 
Lindley  was  principal,  an  effort  was  made  to  prepare  a  course  of  study,  the  com- 
pletion of  which  would  admit  a  student  into  the  University  or  any  of  the  coll^;es 
of  the  state."  So  high  were  the  literary  aspirations  of  some  of  the  pupils  that  the 
elective  branches  of  German  and  Gredc  were  taught.  Several  studied  German. 
Wm.  Worrell  writes  that  Kinsey  Wilson  and  he  studied  Greek  under  E.  U.  Cook. 
Other  elective  branches  were  geology,  logic,  political  economy  and  book-keeping. 

Elwood  Tatum  went  through  the  course  except  botany  and,  wishing  to  enter 
the  State  University  in  1870,  took  a  catalogue  to  the  president,  who  looked  over 
the  course  and  told  him  if  he  had  gone  through  it  he  could  enter  the  fre^mian 
class,  which  he  did  without  examination,  and  made  up  the  botany.  After  attend- 
ing the  University  a  term  he  went  to  Penn  cdlege,  from  which  he  was  graduated. 
His  entering  the  University  as  he  did  conclusively  shows  that  the  course  of  study 
was  up  to  the  point  that  the  directors  intended  to  have  it,  i.  e.,  to  prepare  the 
students  to  enter  the  freshman  year  of  the  colleges  of  Iowa.  He  was  probably  the 
first  student  admitted  into  the  freshman  year  of  the  University  without  an  exam- 
ination (m  the  merits  of  going  through  the  course  of  study  of  any  public  school 
in  the  state  of  Iowa.   The  school  that  prepared  him  was  Springdale  Seminary. 

During  the  time  that  H.  H.  Hiatt  was  principal,  which  was  from  1875  to  1878, 
the  school  board  wrote  to  the  president  of  the  University,  imd  to  the  presidents 


of  Penn,  Cornell  and  Iowa  collies,  to  procure  their  assistance  in  preparing  the 
course  of  study  for  Springdale  Seminary,  so  that  a  student  completing  its  course 
could  enter  the  freshman  class  without  examination,  with  the  intention  of  discon- 
tinuing the  teaching  of  some  of  the  sciences  which  were  unnecessary  for  entering 
college,  and  add  some  if  thought  best.  The  assistance  asked  for  was  kindly  ren- 
dered and  there  were  dropped  out  of  the  course  trigonometry,  English  literature, 
surveying,  moral  philosophy  and  evidence  of  Christianity.  There  were  added 
Roman  histcMy,  civil  government,  schod  government  and  descriptive  astronomy. 
Previous  to  the  change  it  is  stated  in  the  catalogue:  "Care  has  been  taken  to  ar- 
range a  course  of  study  that  will  meet  the  wants  of  those  who  wish  to  prepare 
for  college,  and  also  those  who  do  not  desire  more  than  an  academical  course." 
Changes  have  since  been  made  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  time  in  which  we 
are  living.  For  some  years  there  has  been  an  English  course  of  study  as  well  as 
a  Latin  course  of  study.  The  former  is  designed  to  prepare  students  for  general 
business  and  teaching  public  schools. 

Hon.  Elwood  Macy,  of  Mt.  Vernon,  who  for  many  years  was  an  officer  of 
Springdale  Seminary,  writes  that  in  1878,  while  he  was  a  member  of  the  legis- 
lature from  this  county :  ''I  was  told  by  President  Schaeffer  (then  acting  pres- 
ident of  the  State  University)  that  the  Springdale  school  was  the  first  to  prepare 
its  course  so  that  its  graduates  would  be  admitted  into  the  State  University  with- 
out examination  and  there  was  only  one  other  school  outside  the  colleges  in  the 
state  that  their  graduates  would  be  so  treated." 

In  building  the  State  of  Iowa,  it  seems  that  the  small  unincorporated  village 
of  Springdale,  with  the  farming  district  of  near  three  miles  square,  had  the  first 
public  schod  in  the  state  that  prepared  its  students  for  entering  college.  At  that 
time  there  were  cities  in  the  state  whose  children  of  school  age  (5  to  21  years) 
numbered  some  thousands,  while  the  Independent  School  District  of  Springdale 
had  about  one  hundred  and  twenty.  At  this  writing  the  school  is  unique  in  being 
the  only  district  school  in  Iowa,  outside  of  a  town  or  city  corporation,  that  qual- 
ifies its  students  for  entering  coll^;e. 

To  pay  for  the  school  house  funds  were  borrowed  at  ten  per  cent  interest.  A 
classical  scholar  was  en^loyed  as  principal,  to  whom  a  good  salary  was  paid. 
Three  other  teachers  were  also  employed.  To  meet  the  expenses  there  was  a  school 
house  tax  levied  of  ten  mills  on  the  dollar ;  for  teachers'  fund  five  mills,  and  a  small 
contingent  fund.  These  aggregated  a  much  heavier  tax  for  school  purposes  than 
the  citizens  had  been  accustomed  to  paying.  Several  who  were  living  on  the  bor- 
der of  the  district  petitioned  to  be  set  off  to  other  districts  where  the  school  houses 
were  nearer.  Under  such  circumstances  it  requires  much  patriotism  to  wish  to 
help  financially  to  build  up  and  sustain  the  important  enterprise  of  a  superior 
school.    The  petitions  were  not  granted. 

At  various  times  since  then  there  have  been  petitions  to  be  set  off  to  other 
districts.  At  one  time  several  united  in  such  a  petition,  and,  as  it  was  not  granted, 
the  petitioning  parties  appealed  to  the  County  Superintendent  of  Schools,  and 
from  him  to  the  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  before  whom  the 
case  was  fully  presented  by  both  parties  and  he  rendered  a  dedsicm  in  favor 
of  the  district,  which  is  final. 


In  1891  a  hot  air  furnace  was  put  in  the  building  which  has  given  good 
satisfaction  in  warming  the  rooms  and  in  economy  of  fuel.  In  1893  the  double 
desks  were  removed  from  the  school  and  they  were  seated  with  single  ones. 
The  principals  (except  one  who  was  employed  for  a  short  time  to  fill  a 
vacancy)  and  nearly  all  the  subordinate  teachers  have  been  professing  chris- 

Forty- four  per  cent  of  the  graduates  have  attended  college  or  the  State 
University.  Wm,  B.  Worrall  was  the  first  graduate  in  1876.  He  has  since 
been  employed  by  the  C.  R.  I.  &  P.  R.  R.  Co.  as  civil  engineer  in  surveying  and 
constructing  new  railroad  lines  through  northern  Kansas  and  Indian  Territory 
(now  Oklahoma)  into  Texas.  All  of  the  school  instruction  in  surveying  he 
received  in  Springdale  Seminary. 

Students  attend  from  other  districts  and  sometimes  from  other  counties. 
This  school  year,  1896-7,  there  are  thirty  scholars  who  reside  outside  the  dis- 
trict, many  of  whom  ride  to  the  village  and  put  their  teams  in  stables  during 
the  day.  Whole  number  of  students  who  have  attended  school  during  the 
year,  158;  number  in  the  graduating  class,  14. 

After  the  legislature  abolished  the  preparatory  department  in  the  Univer- 
sity, the  attention  of  the  authorities  was  turned  towards  affiliation  with  schools 
prepared  to  give  proper  fitting  to  enter  the  University.  A  list  of  schools  was 
prepared  after  examining  the  course  of  study,  and  in  the  catalogue  of  1880 
announcement  was  made  of  the  schools  from  which  students  would  be  re- 
ceived without  examination.  Springdale  Seminary  and  Tipton  High  School 
were  the  Cedar  County  schools  on  this  list.^^* 

At  a  reunion  of  the  teachers  and  students  of  this  school  the  historical 
article  above  was  read  and  an  address  given  by  Prof.  Jesse  Macy  of  Iowa 
College,  Grinnell.  Prof.  Macy  taught  in  this  place  in  1869  ^^^  since  then  has 
become  known  not  only  in  our  coimtry  but  in  England  as  well  through  his 
study  of  English  constitutional  history  and  published  work  on  that  subject 
He  is  a  personal  friend  of  Ambassador  Bryce. 

Here  on  September  28,  1901,  more  than  five  himdred,  old  and  young, 
gathered,  enjoying  the  review  of  the  past  and  the  good  things  of  the  present 
when  the  noon  hour  arrived.  Great  numbers  of  those  who  had  been  students 
here  returned  to  honor  the  occasion  and  it  is  not  possible  to  include  in  a  brief 
summary  all  the  events  of  that  day. 

When  the  recent  new  building  in  West  Branch  was  dedicated  the  exercises 
were  more  than  local,  giving  a  general  review  of  the  educational  history.  S<Hne  ex- 
tracts here  seem  suitable:  "J*  C.  Crew,  president  of  the  board,  presented  the 
building  to  the  people  of  the  district  and  Dr.  L.  J.  Leech  responded  on  behalf  of 
the  people.  C.  H.  Wickersham  gave  the  history  of  the  school  from  the  first  in 
1853  from  the  one  district  school  to  the  present  time.  The  first  was  built  by 
subscription.  As  it  was  ahnost  wholly  paid  for  by  the  society  of  Frieqds,  it 
was  used  also  as  a  meeting  house  until  they  built  the  first  church  building  in 
1856.  Mary  Mills  was  the  first  teacher.  In  1867  a  two-story  building  was 
erected  where,  as  mentioned  before  in  this  chapter,  Joel  and  Hannah  Bean 
taught.  This  was  on  the  site  of  the  present  building.  In  1870  the  old  house 
was  moved  to  the  north  of  the  new  one  and  Mary  Townsend  taught  here. 

MechanicBTille   Public   Si^hool 

Lowden  Public  School 

Bennett  Schoolliouse 

Bochester  Schoolhouse  After  Rebuilding 

Stauwood  Higb  Scbool 

Bcattergood   Seminary 


;  '>'^\".\ 

Afrr*.p    !-•  ^»tr   \vd 

TII.''^A    f  ..     'A  n*  ,V8 
t  L 


In  1877  the  littk  old  school  house  was  moved  away  and  a  two-story  wing  was 
erected.  At  this  time  a  carefully  graded  school  system  was  adopted,  a  library 
was  added  and  provision  made  for  a  laboratory.  Additions  were  made  to 
the  library  by  several  means — students  and  patrons  working  together.  In 
November,  1892,  this  buildmg  was  destroyed  by  fire  through  some  defect  in 
the  heating  system,  but  good  fortune  favored  the  district,  as  it  occurred  just 
before  the  morning  opening.  A  temporary  building  was  immediately  put  up 
and  within  two  weeks  work  was  continued. 

In  1893  a  six-room  building  was  erected  with  modem  equipment  and  a 
diflferent  heating  system.  A  new  library  was  begun  and  had  more  than  six 
hundred  volumes.  Valuable  physical  apparatus  was  supplied.  Then  came  a 
bolt  of  lightning  and  the  second  fire  laid  waste  the  work  of  years.  But  the 
good  red  blood  of  the  iMoneer  parents  still  courses  in  the  veins  of  the  chil- 
dren, and  the  present  Iwiilding  was  put  up  t>n  the  hill  overlooking  the  town, 
and  is  a  credit  to  those  who  managed  the  expenditure  of  twenty  thousand 
dollars.  The  building  was  dedicated  to  the  cause  of  education  in  the  name 
and  memory  of  the  pioneers  who  stinted  themselves  and  gave  of  their  limited 
means  that  their  children  might  have  the  privilege  of  a  liberal  education. 

This  thought  is  added  by  the  writer  of  the  history  for  the  dedication:  "It 
is  not  enough  for  man  to  have  a  splendid  physique.  This  is  not  the  real  man. 
His  heart  must  be  right  and  his  thoughts  must  be  clean.  Then  he  will  not 
shame  his  fine  figure  nor  the  God  who  made  him.  'this  splendid  building  is 
not  enough.  It  must  be  filled  with  pupils  who  are  in  earnest  and  with  teachers 
able  to  show  them  the  way."^^*^ 

In  the  winter  of  '58-9  V.  R.  Cornwall  taught  in  the  Fowler  building  in 
Downey.  In  i860  it  was  held  in  the  Crozier  house.  The  first  school  building 
was  erected  in  1863  and  in  Mardi,  1863,  a  tax  of  five  mills  was  levied  for  a 
building  fund.  In  1871  the  house  was  rebuilt  at  a  cost  of  ten  thousand  dol- 
lars. At  that  time  there  were  thirty-five  pupils.  At  present  a  new  building 
of  four  rooms  is  occupied  with  an  enrollment  of  sixty.  The  Friends  boarding 
school  is  located  southeast  of  West  Branch.  It  was  formerly  known  as  Scat- 
tergood  Seminary.  It  was  established  in  1890  and  has  an  enrollment  of  thirty 
or  more  at  this  time. 

About  1845  J.  H.  and  Robert  Gower,  for  whom  Gower  Township  was 
named,  hired  a  Mr.  Llbnbert  to  teach  in  a  log  cabin  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river  on  the  Kester  place.  School  was  continued  there  every  winter  until  the 
house  was  built  on  the  Gunsolus  place.  This  was  before  Gower  Township 
was  formed.^^® 

The  first  school  in  Cass  Township  was  organized  about  1842  near  a  place 
caUed  at  that  time  Dutchtown,  not  far  from  the  present  town  of  Buchanan. 
There  was  no  district  meeting,  as  one  would  expect  now,  but  a  gathering  of 
the  neighbors  to  build  a  log  house  with  an  extra  large  fire  place  in  one  end, 
a  row  of  small  window  panes  on  two  sides  and  other  furnishings  described 
in  the  beginning  of  this  chapter.  George  Smith,  a  graduate  of  some  eastern 
college,  was  the  first  teacher.  He  was  a  very  competent  man.  Gower's  sons 
(see  elsewhere)  were  taking  work  of  college  grade  under  him.  He  was  a 
strict  man,  as  all  the  early  teachers  were,  for  they  had  pupils,  often,  who  were 



men  of  twenty-one  or  older.  This  did  not  prevent  him  from  administering 
the  lash  when  considered  necessary.  On  arrival  in  the  morning*  a  bright  fire 
was  found  burning  in  the  big  fire  place,  the  master  was  setting  copies  for  us 
made  from  scriptural  verses  or  maxims;  or  he  might  be  making  pens  from 
goose  quills,  as  was  the  custom  then,  the  present  steel  pen  of  such  great  variety 
not  being  in  use.  The  old  quill  produced  some  beautiful  penmen,  as  the  old 
county  records  can  testify. 

The  teacher  was  paid  two  dollars  a  term  for  each  pupil  and  he  ''boarded 
round.''  On  such  visits  the  best  was  always  brought  out  by  each  family.  The 
length  of  his  stay  was  in  prc^rtion  to  the  number  of  pupils  in  the  family. 

Mr.  Smith  taught  several  years  in  this  county  and  then  was  elected  county 
judge.^^*  During  his  period  of  teaching  and  long  afterward  the  books  used 
were  the  elementary  speller,  McGuffe/s  readers,  Smith  and  Mitchell's  geog- 
TZfhy,  and  Kirkham's  grammar.  Every  Friday  afternoon  a  spelling  match 
was  held  and  pieces  spc^en.  As  a  social  diversion  spelling  schools  were  held 
several  times  during  the  winter  with  other  schools,  parents  and  friends  often 
joining  in  these  contests  which,  while  friendly,  often  aroused  the  liveliest 
enthusiasm.  It  was  quite  customary  for  geogrs^hy  to  be  taught  in  rh3ane  and 
song,  teachers  sometimes  going  about  the  country  doing  this  as  a  specialty.^ 

The  first  sdiool  building  in  Center  Township  was  of  logs  and  located  about 
one  mile  west  of  Tipton  on  what  is  known  as  the  Lunsdien  farm  in  1839.^^^  The 
first  teacher  here,  George  Smith,  had  a  large  school  and  was  paid  thirty  dollars 
per  month,  very  high  wages  for  that  time.  Mr.  Montgomery  Fraseur  went  to 
Chicago  for  the  stoves,  buying  two,  one  for  the  school  and  one  for  their  home. 
This  first  teacher  met  death  by  accident  in  later  years.  There  was  a  log  house 
before  '53  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Ray  Ochiltree.  In  that  year  the  Rock 
Creek  house  was  built  and  was  known  as  a  plank  house.  Number  thirteen  was 
built  in  1854.  In  1857  the  people  were  entertained  at  number  thirteen  with  an 
exhibition  given  by  teachers  of  two  schools.  John  Reeder  and  James  Mc- 
Cauley."*  The  Tipton  public  schools  were  organized  in  1856,  but  the  first 
schods  here  began  in  the  winter  of  '41 -'42,  Thomas  Gracey,  from  Philadelphia, 
being  the  first  teacher.  According  to  historical  record  there  were  eight  pupils 
in  this  first  school  and  their  descendants  now  reside  in  Tipton.  The  old  log 
house  first  used,  located  where  the  National  bank  now  stands,  was  replaced  t^ 
a  frame  one  in  '43-'44,  and  this  was  used  until  1853,  when  part  of  it  became  a 
private  dwelling.  During  this  year  the  brick  house  standing  south  of  the  monu- 
ment square  was  built,  the  brick  work  tmder  the  direction  of  John  Godden,  who 
lived  in  Tiptcm  for  many  years.  In  1856  this  house  was  enlarged  by  the  adding 
of  an  "L"  on  the  west,  somewhat  larger  than  the  old  original.  This  old  building 
now  is  in  a  state  of  decay.  It  is  occupied  by  transient  families  and  is  fast  going 
to  ruins.  Once  the  members  of  the  "Old  Union  School"  proposed  to  preserve  it, 
but  the  chance  of  preservation  is  long  since  passed.  The  old  bell  that  called  the 
industrious  ones  of  that  period  now  stands  on  the  rostrum  of  the  present  high 
school  building,  where  it  has  had  a^i  honorable  place  since  1903.  In  the  spring 
of  1866  a  small  brick  building  was  erected  in  the  north  part  of  town  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  younger  children.  This  stood  where  the  parsonage  of  the 
Reformed  Church  now  stands,  and  the  brick  which  composed  it  are  in  the  foun- 


dation  of  the  parsonage.  Of  the  present  buildings  one  was  built  in  1879,  and 
die  high  school  building  in  1895.  '^^  histcny  of  this  scho<ri  in  its  beginning  is 
the  history  of  one  man,  C.  C.  Nestlerode,  who  organized  the  Union  School  in 
1856.  It  was  made  consfMcuous  in  many  ways  and  became  a  center  of  influence 
for  this  part  of  the  state.  The  free  school  idea  was  still  unripe  and  the  contest 
for  a  law  in  this  state  to  secure  support  for  schools  by  public  taxation  had  to  be 
fought  out.  This  vicinity  engaged  in  this  controversy  and  some  stirring  events 
occurred  here.  During  this  discussion  Mr.  Nestlerode  was  instrumental  in  form- 
ing a  new  law  in  connection  with  members  of  the  assembly  from  this  county, 
and  after  the  constitution  of  1857  was  adopted  by  this  state  matters  became 
permanently  settled.  The  law  of  1858  made  provision  for  support  as  mentioned, 
but  an  anti  free  school  party  sought  to  destroy  the  effect  of  the  law  by  injunc- 
tion. Mr.  Nestlerode  resigned  to  await  the  effect  of  the  suit  and  a  new  election 
of  officials.  He  was  recalled  and  b^^n  his  plans  for  a  model  school.  This  had 
many  features  that  were  far  ahead  of  the  times  and,  as  mentioned  elsewhere,  the 
school  became  a  training  ground  for  teachers  of  other  schoc^s.  In  December, 
1856,  the  first  teachers'  institute  was  held  in  this  county  under  the  direction  of 
Mr.  Nestlerode.  It  is  said  about  thirty  teachers  responded,  and  mostly  young 
men,  which  number  was  increased  to  forty-five  during  the  week  as  a  result  of 
the  success  of  the  enterprise.  Dr.  Joshua  Maynard,  president  of  the  board  then, 
was  a  leading  factor  in  encouraging  such  gatherings.  At  the  close  of  the  winter 
term,  1857,  teachers  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  students  at  select  schools  and 
Mount  Vernon  Seminary  made  application  for  admbsion  to  the  Union  School. 
Teachers'  institutes  were  held  annually,  alternating  between  Tipton  and  Spring- 
dale.  The  school  of  '59  enrolled  about  278  pupils,  with  five  teachers.^**  Another 
puts  it  in  this  way :  ''I  think  I  do  not  err  when  I  say  that  the  Tipton  schools 
and  the  Springdale  schools  stood  at  the  very  head  of  the  schools  in  the  county  at 
that  time.^^  In  1859  the  state  teachers'  association  met  in  Washington,  Iowa. 
Mr.  Nestlerode  was  made  chairman  of  the  Executive  Committee  and  as  such 
edited  and  published,  with  the  assistance  of  his  teachers,  the  Iowa  Instructor,  a 
bound  volume  of  which  is  found  in  the  public  library.  The  following  account  is 
found  there.*** 

Extracts  from  the  minutes  of  the  Iowa  State  Teachers'  association,  session 
of  i860.  From  the  ''Iowa  Instructor"  published  by  the  executive  committee  and 
edited  by  C.  C.  Nestlerode,  chairman. 

The  meeting  at  Tipton  in  August,  i860,  was  decided  upon  at  the  meeting  in 
Washington  in  1859.  There  were  eighty-six  members  present  at  the  meeting  in 
1859  ^^^  ^^7  i"  i860.  No  programmes  were  distributed  broadcast  then,  but  the 
little  journal  published  the  order  of  exercises  in  the  August  number  and  the  pro- 
ceedings are  found  in  the  September  number. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  in  the  M.  E.  church  (long  ago  out  of  ex- 
istence) by  President  D.  F.  Wells  of  Iowa  City,  at  7 130  p.  m.,  Tuesday,  Aug.  28, 
and  on  motion  the  constitution  was  read.  The  chair  appointed  C.  C.  Nestlerode, 
£.  D.  Hawes  and  M.  Ingalls  to  wait  on  the  audience  and  obtain  the  names  of 
those  who  wished  to  become  members  of  the  association.  Then  follows  a  list  of 
names  that  were  added  to  the  constitution. 


The  chairman  of  the  executive  committee  reported  the  order  of  exercises, 
which  was  adopted. 

On  Wednesday  morning  Rev.  M.  R.  Cross  on  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  Tipton 
welcomed  the  association.  The  president  returned  thanks  for  the  association.  Dr. 
Maynard  moved  that  a  committee  consisting  of  one  meniber  from  each  county  be 
appointed  to  name  persons  for  permanent  officers  for  the  following  year.  M. 
Ingalls  read  a  report  on  "Prizes  in  Schools."  C.  C.  Nestlerode  read  a  report  from 
railway  superintendents  that  the  usual  reduction  of  half  fare  by  public  convey- 
ances was  refused  to  persons  attending  this  association  by  all  companies  except 
the  Chicago^  Iowa  &  Nebraska  railroad  and  the  stage  companies.  The  repent  was 
tabled.    (The  road  mentioned  is  the  C.  &  N.  W.) 

On  motion  T.  H.  Benton,  Jr.,  A.  S.  Kissell,  M.  Ingalls,  J.  K.  Sweeney  and 
J.  Enos  were  appointed  to  take  into  consideration  the  subject  of  appcMiiting  a 
state  agent  to  lecture  and  hold  institutes  in  the  various  counties  of  the  state. 

The  report  of  the  committee  on  nominations  shows  that  twelve  counties  were 
represented  at  this  meeting.  Miss  Humphrey  read  an  essay  entitled  "How  Shall 
We  Teach."  L.  F.  Smith  of  Keokuk  made  a  verbal  report  on  "English  Gram- 
mar." Mrs.  M.  A.  McGonegal  read  a  report  on  the  "Range  of  Studies  Demanded 
by  Our  Public  School  System."  Dr.  Re)molds  made  a  report  on  "The  Hbtory  of 
Education"  and  "Educational  Textbooks."  C.  E.  Hovey  of  Normal,  111.,  ad- 
dressed the  meeting  on  "How  Can  Teachers  Acquire  and  Maintain  Re^)ect- 
ability  as  Citizens?"    Prof.  F.  Humphrey  offered  the  following: 

Resolved,    That  a  normal  school  ought  to  be  established  in  each  state. 

The  resolution  was  discussed  with  much  interest  and,  by  vote,  was  made  a 
special  order  for  the  next  morning  at  9  o'clock.  G.  B.  Dennison  of  Mtiscatine 
was  appointed  to  transcribe  the  proceedings  of  all  previous  meetings  of  the  asso- 
ciation in  a  book  provided  for  that  purpose,  and  for  such  service  the  committee 
determines  the  compensation. 

The  chairman  of  the  committee  on  state  agency  made  a  report,  which  was 
discussed  and  adopted.    It  read  as  follows : 

The  committee  beg  leave  to  report  in  favor  of  such  an  office  provided  it  can 
be  done  without  involving  the  association  in  any  additional  expense. 

On  motion  of  Rev.  M.  K.  Cross,  a  report  on  "Music"  was  read  by  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Jones  of  Columbus  City.  Lizzie  S.  Gregg  read  an  essay  on  "The  El^pance 
of  Diction."  J.  L.  Enos  then  spoke  on  "The  Power  of  the  Teacher  and  How  to 
Use  It."  Hon.  Thomas  H.  Benton,  Jr.,  delivered  an  address  on  "The  Qualifica- 
tions of  the  Teacher."  The  question  of  a  school  journal  produced  a  minority 
report.    Members  were  allowed  one  speech  of  ten  minutes. 

Hon.  Jas.  Harlan  addressed  the  convention  on  Thursday  evening,  and  a  vote 
of  thanks  was  tendered  the  senator  for  his  able  address.  On  the  same  evening 
after  music  Miss  M.  A.  Washbume  read  a  poem  on  "Conwnon  Schools"  by  re- 
quest of  the  association. 

On  Friday,  C.  C  Nestlerode  made  the  following  report:  Your  ccmimittee 
appointed  at  Dubuque  in  1857,  to  memorialize  the  legislature  to  establish  a  re- 
form school  for  juvenile  offenders  ask  permission  to  report  again.  We  have 
memorialized,  petitioned  and  urged  both  the  board  of  education  and  the  legis- 
lature at  each  of  their  meetings  since  appointment,  for  the  consideration  of  the 


object  designed,  but  have  been  unable  to  accomplish  anything  for  the  juvenile 
qffenders  of  the  state.  The  ccwnmittee  believes  that  the  association  should  con- 
tinue its  efforts  until  a  reform  school  is  established  and  in  successful  operation. 

The  association  passed  the  following  resolution:  Resolved,  That  we  learn 
with  pleasure  that  our  old  and  experienced  colaborer  in  the  educational  cause. 
Dr.  Reynolds  of  Iowa  City,  is  about  to  commence  an  educational  tour  through  the 
state.  He  designs  lecturing  particularly  on  the  science  of  geography,  political, 
physical  and  mathematical,  and  is  well  furnished  with  all  the  necessary  apparatus 
to  illustrate  the  truth  on  this  subject.  It  was  further  resolved  that  the  doctor 
was  able  to  do  that  kind  of  work  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  concerned. 

The  chair  appointed  a  committee  to  wait  on  the  audience  and  secure  names  of 
all  who  wished  the  bound  volume  of  the  Iowa  Educator. 

There  is  an  exhaustive  resolution  condemning  the  action  of  the  board  of  edu- 
cation in  its  action  in  regard  to  the  county  superintendent  not  being  required  to 
visit  the  schools  of  his  county  twice  during  each  year,  and  it  concludes  with  the 
determination  that  the  salary  of  the  county  superintendent  ought  to  be  a  fixed 

On  motion  Senator  Harlan  was  elected  an  honorary  member.  The  committee 
on  resolutions  reported  before  adjournment  on  Friday  and  their  report  includes 
the  following:  That  this  annual  reunion  has  afforded  us  much  gratification  and 
benefit;  that  the  unity  of  feeling  and  harmony  of  action  that  have  marked  the 
proceedings  of  the  association  on  this  occasion  will  be  cherished  among  our  most 
pleasant  recollections ;  that  the  thanks  of  the  association  are  due  the  executive 
committee  for  the  able  and  tasteful  manner  in  which  they  have  conducted  the 
"Iowa  Instructor;"  that  our  grateful  acknowledgments  be  tendered  to  the  citi-* 
zcns  of  Tipton  for  their  generous  hospitality  in  providing  for  the  entertainment 
of  this  association,  and  to  Mr.  Elliott  for  his  efforts  to  secure  for  us  pleasant 
homes  during  our  stay. 

The  railway  company  is  thanked  for  courtesies  which  are  taken  as  unmistak- 
able evidence  of  the  interest  in  education  in  which  we  are  all  laboring;  thanks 
are  tendered  to  C.  D.  Curtis  for  free  return  tickets  by  hack  line  to  the  railway 
stations  (some  miles  distant) ;  thanks  are  due  to  Miss  Majmard  for  the  use  of 
her  melodeon. 

At  this  meeting  one  was  present  from  Polk  county  and  three  from  Pottawat- 
tamie including  T.  H.  Benton,  Jr.  E.  D.  Hawes  was  the  member  from  Polk 
county.  Cedar  county  furnished  123  and  C.  C.  Nestlerode  was  the  leading  spirit 
of  tfie  association. 

The  meeting  closed  with  the  "Doxology."*** 

The  following  is  taken  from  an  address  of  Mr.  Nestlerode:  "Had  I  time  I 
would  hold  up  in  review  the  history  of  the  old  Union  School  which  began  on 
Dec.  I,  1856,  and  closed  March  28,  1862.  I  would  gladly  narrate  its  triumphs 
and  its  defeats,  its  struggle  with  the  school-killers  and  its  final  triumph  over  all 
oi^>ositiQn.  *  *  *  It  will  be  remembered  by  some  here  present  (June,  1887) 
that  the  Tipton  Union  School  was  the  first  regularly  graded  one  west  of  the 
Mississippi  river.  That  at  the  time  of  its  founding  there  was  no  free  school  law 
in  Iowa  and  no  law  for  graded  schools,  and  consequently  such  a  law  was  an 
absolute  necessity.    I  commenced  at  once  to  write  a  law  for  that  purpose  and 


my  ni^ts  during  December,  1856,  were  occupied  in  that  work.  I  owe  it  to  Ae 
revered  memory  of  Dr.  Maynard,  to  Rev.  M.  K.  Cross,  and  to  the  graded 
schools  of  Iowa  to  state  that  Dr.  Maynard  and  Mr.  Cross  were  my  counselors 
while  performing  that  sacred  duty.  S.  S.  Daniels  was  a  member  of  the  board 
that  invited  me  to  come  to  Tipton  and  at  the  session  of  1856  of  our  state  as- 
sembly was  sergeant-at-arms  of  the  senate.  J.  W.  Cattell  was  a  member  of  the 
Senate  from  Cedar  County  and  Ed  Wright  was  our  member  of  the  House.  I 
sent  the  act  I  had  prepared  to  Mr.  Daniels  and  he  lost  no  time  in  placing  it  in 
the  hands  of  Messrs.  Cattell  and  Wright  and  in  less  than  ten  days  it  had  passed 
both  houses  and  became  a  law.  We  lost  no  time  at  Tipton  in  taking  the  neces- 
sary steps  for  its  adoption,  which  we  succeeded  in  doing  in  1857.  During  the 
fall  of  1857  the  pe(q>le  of  Iowa  adopted  a  new  constitution  and,  unfortunately 
for  the  Union  School,  on  the  adoption  all  school  laws  in  Iowa  became  null  and 
vcHd.  Our  school  was  in  session  in  all  its  departments  and  orders  were  to  con- 
tinue until  the  close  of  the  year,  and  we  did,  notwithstanding  many  of  our  people 
refused  to  pay  their  school  tax.  In  May,  1858,  a  meeting  was  called  in  oppo- 
sition and  the  school  voted  down.  *  *  ^  Some  months  later  by  almost  unan- 
imous vote  the  board  was  instructed  to  reopen  the  Union  School  and  to  employ 
me  to  take  charge  of  the  same.  *  *  *  From  1857  to  1861  the  cc^ection  of 
the  school  tax  was  being  contested  in  the  state  of  Iowa  through  the  courts. 
Most  of  these  years  school  orders  went  begging  and  often  would  neither  com- 
mand money,  buy  clothes  or  pay  board.  *  *  *  Judge  Tuthill  tendered  his 
services  to  the  school  board  and  prosecuted  the  school-tax  collection  to  a  suc- 
cessful issue.''  The  teachers  of  the  Union  School  presented  the  judge  with  a 
silver  cup  in  token  of  their  appreciation. 

Since  1856  twenty-two  men  have  been  in  charge  of  the  public  sdiools  of 
Tipton  with  an  average  service  of  about  two  and  one-fourth  years.  The  longest 
period  is  seven  years.  The  first  graduate  was  sent  out  in  1875  ^^^  since  then 
classes  have  gone  forth  at  regular  periods  from  the  high  school.  It  b  a  fully 
accredited  school.  In  1907  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  graded  schools  was 
remembered  and  the  minutes  of  that  meeting  are  included  in  a  bound  volume 
found  in  the  public  library  which  is  made  up  of  addresses  and  reports  from  mem- 
bers of  this  school  fifty  years  before.  Many  names  are  recorded  there  of  men 
who  became  leaders  in  their  day  and  whose  sons  and  daughters  now  hold  places 
of  prominence. 

More  than  thirty  surviving  members  of  the  old  Unimi  School  assembled  at 
the  last  reunion.  They  are  scattered  over  the  entire  country,  letters  being  read 
from  many  who  could  not  be  present  Of  the  teachers  then  only  one  remains  in 
Tiptcm,  Mr.  J.  W.  Reeder.  He  remembers  his  early  experiences  well  and  is  a 
strong  friend  of  education,  supporting  with  his  presence  all  that  has  to  do  with 
the  keeping  alive  the  former  struggles  for  the  free  schools. 

Mrs.  S.  W.  Rathbun,  wife  of  Capt.  Rathbun,  of  Marion,  formerly  of  this 
county,  was  a  primary  teacher  in  the  old  school  south  of  the  library  and  writes 
entertainingly,  always,  when  questioned  on  this  subject.  Mrs.  Fred  Hecht,  of 
Clarence,  recalls  the  visit  of  John  Brown  to  the  room  when  she  was  a  pupil  and 
describes  his  appearance  at  that  time.  The  reunion  of  these  former  pupils  and 
teachers  are  certainly  unusual  and  probably  no  county  in  Iowa  can  duplicate 

Darant  High  School 

West   Branch   High   School  Clarence  High  School 

Springdale  High  School  Downey  High  School 


(  * 

fLi;'.JC    Lia.-.A.-Y 


the  history  of  this  county  in  its  educational  history — noting  especially  the  schools 
of  Springdale  and  Tipton  in  their  efforts  to  keep  their  first  days  before  the  pres- 
ent generation. 

An  item  of  concern  to  the  educational  interests  of  long  ago  was  the  apparent 
rivalry  among  the  new  high  schools,  or  graded  schools,  as  they  first  grew  into 

The  Mt  Vernon  News  of  Nov,  15,  i860,  uttered  the  following  sentiment: 
''The  meannesses  shown  up  by  our  correspondent  'Sigma'  are  of  a  piece  with  a 
petty,  narrow  exdusiveness — unjust  partiality — ^which  has  for  some  time  marked 
the  policy  of  Mr.  Nestlerode  and  the  Tipton  high  school.  (High  school! 
Pshaw !) 

An  instance  which  occurred  a  year  or  two  since  is  in  point.  A  young  man 
from  this  place  applied  for  that  same  'High  School,'  and  would  have  received  it 
but  for  an  old  public  functionary  there,  who  had  two  objections  to  him— -one 
that  he  was  not  from  Oberlin  and  the  other  that  he  was  from  Mount  Vernon. 

We  wonder  if  they  expect  to  make  an3rthing  by  such  nice  discriminations! 
Let  the  'long  run'  show." 

Witness  the  answer  in  part:  "We  are  sorry  that  Cornell  College  is  so  jealous 
of  and  so  much  affected  by  our  Union  Schoc^  as  to  call  for  sudi  an  expose  of 
the  feeling  in  that  vicinity.  That  we  have  a  little  the  best  public  school  in  the 
state  is  true,  but  we  had  no  idea  that  it  had  ccmie  into  competition  with  a  college 
of  the  known  standing  of  Cornell.  We  are  not  aware  that  any  of  the  citizens 
even  asked  any  aid  of  Mount  Vernon  or  tried  to  get  any  of  its  students  to  enter 
our  'High  School.' "  ^^^  This  apparent  rivalry  was  not  ended  here  but  this  is 
sufficient  to  illustrate  the  times  educationally. 

The  transfer  of  furniture  and  equipment  from  the  old  building  south  of  the 
library  to  the  grammar  building  or  west  building  as  commonly  known  on  the 
present  grounds  liappened  in  the  winter  of  1880.  This  building  was  finished  by 
tile  contractor,  a  Mr.  Schnell  of  Rock  Island,  at  this  time  and  the  move  was 
made  somewhat  of  a  celebration.  Pupils  were  assembled  at  the  old  building 
and  the  members  of  the  first  Unicm  School  invited  to  join  them  in  the  march. 
At  ten  o'clock  in  the  forenoon  on  Monday,  Feb.  23,  1880,  the  procession  moved 
wiA  board  of  education  at  the  head  and  pupils  following  in  order  of  rank.  Many 
of  the  old  school  were  present.  The  entire  forenoon  was  spent  in  social  matters 
and  inspection  of  the  new  building,  considered  then  of  very  excellent  proportions. 

Immediately  the  question  arose  of  the  disposition  of  the  old  building  and 
many  suggestions  of  use  were  made.  Some  said  a  canning  factory,  a  chair  fac- 
tory, an3rthing  to  make  use  of  the  building  so  that  it  would  not  be  idle.  Once  it 
was  proposed  to  preserve  it  untouched  as  a  relic  of  what  was.  None  of  these 
things  happened— only  the  old  bell  through  the  watchfulness  of  the  former  pupils 
and  teachers,  among  them  the  prime  movers  being  John  W.  Reeder  and  Hubert 
Hammond,  was  saved  and  occupies  a  post  of  honor. 

A  Seminary  for  the  instruction  of  young  ladies  was  opened  in  Tipton  by 
Grace  Episcopal  Church  in  1873.  This  was  in  the  house  formerly  occupied  by 
John  Starr  and  was  under  the  supervision  of  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Allen,  with  the  as- 
sistance of  a  lady  principal  and  competent  instructcM^  in  the  subjects  provided 
in  the  curriculum — French,  German,  Drawing  and  religious  instruction  usually 


found  in  such  private  schools.  The  Post,"*  a  paper  published  in  the  county  seat 
at  that  time,  rather  objected  to  the  coming  of  any  school  of  the  kind  into  this 
particular  field  and  rather  favored  a  state  institution.  Mr.  C.  L.  Longley,  then 
editor  of  the  Advertiser,  favored  and  encouraged  all  such  undertakings. 

Miss  Scribner  became  the  first  principal  of  this  boarding  school.  She  was 
succeeded  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year  by  Miss  Rice.  The  following  advertise- 
ment appears  for  August  13,  1874: 




Tipton,  Iowa 

Miss  E.  Scribner,  Prin. 

THE  COURSE  OF  INSTRUCTION  embraces  all  the  higher  branches  of 
English  Education  with  Latin,  French,  German,  Music,  Drawing,  Needlework 
and  other  accomplishments. 


Tuition  in  English  branches  per  term $10.00 

Board  per  week   4.00 

Laundress,  per  week  50 

Vocal  and  Instnmiental  Music,  each  per  term 10.00 

Drawing  and  Painting,  per  term 10.00 

Languages,  per  term   5.00 

Instruction  in  Wax  Flowers  5.00 

Use  of  Piano  one  hour  daily,  per  term. 2.00 

Note. — Bills  payable  in  advance. 

The  seminary  begun  as  favorably  as  one  could  expect  came  to  a  sudden  ter- 
mination one  dark  day  when  the  accomplished  principal  took  a  sudden  and,  to 
many  creditors,  mournful  departure.  A  rather  ironical  writer  said  that  the  de- 
parture in  the  early  morning  was  made  to  go  under  the  guise  of  a  funeral  and 
it  was  much  of  a  funeral  at  the  time  to  the  ones  to  whom  some  four  thousand 
dollars  in  bills  were  owing.    This  was  the  Miss  Scribner  of  Seminary  fame. 

After  a  lapse  of  some  weeks  the  lady  returned  and  through  the  financial  as- 
sistance of  Mr.  Moses  Bunker,  she  was  enabled  to  arrange  the  financial  matters 
and  continue  the  instruction  but  not  the  financial  management,  this  being  under 
competent  direction  of  a  financial  agent.  In  1850  a  select  school  was  conducted 
by  Mrs.  Keith,  wife  of  the  Congregationalist  minister  on  the  comer  where  the 
home  of  S.  M.  Murray  now  stands.    This  was  the  first  select  school  in  Tipton. 

Mr.  John  H.  Starr  once  offered  to  donate  one  block  for  the  Presb)rterian 
Seminary  proposed  to  be  located  here,  and  also  one-fourth  of  every  other  block 
to  be  disposed  of  to  aid  in  its  erection.  There  was  much  objection  then  to  pri- 
vate schools  of  this  kind  and  while  it  was  considered  for  some  time  by  the 
c^cials  of  the  church  no  definite  action  in  the  matter  was  taken. 

In  1850  there  was  a  log  school  house  in  Inland  Township  near  Posten's 
Grove.  A  small  building  seated  and  furnished  as  the  type  mentioned  previously, 
slabs  for  seats  with  pegs  in  the  rounded  sides  and  the  desk  against  the  wall  fur- 
nishing an  uncomfortable  back  to  the  seat  when  facing  inward.  It  was  the  only 
school  house  at  that  time  in  the  township  and  one  of  the  first  in  the  coimty.    In 


the  summer  of  '54  a  frame  house  was  built  in  district  number  one.  George 
Willcy  was  the  contractor.  The  father  of  the  writer  (H.  A.  Curtis)  helped  in 
the  work.  At  that  time  the  pupils  furnished  their  own  seats  and  desks  or  tables. 
J  still  retain  the  table  my  brother  and  I  used.  Among  the  early  teachers  are 
menticMied  C.  A.  Pound,  Amos  Dean,  Mrs.  Dr.  Qark,  Charles  Baker  and  S.  H. 
Grant.*^  Bennett  has  been  an  independent  district  since  1891.  It  has  recently 
voted  to  build  again  and  will  be  provided  with  a  modem  equipment  in  191 1, 
unless  objections  are  sustained.  The  German  Evangelical  church  maintains  a 
school  here  established  in  1907  enrolling  about  fifteen.^^^ 

The  first  school  building  in  Springfield  Township  was  at  Posten's  Grove, 
built  of  logs  of  the  usual  dimensions  and  equipment.  This  was  in  1848.  Wm. 
Henry  from  Ohio  was  the  first  teacher  here.  The  name  "Posten's  Grove"  comes 
from  the  settlers  by  that  name,  Jim  and  Chas.  Posten.^^* 

In  April,  1853,  Mr.  Jacob  Geiger  boarded  with  Mr.  Walker  and  taught 
school  in  a  log  house  on  Henry  Conrad's  farm.  Before  that  time,  however, 
James  Huff  had  conducted  a  school  now  number  one,  which  was  built  in  1853. 
In  1855  2t  frame  building  was  erected  where  or  near  where  the  Fairview  church 
stands,  and  was  taught  by  Mr.  Geiger.  In  this  house  the  elections  of  the  town- 
ship were  held  up  to  1864  inclusive.  At  Fairview  the  school  house  was  remove4 
in  1867  to  one-half  mile  southwest  and  a  new  one  erected  now  number  three.^^' 

A  building  was  rented  in  Lowden  in  1859  ^uid  a  school  was  taught  by  Miss 
Huldah  Monroe,  this  being  the  first  school  in  the  village.  In  i860  the  first 
building  was  erected,  a  one-story  frame,  near  the  site  of  the  German  Evangelical 
church.  It  was  afterward  enlarged  and  sold  to  the  church  society  when  a  new 
building  of  brick  was  erected  in  1874.  The  frame  building  was  divided  and 
part  of  it  is  now  used  by  the  parochial  school  of  the  Zion  Evangelical  church. 
The  other  portion  was  sold  to  Mr.  Reid  and  was  finally  burned.  The  present 
four-room  modern  building  of  Lowden  was  built  in  1909.  It  occupies  roomy 
grounds  on  an  excellent  location.  ^^^ 

There  are  two  parochial  schools  in  Lowden.  The  Lutheran  established  in 
1871  having  an  enrollment  at  present  of  about  seventy-five,  the  German  Evan- 
gelical, 1880,  enrolling  about  forty.^^^  "Towhead**  school,  in  what  is  now  Red 
Oak  township,  furnished  the  families  residing  in  Fairfield  with  their  first  school 
privileges.  It  was  located  in  the  neighborhood  known  as  Shiloh,  or  near  where 
the  Presbyterian  church  now  stands.  The  land  is  now  owned  by  Wm.  Penning- 
rath.  The  house  has  long  since  been  torn  down  and  the  site  is  covered  by 

About  1857  the  half  dozen  families  living  in  the  western  part  of  Fairfield 
decided  to  erect  a  school  building.  The  present  site  of  number  four  was  chosen 
and  the  name  "Prairie  Flower,"  suggestive  of  its  environment,  was  applied.  It 
was  about  a  mile  and  one-half  east  of  the  station  of  Wald.  It  has  since 
been  replaced,  as  all  are  finally,  and  its  humble  office  later  was  to  serve  as  a 
granary  on  the  Monahan  farm.  It  is  not  now  a  "prairie  flower."  About  the 
same  time  the  Bunker  school  was  located,  but  not  at  that  time  in  this  township. 
Nvunber  five,  known  as  "Dublin,"  also  suggestive,  came  about  1869,  and  "White 
Qoud"  in  1870.^®^  Others  followed  until  the  stated  number  "nine"  completed 
the  list.    Now  some  are  abandoned  and  their  history  is  completed. 


About  1846  the  first  school  was  established  in  Linn  township,  located  in  sec- 
tion fourteen  just  west  of  the  home  of  Samuel  Rhoads,  Jr.  It  was  held  in  a  log 
dwelling  house  moved  there  for  the  purpose.  Pupils  came  from  several  miles 
distant,  some  boarding  in  the  neighborhood  for  convenience.  The  larger  boys 
furnished  the  wood  as  needed.  Among  the  early  teachers  were  Thos.  Grac^, 
who  taught  the  first  school  in  Tipton,  and  Mr.  Buchan.  Salaries  were  raised 
by  subscription  from  patrons  and  boarding  around  was  the  custcMn.  The  term 
was  three  months  during  the  winter.  An  amusing  incident  is  related  by  Hon. 
Alex.  Moffit.  At  that  time  the  teachers  were  examined  by  the  board  of  trustees, 
who  asked  some  very  difficult  questions.  One  teacher  after  comgieting  the 
examination  requested  that  he  be  permitted  to  ask  a  few  in  return,  and  was 
p(ditely  told  that  he  could — ^when  he  became  a  trustee.  In  '51  or  '52  the  school 
in  number  three  was  begun  in  a  dwelling  occupied  by  Mr.  Ferguson,  his  wife 
being  the  teacher.  The  first  building  for  school  only  was  erected  in  Linn  in 
1854  or  '55.  This  was  known  as  the  Park  school,  located  on  the  south  part  of 
section  two.  The  site  was  changed  a  few  years  later.  Children  from  Linn 
Grove  attended  the  first  school  and  the  first  teacher  was  probably  Miss  Annis 
Armentrout.  The  salary  was  ten  dollars  per  month  and  raised  by  subscrq>tioa. 
Miss  Mary  Cochran  ^^  taught  in  1858  and  was  paid  fifteen  dollars  per  mondi. 
The  first  building  in  nuinber  one  was  erected  in  1857.  This  site  was  changed 
also.  A  second  house  was  built  here  in  '82.  It  burned  in  '94.  In  1849  smother 
log  calnn  school  began  in  western  Linn  near  the  center  of  section  eight  on  the 
farm  now  owned  by  F.  W.  Dance.  Among  the  first  teadiers  were  Mr.  McQueen, 
Miss  Martha  McQaskey,  Mr.  Cotton  and  Walter  Goodhue.  The  first  of  these 
taught  but  a  short  time  when  death  called  him  and  on  Christmas  day,  1855,  he 
was  buried.  In  '56  a  frame  building  took  the  place  of  the  log  one  and  the  usual 
custom  of  employing  teachers  by  subscripticm  continued,  a  very  tmsatisfactory 
method  as  it  proved.  This  frame  building  was  moved  where  nund)er  three, 
Linn,  now  stands.  The  present  building  was  erected  in  1880.  Among  the  first 
teachers  in  number  four  was  Miss  Mary  Cochran,  who  lives  near  Buchanan. 

The  following  letter  is  from  Mrs.  Henry  Emerick,  the  oldest  living  teacher  of 
Linn  township :  "Your  letter  was  a  surprise  to  me  since  I  had  almost  forgotten 
my  teaching  days.  My  eyes  are  dim  and  hands  shaky  and  I  now  write  with 
difficulty.  My  first  term  of  school  in  your  township  began  in  1862,  May  7.  I 
also  taught  the  winter  term  beginning  the  next  January.  My  wages  in  winter 
were  twenty-two  dollars,  but  less  in  summer.  I  paid  two  dollars  per  week  for 
board.  My  account  was  given  to  the  sub-director  and  he  drew  the  money  from 
the  treasurer.  At  that  time  the  teachers  were  paid  in  gold.  My  winter  term 
at  'Coon  Creek'  was  during  the  war.  Your  grandfather  (Maj.  John  Dance) 
came  to  our  school  and  drilled  some  of  the  larger  boys  for  a  company.  He  also 
gave  testaments  to  those  who  had  none  and  we  read  from  them.  I  think  I  took 
my  examination  from  Hon.  Wm.  Wolf.  Our  first  county  superintendent  was 
Dr.  Ma)mard,  an  old  gentleman.  Institute  was  held  at  the  old  school  house." 
In  1880  a  new  building  was  erected  in  number  four.  I.  G.  Fairbanks  was  the 
first  teacher.    This  was  burned  recently  and  a  new  one  is  nearing  completion.^** 

The  first  school  building  in  Pioneer  was  in  a  portion  of  Pioneer  Grove.    A 
man  by  the  name  of  Madlock  was  the  first  teacher.    Pupils  came  irom  various 




distances,  one  who  was  a  pupil  stating  that  she  walked  three  miles.  She  is  still 
able  to  tell  that  this  teacher  used  to  lie  down  on  the  long  benches  to  rest.  The 
oldest  school  building  remaining  in  this  township,  probably  about  fifty  years 
old,  is  now  called  number  four.  It  was  built  in  1859  by  Martin  Bucher,  and 
Mary  Ellen  Hyde  was  the  first  teacher.  On  the  site  of  the  Unicm  church  in  the 
southwestern  part  of  the  township  an  old  frame  building  once  stood.  It  was 
used  like  many  others  as  a  church  before  it  was  much  worn  by  school  children. 
Some  of  these  old  buildings  stood  in  the  trackless  woods,  no  roads  leading  to 
them— only  a  path  over  which  they  came  for  long  distances  filling  the  little  house 
full  in  marked  contrast  to  the  present  numbers  who  attend  the  district  school. 

''In  1861  a  dilapidated  looking  old  frame  building  stood  on  this  spot.  The 
siding  and  roof  were  brown  with  age.  It  showed  hard  usage.  A  window  light 
was  gCMie  and  a  board  replaced  it.  New  panels  were  in  the  door.  No  paint 
disfigured  it,  nor  whitewash  marred  it.  A  rail  fence  right  in  front,  and  enclosed 
in  a  sixty-acre  field  with  no  evidence  that  it  had  ever  been  separated  from  the 
general  ground  of  the  farm.  No  tree,  shrub  or  grass  to  break  or  relieve  the 
utterly  wild  surroundings.  Such  was  known  as  the  'Week's  School.'  The  site 
was  something  splendid — ^just  as  the  prairie  broke  toward  Clear  Credc  with 
the  landscape  undisturbed.  The  great  tornado  of  1861^^^  passed  very  near  to  it 
and  two  dwelling  houses  within  the  radius  of  a  mile  were  torn  in  pieces,  while 
the  adjacent  prairie  was  strewn  with  wreckage.  Fortunately  this  notable  June 
3  came  on  Sunday  or  there  might  have  been  serious  results  at  the  little  frame 
house.  But  time  passed  and  decay  occurred  until  the  larger  boys  enjoyed  the 
fun  of  poking  sticks  through  its  walls  and  roof,  leaving  them  there  through  more 
than  one  term.  The  taxpayers  then,  as  now,  hesitated  long  before  voting  a  tax 
to  rebuild,  or  build  anew.  Mr.  Joshua  Owens  related  how  in  Pennsylvania 
when  he  went  to  school  a  log  on  the  side  of  the  house  had  been  sawed  out  and 
this  space  covered  with  g^reased  paper  as  the  only  means  of  admitting  the  light. 
He  went  on  to  say  that  the  cats  would  tear  through  and  that  the  window  often 
needed  mending.  He  thought  the  old  good  enough  with  a  little  fixing.  Old  Mr. 
McAllister,  smarting  under  the  usage  of  the  'Weeks'  school  house,  declared  that 
he  would  vote  money  only  on  one  condition — ^that  there  be  built  a  dungeon 
under  the  new  one,  and  that  all  unruly  boys  of  the  school  be  thrown  into  it  and 
fed  on  bread  and  water.  But  the  progressives  won  out  (there  were  progressives 
in  those  days)  by  voting  a  tax  of  six  hundred  dollars  for  the  building  of  th^ 
house  known  as  number  two  Pioneer.  Mr.  Guthrie,  the  builder  and  architect, 
thought  a  tornado  could  never  tear  it  to  pieces,  but  might  roll  it  over. 

"No  finer  location  for  such  a  building  can  be  fotmd  in  all  the  land  in  any  of 
the  great  states  where  schools  are  fostered ;  no  more  quiet,  squestered  spot,  sur- 
rounded by  fine  old  trees,  ample  grounds,  provided  with  a  well  of  never- failing 
water,  and  in  one  of  the  best  communities  in  all  our  good  state."**^ 

Mechanicsville  was  formed  into  an  independent  district  in  1866.  Some  oppo- 
sition was  aroused  and  it  required  a  suit  at  law  to  determine  the  conclusion.  An 
account  in  the  history  of  1878  reads  as  follows :  "A  meeting  was  called  at  the 
Presbyterian  diurch  June  9,  1866,  to  act  upon  the  erection  of  a  district.  The 
vote  stood  44  affirmative  and  5  negative.  Then  two  of  the  trustees,  T.  C. 
McQelland  and  Samuel  Gilliland,  refused  to  call  a  meeting  of  the  electors  for 


the  election  of  the  officers  of  the  school  board,  basing  their  action  on  the  point 
of  illegality  of  the  meeting.  In  July  following  a  writ  of  mandamus  was  issued 
from  the  circuit  court  to  compell  the  call  of  the  meeting.  An  appeal  was  taken 
to  the  supreme  court  of  the  state  by  the  two  trustees  mentioned  and  the  decision 
of  the  lower  court  was  affirmed.  Election  then  followed  as  required.  The  first 
building  was  of  wood.  In  1875  the  building  preceding  the  present  one  was 
erected.  This  iis  one  more  illustration  of  the  trials  that  made  educational 
progress  a  matter  of  court  concern,  as  it  was  elsewhere  in  the  county.  In 
Mechanicsville  there  was  formerly  a  small  frame  building  just  west  of  the  C.  W. 
Johnson  property.  The  Wm.  Rate  house  was  once  used  for  school  purposes. 
The  location  of  the  school  house  has  varied,  as  it  must  in  most  places  not  yet 
fixed  in  permanent  form.**^ 

"The  old  building  of  1875  was  declared  no  longer  fit  for  use  in  the  inde- 
pendent district  of  Mechanicsville  and  in  1908  public  opinion  was  ready  to 
approve  of  a  new  one.  The  women  improved  their  opportimity  to  use  the  ballot, 
assuring  the  necessary  two-thirds  vote.  The  structure  was  occupied  in  1909 
and  furnishes  a  modem  equipment  at  a  cost  of  twenty  thousand  dollars.  The 
officials  concerned  in  this  are  mentioned  in  a  complimentary  spirit,  and  like  so 
many  others  who  give  their  time  and  service  freely  to  the  public  are  deserving 
of  great  praise  for  executing  the  will  of  the  voters  in  a  creditable  way  in  such  a 
a  short  time." 

The  first  school  building  in  Fremont  township  was  erected  in  1858  and  was 
located  on  the  east  side  of  section  twenty,  about  the  middle  of  the  southeast 
quarter.  It  remained  there  until  the  independent  districts  were  organized  as  at 
present.  A  typical  rude  log  building  furnished  as  its  neighboring  ones  in  ad- 
joining territory,  no  other  equipment  beyond  the  rude  seats  and  shelf  against 
the  wall,  except  the  black  space,  the  only  painted  spot,  called  the  Mackboard.^^ 

Stanwood  displaced  its  old  building  with  a  new  one  in  1902.  The  first 
school  here  was  begun  in  1869.  John  B.  Ingersoll  was  the  teacher.  In  1872 
the  first  building  was  erected  and  a  second  one  was  built  in  1876.  It  has  a 
parochial  school  of  St.  Paul's  Lutheran  church,  which  enrolls  approximately  ten 
pupils  annually.  The  school  was  established  in  1908  in  connection  with  the 
church  property. 

The  early  school  in  Dayton  township  is  described  in  the  first  part  of  this 
chapter  by  reference  to  a  letter  from  Mrs.  Eunice  Frink  Cartwright.  This  was 
in  1853,  among  the  earliest  if  not  the  first  in  that  part  of  the  country.  The  present 
building  in  Qarence  was  erected  in  1858.  Changes  may  have  been  made,  but  no 
new  building  erected  since  that  date.  There  is  a  parochial  school  here  con- 
ducted by  the  Evangelical  church,  which  will  be  found  under  church  history.  It 
was  founded  in  1882. 

The  Centre  school  was  the  first  one  built  in  Massillon  township.  No  record 
of  the  early  teachers  seems  available,  but  the  following  is  pertinent:  F.  A. 
Gates,  a  graduate  of  Columbia  University,  Washington,  D.  C,  1837,  was  engaged 
in  teaching  in  this  township,  coming  here  in  1853. 

An  announcement  of  the  first  county  superintendent  of  schools  reads  as  fol- 
lows :  "We  are  happy  to  announce  to  the  public  that  our  office  is  removed  from 
the  streets  to  the  Tipton  Union  school  house.    By  the  kindness  of  the  board  of 


directors  of  the  district  we  have  been  permitted  to  occupy  a  vacant  room  in  the 
school  house,  where  we  can  be  found  on  Tuesdays,  Thursdays  and  Saturdays  to 
attend  to  examinations  and  other  offibial  business.  If  teachers  who  have  not 
engaged  schools  and  desire  to  do  so  would  send  us  their  names  and  post  office 
address,  it  would  be  very  easy  for  sub-directors  to  employ  teachers  and  for 
teachers  to  secure  a  situation  by  implying  to  me. 

J.  McClung,  Co.  Supt. 

"May  7th,  1860/' 

This  is  the  first  county  superintendent's  (rfficial  announcement  of  his  office.*** 

The  <^ce  of  county  superintendent  of  schools  was  created  by  act  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  of  Iowa  in  the  year  eighteen  hundred  and  fifty-eight  By  this 
act  it  was  ordered  that  such  dficer  should  be  elected  in  each  county  at  the  general 
Section  held  on  the  second  day  of  October,  eighteen  hundred  and  fifty-nine. 
This  election  resulted  in  a  dioice  of  James  McQung  as  county  superintendent  of 
Cedar  County  for  the  years  i860  and  1861. 

The  late  Hon.  Wm.  P.  Wolf  was  the  next  incumbent  and  held  the  office 
during  the  years  1862  and  1863.  Short  sessions  of  the  Teachers^  Institutes  were 
held  each  fall  and  examinations  for  certificates  were  conducted  publicly  and  pri- 
vately. The  supply  of  teachers  was  not  equal  to  the  demand,  owing  to  the 
enlistment  of  many  young  men  into  the  army  during  the  Civil  War. 

C.  A.  Pound,  who  was  the  principal  of  the  Tipton  High  School  during  the 
years  1864  ^^  ^^5  ^^^^  ^he  office  of  County  Superintendent  at  the  same  time. 
His  wife,  Mrs.  C.  A.  Pound,  conducted  examinations  at  their  home  when  her 
husband  was  otherwise  employed. 

E.  C.  Rigby  was  the  next  superintendent  and  served  during  the  years  1866 
and  1867.  ^*  ^  Bassett  was  elected  and  held  the  office  during  1868  and  1869, 
a  deputy  filling  the  place. 

A.  B.  Oakley  was  the  next  incumbent  and  served  during  the  years  1870  and 

C.  W.  Rollins,  who  was  the  first  superintendent  to  hold  the  office  more  than 
one  term^  was  elected  in  the  autumn  of  1871  and  began  his  work  January,  1872. 
The  office  records  have  nothing  to  show  that  any  official  acts  were  performed, 
not  even  an  annual  report  to  the  State  Department,  tmtil  the  year  1873.  The 
salary  at  this  time  was  $1,000  annually  and  made  it  possible  to  devote  all  one's 
time  to  the  work. 

Mr.  Rollins  served  four  years,  from  1872  to  1876,  and  was  followed  by  Miss 
E.  E.  Frink,  of  Qarence,  who  served  six  years.  This  period  may  well  be 
termed  the  reconstruction  period  of  the  schools  of  Cedar  County.  Many  con- 
ditions existed  that  required  tact  and  judgment  to  change  for  the  betterment  of 
the  schools.  Not  least  among  these  was  the  sifting  of  the  uunqualified  from  the 
ranks  of  teachers.  This  was  done  by  examinations  of  all  who  aspired  to  teach 
in  the  county,  regardless  of  qualifications  or  credentials.  This  resulted  in  rais- 
ing the  standard  of  qualifications*  of  the  teachers  and  was  a  revival  as  well  as  a 
"survival  of  the  fittest"  Teachers'  conventions  were  held  and  well  attended; 
enthusiasm  in  the  woric  was  created  not  among  teachers  only  but  school  officers 
and  patrcms  realized  that  something  was  being  accomplished.  The  County 
Superintendent's  time  was  all  devoted  to  the  work  and  school  visitation  meant 


becoming  acquainted  with  the  teachers  and  their  ability  to  instruct  and  govern, 
aiding  those  who  needed  it  by  suggestions,  and  getting  and  keeping  in  touch  with 
the  patrons  and  school  boards  on  conditions  relative  to  each  school  district 
Each  year  marked  advancement  and  the  six  years  administration  of  Miss  Frink 
will  stand  as  an  example  of  honest,  efficient  service.  This  brings  us  to  the  close 
of  the  year  1881,  when  Miss  Virginia  Robbins,  a  teacher  in  Tipton,  was  elected 
to  the  office.  Normal  Institutes  were  cut  down  to  two  wedcs'  duration  during 
the  latter  part  of  the  former  administration  and  were  held  three  weeks  each 
year  of  '81  and  '82.  Miss  Robbins  was  active  and  industrious  and  maintained 
the  established  standard  during  the  two  years  of  her  incumbency.  In  the  autumn 
of  1883  Mrs.  A.  N.  Filson  of  Tipton  was  elected  to  this  dfice  and  twice  re- 
elected, making  her  term  six  years.  She  had  been  a  popular  and  pn^table 
teacher  in  the  schools  of  this  place  for  eleven  years,  and  it  was  with  r^jet  on 
the  part  of  patrons,  pupils  and  school  board  that  her  position  was  made  vacant 
Teachers'  Conventions  took  on  new  life,  enthusiasm  prevailed  everywhere. 
N<Minal  Institutes  were  well  attended  and  beneficial.  The  teachers  and  schools 
of  Cedar  County  ranked  second  to  none  in  the  State.  Through  the  efforts  of 
the  County  Superintendent  Welch's  Qassification  Register  was  purchased  by 
the  Board  of  Supervisors  for  every  rural  school  in  the  county.  The  grading 
and  classification  of  these  schools  placed  the  work  on  a  foundation  that  made  it 
possible  for  graduates  from  this  course  to  enter  any  high  school  in  the  county 
without  further  examination.  This  system  proved  to  be  a  g^reat  advantage  and 
is  still  in  use. 

School  visitation  was  optional  with  the  County  Superintendent  at  this  time, 
but  the  benefits  derived  from  such  visits  were  so  marked  that  it  was  followed 
as  under  the  former  law.  Special  attention  was  given  to  the  primary  work  of 
the  teachers,  not  only  during  the  Normal  Institute  but  by  individual  attention  to 
the  work  done  in  schools.  In  1889  W.  L.  Etter,  a  teacher  in  this  county,  was 
chosen  for  this  office.  Following  fourteen  years  of  work  performed  by  ladies, 
it  is  not  to  his  discredit  to  say  it  required  painstaking  labor  to  meet  the  demands 
of  the  public.  This  he  did  and  served  six  years  in  this  capacity.  J.  W.  Marker, 
principal  of  the  Lowden  schools,  was  next  elected  to  this  office  and  served  two 
terms,  from  1896  to  1900,  when  the  late  Miss  Aurora  Goodale  was  elected  and 
served  two  terms.  During  this  time  a  daily  register  was  introduced  to  be  used 
in  connection  with  the  Qassification  Register.  A  system  of  "card  reports"  of 
attendance  and  punctuality  was  also  introduced.  This  has  done  a  good  woric 
in  raising  the  per  cent  of  attendance.  Of  Miss  Goodale's  work  we  would  say, — 
she  faithfully  and  conscientiously  performed  the  duties  of  this  office  and  without 
fear  or  favor  worked  for  the  best  interests  of  the  schools.  Her  interest  in  boys 
and  girls  whose  advantages  and  opportunities  were  limited  was  a  marked  char- 
acteristic and  highly  commendable  feature  of  her  work.  Her  seccmd  term  ex- 
pired January,  1904,  when  the  present  incumbent,  Geo.  H.  Kellogg,  took  his 
place.  Among  the  many  new  additions  to  the  equipment  of  the  County  Superin- 
tendent's office  introduced  by  Supt.  Kellogg  we  find  a  Card  Index  of  the  Teach- 
ers, School  Officers  and  Eighth  Grade  Pupils  of  Rural  Schools.  A  Normal 
Institute  Register  has  also  been  used  for  several  years  and  serves  the  purpose  of 
recording  the  names  of  all  who  attend  the  institute,  their  attendance  and  other 


important  information.  A  County  School  Officers'  Association  was  organized 
and  meets  in  Tipton  annually.  At  these  meetings  the  question  of  teachers'  sala- 
ries and  the  latest  and  most  approved  methods  of  doing  any  work  required  of 
such  officers  are  discussed  and  have  resulted  in  raising  salaries  and  enlightening 
officers  as  to  their  duties. 

Modem  heating  and  ventilating  plants  are  being  introduced  and  modem 
and  sanitary  school  buildings  are  taking  the  place  of  worn-out  buildings.  Mr. 
Kellogg  is  distinctly  a  school  man  and  progressive  in  his  ideas.  His  third  term 
of  c^ce  expires  with  this  year  and  will  end  a  very  successful  administration.^^^ 

During  Miss  E.  E.  Frink's  (Mrs.  Cartwright's)  term  of  office  the  Board  of 
Supervisors  passed  a  resolution  requiring  an  annual  report  from  the  county 
superintendent  of  sdiools.  Spread  upon  tihe  records  of  the  Board  sessions  dur- 
ing the  remainder  of  her  term  in  compliance  with  this  demand  are  complete  and 
exhaustive  reports  from  that  time  regarding  the  school  work  of  the  county,  the 
plans  for  improvement,  the  institutes  held,  the  associations  conducted  and  the 
financial  condition  of  the  office,  a  business  record  of  all  situations  confronting 
the  officer  in  charge.  Court  sessions  came  early  in  the  history  of  this  dficial, 
she  having  to  pass  upon  the  location  of  the  site  for  the  new  building  in  Tipton 
during  her  administration.***  These  reports  were  ccmtinued  in  a  masterly  way 
by  Mrs.  A.  N.  Filson  and  these  two  wcnnen  have  a  lasting  record  upon  the  official 
books  of  the  county  that  indicates  the  efficiency  of  management  under  their  terms 
of  office.  The  latter  made  a  special  mention  of  the  teachers  in  one  report  of  the 
winter  of  1884-5,  stating  that  there  were  then  45  male  and  123  female  teachers 
in  the  county.  The  attendance  was  less  than  50  per  cent  in  regularity.  At 
present  in  this  cotmty  there  are  not  one-fourth  the  number  of  men  teaching.*^ 



One  of  the  most  impressive  features  among  the  early  settlers  of  this  county  is 
the  personal  attempt  to  keep  alive  the  teachings  and  customs  of  their  former 
homes  in  the  religious  sense.  Their  absolute  dependence  upon  the  divine  favor 
and  support  in  all  their  undertakings,  speaking  generally,  shows  itself  in  their 
very  early  movements  to  establish  church  services  and  religious  training  for  the 
young  of  the  families.  This  was  before  the  time  of  such  pressing  affairs  of 
business  and  intensity  of  labor  that  occupies  such  a  prominent  place  in  our 
present  daily  struggles,  and  before  men  had  placed  other  affairs  in  advance  of 
their  religious  obligations.  True,  there  were  many  indications  of  the  wild  fron- 
tier with  its  acccHnpanying  lawlessness  and  roughness,  but  it  is  not  necessary  to 
make  a  nice  line  of  distinction  to  establish  the  general  principle  of  the  chapter 
under  discussion.  As  one  of  the  earliest  comers  refers  to  those  times  in  the 
following  language :  In  the  midst  of  the  innocent  pleasures  of  these  days  God 
was  not  forgotten.  The  people  came  for  miles  to  attend  services  in  some  log 
school  house,  some  humble  dwelling  of  similar  construction  or  in  the  groves  in 
the  summer  seasons.  They  sang  the  old  songs  familiar  to  the  entire  country 
then  but,  alas!  forgotten  now.**''  The  pioneer  preacher  was  on  the  ground, 
himself  a  settler.  It  is  affirmed  by  those  who  should  be  good  authority  that  Rev. 
Martin  Baker  preached  the  first  sermon  in  this  county.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
a  zealous  Christian  worker,  a  man  who  scorned  wrong-doing  and  who  fought  for 
the  right  amidst  the  greatest  difficulties.  Col.  Henry  Hardman's  house  in 
Rochester  township  was  the  very  earliest  house  in  the  county  to  be  used  for  both 
church  and  educational  purposes.  For  all  good  purposes  that  seems  to  have 
been  a  center.  Here  Chauncey  Hobart  organized  his  flock.  Solomon  Ing^ham 
traveled  up  and  down  the  Cedar  Valley,  a  hero  of  the  Cross  among  the  pioneers, 
and  died  only  within  the  decade  in  Tama  Coimty.  Rev.  Robert  Porter  was 
among  the  early  ministers  of  the  Presbyterian  church.  Robert  Carothcrs,  who 
followed  him,  became  the  superintendent  of  the  college  for  the  blind  later  in 
life.  The  Congr^^onal  church  was  the  first  to  have  a  settled  pastor,  Rev. 
Alden,  a  member  of  the  home  missionary  society.***  All  these  successors  will 
appear  in  the  individual  histories  of  the  county  church  records. 


Friends'  Meeting  House 

Friends'  Church  and  Parsonage 

Mcthodiat  Episcopal  Church 





^ '' 

p"  I 


I  ;■ '-. 



•<  I 




PyS     h\/l    N»  A 

^  •  N8 




The  first  meeting  in  behalf  of  a  Presbyterian  church  in  Cedar  County  was 
held  at  Red  Oak  Grove,  March  i,  1841.  At  that  time  one  was  organized  by 
Rev.  M.  Hummer,  an  itinerant  missionary,  with  ten  members  and  two  ruling 
elders,  under  the  title  of  "The  Presbyterian  Church  of  Red  Oak  Grove."  From 
March,  1841,  to  October,  1847,  the  number  of  conmiunicants  was  increased  by 
occasional  ministerial  supplies  to  twenty-two.  Then  for  more  than  three  years 
the  church  seemed  to  be  stationary,  having  no  services. 

*On  January  26,  1851,  public  notice  was  given  in  the  M.  E.  church  at  Tipton, 
that  those  favorable  to  the  Presbyterian  church  would  meet  at  the  court  house 
February  8th,  at  2  o'clock  p.  m.,  to  organize  a  Presbyterian  Society,  to  purchase 
a  lot  and  erect  a  house  of  worship.  During  the  year  twenty-seven  members 
were  added  to  the  organization. 

From  September  i,  1851,  to  May  i,  1858,  a  period  of  nearly  seven  years. 
Rev.  Geo.  D.  Porter,  by  invitation  commenced  and  continued  his  ministerial 
labors  as  a  stated  supply  for  the  united  congregations  of  Red  Oak  and  Tipton. 
During  this  period  ninety-two  persons  were  added  to  the  church,  seven  upon 
examination  and  eighty-five  upon  certificates,  about  thirteen  annually.  June 
25,  1854,  the  new  brick  church  which  had  been  built  in  Tipton  was  dedicated. 
In  the  meantime  the  session  of  the  church  had  been  occasionally  enlarged  also 
as  the  necessities  of  the  church  required.  About  seven  baptisms  were  annually 
performed,  and  $250  annually  raised.  From  May,  1858,  to  June,  i860,  the 
church  was  again  without  a  minister. 

After  this  the  Red  Oak  and  Tipton  congregations  were  divided.  We  find 
the  following  resolution  recorded  tmder  date  of  February  27,  i860,  at  a  con- 
gregational meeting  of  the  church  at  Tipton:  ''Resolved,  that  instead  of  a 
united  call  from  the  Tipton  and  Red  Oak  churches  for  the  pastoral  labors  of  Rev. 
Robert  Carothers,  the  call  be  from  the  Tipton  church,  and  that  we  request  Pres- 
bytery at  its  next  session  to  apportion  the  time  of  preaching  between  the  two 

Rev.  R.  Carothers  being  thus  called,  and  having  accepted  the  call,  commenced 
his  labors  at  Tipton  in  June,  i860,  was  installed  as  pastor  of  the  church  at  Tip- 
ton July  14^  i860,  and  continued  his  pastoral  labors  until  June  26,  1866,  a  period 
of  six  years,  when  he  resigned  his  charge.  During  this  period  sixty-two  persons 
were  added  to  the  church,  twenty-six  on  examination  and  thirty-six  on  certifi- 
cate, or  about  ten  annually;  forty-two  baptisms  were  performed,  or  seven 
aimoally;  and  $4,358.50  were  raised  for  various  religious  objects,  at  home  and 
abroad,  or  $72641  annually. 

On  November  i,  1866,  Rev.  D.  L.  Hughes  accepted  a  call  and  began  his 
labors,  and  on  November  28th  he  was  regularly  installed.  Fourteen  members 
of  the  church,  including  one  ruling  elder,  were  dismissed  May  27,  1867,  to  form 
another  Presbyterian  organization  at  New  York  Prairie,  leaving  a  membership 
in  the  church  at  Tipton  of  seventy-eight,  including  three  ruling  elders,  viz.,  John 
Ferguson,  Wm.  Kettell  and  Dr.  C.  L.  Chambers. 

The  Hebron  church  was  organized  October,  1870,  continuing  to  exist  until 
April,  1878. 

Rev.  E.  L.  Dodder  succeeded  Mr.  Hughes,  being  installed  November  8,  1870. 
In  September,  1873,  James  Newcom,  P.  W.  Neiman,  and  J.  B.  Piatt  were  or- 


dained  elders  in  place  of  Kettell,  Shearer,  and  Chambers,  resigned.  Rev.  Chas. 
Axtell  came  to  the  pastorate  January,  1874,  and  the  present  house  of  worship 
was  built  in  1876,  at  a  cost  of  $4,000.  In  February,  1880,  the  old  elders.  Shearer, 
Chambers  and  Kettell,  were  restored.  Under  Mr.  Hughes  the  largest  number 
of  the  church  roll  was  85 ;  under  Mr.  Dodder,  82 ;  under  Mr.  Axtell,  1 17."* 

Rev.  A.  C.  Brown  became  pastor  in  1882,  who  served  the  church  until  Jan- 
uary, 1888,  when  O.  D.  Langfitt  was  appointed  by  the  Presbytery  to  fill  the 
pulpit  until  a  pastor  was  called.  In  April  of  ihis  year  R.  C.  Townsend  became 
the  pastor  and  it  was  during  his  pastorate  that  the  church  celebrated  its  fiftieth 
anniversary.  At  that  time  a  brief  historical  address  was  given  of  the  half 
century  which  had  elapsed  since  the  Red  Oak  organizaticm.  This  pastor  re- 
mained until  1892,  and  not  until  1894  was  a  regular  minister  again  in  charge, 
when  W.  W.  Johnson  was  chosen.  He  resigned  in  1900.  Rev.  Conybeare  was 
called  to  this  charge  in  1900  and  served  until  succeeded  by  Rev.  McCaslin  in  1904. 
At  the  anniversary  celebration  referred  to  above  the  former  pastors  were  in- 
vited to  be  present  and  several  responded.  One  of  the  first  members  of  the 
church  in  Red  Oak,  Mrs.  Carl,  was  an  interested  listener. 

In  1896  the  church  building  was  rebuilt  in  its  present  form,  the  improve- 
ments costing  about  four  thousand  dollars.  A  pipe  organ  became  the  property 
of  the  congregation  in  1904. 

The  first  movement  of  the  Presbyterians  to  form  an  organization  is  set  forth 
here  verbatim: 

"Public  notice  having  been  given  three  weeks  previous,  a  number  of  members 
of  the  Presbyterian  church  met  in  Red  Oak  Grove  for  the  purpose  of  taking 
into  consideration  the  practicability  of  forming  a  Presbyterian  church  in  die 
county.  After  much  conversation  and  deliberation  on  the  subject  it  was  unani- 

"Resolved,  that  a  church  be  now  organized  in  this  place  according  to  direc- 
tions in  the  form  of  government  of  the  Presbyterian  church  in  the  United  States 
of  America,  to  be  denominated  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Red  Oak  Grove. 

"The  following  named  persons  then  presented  letters,  and  gave  satisfactory 
evidence  of  their  being  members  of  this  church  in  good  and  regular  standing, 
viz.:  Robert  Dallas,  Miss  Sarah  Dallas,  John  Ferguson,  Mrs.  Isabella  Fergu- 
son, John  Safiey,  John  Chappell,  Robert  Hrie,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Pirie,  Samuel 
Yule,  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Charles  Dallas.  John  Safiey  and  John  Fer- 
guson were  tmanimously  elected  ruling  elders  in  this  church  and  were  accord- 
ingly ordained  and  installed.  Session  then  met  and  was  constituted  with  prayer, 
and  received  on  examination  Mrs.  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Jc^n  Safiey.  The  session 
was  then  closed  with  prayer.  The  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  was  admin- 
istered on  the  Sabbath  by  Rev.  M.  Mummer,  itinerant  missionary. 

"(Signed)  M.  Hummer,  Qerk  of  the  Session. 

"Red  Oak  Grove,  Cedar  County,  March  ist,  1841." 

The  articles  of  incorporation  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Tipton  were 
filed  for  record  on  the  sixteenth  day  of  October,  i860,  at  12  m.,  and  recorded  in 
Book  A  (record  blurred)  of  deeds,  at  page,  408,  Samuel  Wampler,  Recorder. 

These  were  acknowledged  by  C.  Curtiss,  Notary  and  Attorney  at  Law. 


A  church  was  organized  at  the  New  York  school  house  in  January,  1867, 
which  continued  until  it  disbanded  ia  1877  at  the  request  of  its  membership. 
There  are  no  minutes  of  this  church  after  1874.  It  had  at  one  time  a  member- 
ship of  thirty-two.^<> 

More  than  fifty  years  ago  there  was  a  little  aggregation  of  houses  in  the 
western  extremity  of  the  territory,  now  the  seat  of  Mechanicsville,  and  the  sur- 
rounding prairies  were  dotted  with  dwellings  few  and  far  between.  Church 
privileges  were  rare.  The  Methodists  had  established  the  church  of  Pioneer 
Grove,  which  had  been  transferred  to  Mechanicsville. 

Among  these  early  settlers  were  a  number  of  Presbyterians  from  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Ohio.  Through  their  persuasion  the  Rev.  Geo.  D.  Porter  began 
preaching  about  1853  in  the  sdiool  house  which  occupied  the  present  site  of 
Wm.  Johnson^s  residence,  on  the  comer  where  one  turns  to  the  cemetery.  Rev. 
Porter  came  from  the  Tipton  charge,  which  had  been  first  established  at  Red 
Oak.  After  holding  services  here  for  two  years  the  Presbytery  of  Cedar  organ- 
ized in  that  school  house  the  eighteenth  of  November,  1855,  the  Presbyterian 
church  of  Mechanicsville,  with  twenty-four  members.  Andrew  Elliott  and  Will- 
iam Potter  were  the  first  elders.  Of  the  original  members  two  only  remained 
at  the  fortieth  anniversary — Mrs.  Mary  Bardue  and  Mrs.  Mary  Jordan. 

Rev.  Porter  preached  here  until  1857,  but  remained  for  ten  years  in  the 
county.  Rev.  A.  S.  Thome  fcrflowed  Mr.  Porter,  and  he  served  this  appoint- 
ment in  connection  with  that  of  Lisbon.  Later  he  went  as  a  missionary  to  the 
Indians  and  when  heard  from  at  the  f(Htieth  anniversary  of  the  church  he  was 
at  Forest  City,  S.  D.  During  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Thome  the  church  grew  to 
forty  members  and  a  building  was  erected  on  Main  street,  just  north  of  the 
present  location  of  the  school  building.  This  was  used  about  nine  years.  In 
1858  the  Rev.  Robert  Boag,  a  Scotch-Irishman  fresh  from  Canada,  succeeded 
Rev.  Thome.  For  ten  years  he  served  this  church  in  connection  with  Red  Oak 
and  Lisbon.  This  was  during  the  trying  period  of  the  war,  when  he  stood 
bravely  for  his  adopted  cotmty.  Under  his  ministry  the  people  built  a  new  house 
of  worship  in  1866. 

In  1868  J.  W.  Knott  came  from  the  seminary  to  the  work  of  the  church 
here,  and  he  was  followed  in  1871  by  E.  R.  Brown,  who  sent  a  letter  full  of 
enthusiasm  to  the  congregation  at  the  time  of  their  observance  of  their  fortieth 
anniversary.  In  the  letters  of  these  pastors  to  the  charge  they  formerly  served 
they  make  mention  of  the  faithful  friends  of  former  years,  among  whom  are 
mentioned  the  names  of  Mr.  Sharp,  Maj.  Jones,  and  Dr.  Keith.  In  the  years 
following  the  pastors  were  Revs.  Ward,  Wells,  Henry  McMeekin,  the  latter  of 
whom,  it  is  said,  "will  long  be  remembered  for  his  abstracted  manner,  his  decided 
opinions,  and  the  eloquence  of  the  sermons  in  which  he  always  gave  good  meas- 
ure, heaped  up,  pressed  down  and  mnning  over." 

Rev.  N.  H.  Downing,  who  had  served  Qarence,  and  who  was  again  there  in 
the  nineties,  was  pastor  here  from  1883-1886.  For  a  short  period  following 
him  Rev.  Moffat,  and  then  for  a  single  year  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Cooper,  who  helped 
to  build  the  parsonage,  occupied  the  pulpit.  J.  W.  Hubbard  came  in  1889,  and 
it  was  during  his  pastorate  tfiat  the  history  of  the  church  was  brought  down  to 
date,  and  it  is  from  that  discourse  and  data  fumished  by  the  present  pastor, 


Rev.  A.  P.  Cocker,  that  these  facts  are  gathered.  The  years  from  1897  to  the 
present  time  have  been  under  the  pastorates  of  Revs.  Sears,  Triem,  and  Cooper, 
as  mentioned. 

The  new  church  was  built  in  1906,  the  comer  stone  being  laid  on  July  4  of 
that  year,  and  the  dedication  occurring  in  October.  The  cost  then  was  about 
$11,000  and  the  total  property  value  to  date  is  $13,000.  Rev.  A.  P.  Cooper  became 
pastor  in  1905  and  therefore  has  seen  these  improvements  and  had  charge  of 
their  completion.  An  interesting  fact  in  connection  with  the  church  building  is 
that  every  dollar  was  subscribed,  the  last  one  three  days  before  dedication.  The 
members  of  committees  not  mentioned  include  the  names  of  J.  W.  Thomas, 
Howard  Elliott,  S.  T.  Buell,  and  Alexander  Moffit. 

At  the  anniversary  celebration  held  in  1895,  a  letter  was  read  from  the  widow 
of  the  first  pastor,  1853-7,  Mrs.  Porter,  whose  name  is  associated  with  the  Pres- 
b3rterian  churches  in  this  county,  not  only  in  one  locality.  ^*^ 

During  the  period  of  building  the  congregation  used  the  opera  hall,  which 
continued  until  October,  1906,  when  the  exercises  of  dedication  were  fully  de- 
scribed in  the  papers  of  the  county.  Two  former  pastors  were  present  at  this 
time,  Revs.  Hubbard  of  Mount  Vernon  and  Triem  of  Woodbine,  lowa.^^* 

The  church  building  of  the  present  is  one  of  the  most  substantial  in  the 
cotmty  and  is  a  fine  structure  both  in  appearance  and  accommodation,  having 
all  modern  improvements.  The  present  membership  numbers  one  hundred  and 
twenty-eight.  The  elders  are  William  Thomas,  August  H.  Pieper,  William 
Henderson,  Sr.,  Alexander  Robertson,  and  Benjamin  Hill. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  of  West  Branch,  Iowa,  was  organized  May  8, 
1877,  by  a  committee  of  Iowa  City  Presbytery,  composed  of  Rev.  C.  P.  Spinning, 
Rev.  A.  Porter,  and  Elder  Z.  King. 

At  8  o'clock  in  the  evening,  in  the  Friends'  Meeting-house,  Rev.  C.  P.  Spin- 
ning preached  a  sermon  from  the  text  found  in  Matt.  13:  33;  after  which  the 
church  was  organized  with  the  following  charter  members:  Mr.  Wm.  Brown, 
Mrs.  Harriet  Brown,  Miss  Ella  Brown,  Mr.  John  Brown,  Miss  Mary  Brown, 
Miss  Emma  Brown,  Mrs.  Eleanor  Brown,  Mr.  Robert  Brown,  Miss  Mary  Ann 
Brown,  Mr.  Robert  H.  Smith,  Mrs.  Francis  A.  Smith,  Mr.  James  McQister, 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  McClister,  Miss  Anna  Jamison,  Miss  M.  E.  Bray,  Mrs.  A.  Win- 
terbottom,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Crosland,  Mr.  Willis  Atkins,  Mr.  Samuel  Wood,  Mr. 
D.  E.  McClelland,  Mrs.  Cornelia  P.  McQellan,  Mrs.  John  H.  Crosland,  twenty- 
two  in  all. 

William  Brown,  D.  E.  McClellan,  and  Willis  Atkins  were  elected  the  first 
ruling  elders,  and  were  ordained  and  installed  May  20,  1877,  by  Rev.  J.  P. 
Schell,  pastor  of  Scott  Church  in  Johnson  County,  who  had  previously  signified 
his  willingness  to  serve  the  young  church  until  more  satisfactory  arrangements 
could  be  made. 

Steps  were  immediately  taken  toward  the  erection  of  a  house  of  worship, 
which  was  built  during  the  summer,  and  dedicated  November  11,  1877,  Rev. 
F.  A.  Shearer,  of  West  Liberty,  preaching  the  sermon.  The  total  cost  of  build- 
ing and  lot  was  a  little  over  $2,000.  The  same  building,  having  been  repaired 
from  time  to  time,  is  still  in  use  by  the  congregation. 





Ji^-li.    "     t. 


Pt::Mi:    iiii    aRY 




Early  in  1878  Rev.  J.  P.  Schdl  notified  the  congregation  that  he  could  not 
continue  to  serve  them,  and  steps  were  taken  to  group  West  Branch  with  Fair- 
view  Church.  Rev.  A.  M.  Heizer  took  charge  of  this  double  field  in  October, 

The  following  ministers  have  served  the  church : 

James  P.  Schell,  May  8,  1877-1878. 

A  M.  Heizer,  October  i,  1878-September,  1880. 

George  B.  Smith,  January,  1881-July  i,  1885. 

Joseph  R.  Cheeseman,  November  15,  1885-September  11,  1889. 

G.  H.  Hemingway,  November  i,  1889- 1892. 

Geo.  Fumiss,  November  i,  1892-1902. 

D.  Wallace  McMillan,  1902-1903. 

David  Brown,  1903-1905. 

Alexander  Gilmore,  1905-1907. 

"William  A.  Montgomery,  1907. 

The  following  persons  have  served  as  ruling  elders : 

William  Brown,  1877-1898. 

D.  E.  McClellan,  1877-1909. 

Willis  Atkins,  1877- 1886. 

J.  M.  Lindsley,  1888-1903. 

Benjamin  Yetter,  1888-1889.  ^    . 

J.  E.  Myers,  1890-1901. 

H.  J.  Forsyth,  1896-1901. 

D.  M.  Dixon,  1898. 

William  Bremner,  1898-1904. 

O.  C.  Pennock,  1905. 

Jas.  A.  Cochran,  1910. 

F.  H.  Battey,  i9io.^5« 

Upon  the  solicitation  of  ntunerous  residents  who  had  previously  been  mem- 
bers of  the  Presbyterian  body  elsewhere,  the  Rev.  George  D.  Porter  of  Tipton, 
Iowa,  had  held  preaching  services  at  intervals  for  some  time  prior  to  the  spring 
of  1855  ^^  ^€  Sugar  Creek  school  house  and  at  other  places  in  Sugar  Creek 
township,  Cedar  County,  Iowa.  These  meetings  had  been  well  attended  and 
considerable  interest  had  been  manifested. 

Accordingly  a  committee  consisting  of  Rev.  George  D.  Porter,  JRev.  John 
Hudson,  and  Elder  Starr  was  appointed  by  Presbytery  to  take  into  considera- 
tion the  organization  of  a  church.  This  committee  had  an  appointed  meeting  at 
Sugar  Creek  school  house  on  June  10,  1855,  and  proceeded  to  organize  a  church 
to  be  known  as  the  Sugar  Creek  Presbjrterian  church.  The  original  member- 
ship consisted  of  the  following  persons  to-wit :  Gibson  Agnew,  Eleanor  Agnew, 
Amanda  Agnew,  Alexander  Morgan,  Jane  Morgan,  Thomas  Johnson,  James 
Cooper,  Amanda  Cooper,  and  Sarah  Mason.  Gibson  Agnew,  James  Cooper  and 
Alexander  Morgan  were  the  first  ruling  elders.  To  these  have  since  been 
elected  as  successors,  R.  A.  Mclntyre,  William  A.  Leech,  David  Moore,  Leander 
Lodge,  William  S.  Agnew,  David  G.  Agnew,  Alexander  Mayes,  James  Whitmer, 
C.  F.  Port,  W.  H.  Kiser,  John  S.  Agnew,  William  Kiser,  Charles  D.  Kiser. 


The  Rev.  John  Hudson  served  the  church  for  some  time  after  its  organization 
in  the  pulpit  as  a  stated  supply.  In  1858,  Rev.  Wm.  P.  Mason  of  Davenport 
acted  in  the  same  capacity  for  a  period  of  six  consecutive  months.  In  1859  Rev. 
Jacob  Pentzer  began  acting  as  stated  supply  in  connection  with  the  same  class 
of  work  in  the  embryo  church  at  Wilton.  From  this  time  on  the  two  pastorates 
have  been  merged  into  one  and  the  succession  of  pastors  is  the  same  as  that  ta 
be  hereafter  given  in  our  account  of  the  Wilton  church.  In  1866  the  neat  and 
substantial  frame  church  which  is  now  in  use  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $2,200, 
much  of  the  cost  being  contributed  by  the  members  in  labor  and  material. 

In  the  spring  of  i860  a  committee  consisting  of  Rev.  John  M.  Jones  and  Rev. 
E.  L.  Belding  was  appointed  by  the  Presbytery  of  Iowa  City  to  consider  the 
feasibility  of  forming  from  the  members  of  the  Sugar  Creek  church  who  lived 
at  or  near  Wilton,  and  from  others  who  desired  it,  another  church  body  at  the 
town  of  Wilton.  This  committee  at  an  appointed  meeting  held  in  the  school 
house  at  Wilton  on  May  14,  i860,  effected  the  organization  of  a  church  to  be 
known  as  the  Presbjrterian  Church  at  Wilt<m,  lowa.^** 

The  First  Presbyterian  Church  of  Clarence  was  first  organized  at  Onion 
Grove  as  the  First  Presb3rterian  Church  of  Da}rton  from  its  taking  the  name  of 
the  township.  This  occurred  in  November,  i860,  before  the  name  Qarence  was 
2q)plied  to  the  place.  The  committee  in  charge  of  these  services  came  from 
the  presbytery  at  Iowa  City  and  consisted  of  the  Revs.  Daniel  Clark,  Geo.  D. 
Young,  and  Samuel  J.  Mills.  The  church  originally  consisted  of  six  members 
whose  names  are:*  Wm.  Cassie,  Mrs.  Esther  Munro,  Mr.  Walter  and  Mrs. 
Euphemia  Shearer,  Mrs.  Emily  Basham  and  Geoi^e  Stone. 

The  Rev.  Mills  had  preached  in  the  vicinity  for  some  weeks  and  was  instru- 
mental in  forming  the  organization.  Since  that  time  several  pastors  have 
served  the  congr^;ation,  scmie  of  them  for  a  long  period,  returning  in  two  cases 
for  the  second  period  of  service. 

Rev.  Mills  served  the  charge  from  '60  to  '63 ;  C.  W.  Treadwell  from  '63  to 
'67  and  from  '69  to  '75;  A.  K.  Baird,  '67-'68;  E.  B.  Cousins,  *76-'77;  T.  H. 
Candor,  '78-'79;  N.  H.  Downing,  '8ch'83  and  '89  to  '93;  Wm.  Gage,  '84-'8s; 
Thos.  G.  Pearce,  '86-'89;  Geo.  M.  Cummings,  '93-'98;  J.  K.  Hall,  '99  to  1901; 
D.  M.  Ogilvie,  i90i-'o7;  J.  L.  Cotton,  i907-'o8;  and  the  present  pastor.  Rev. 

The  present  building  was  erected  in  1882.  The  former  one,  built  in  1861, 
was  disposed  of  for  useful  purposes  and  part  of  it  now  stands  on  the  west  of 
the  devator  near  the  railroad  track  in  Clarence. ^'^ 

"Pleasant  Hill"  congregation  of  Cumberland  Presb3rterian  church  was 
located  at  Pedee.  Organized  in  December,  1849.  Here  in  1866-67  Rev.  R.  A. 
Ferguson  held  a  meeting  and  their  number  was  increased  by  one  hundred  or 
more  members.  The  membership  gradually  became  fewer  until  its  discontin- 
uance. They  had  a  church  building  of  some  pretensions  at  one  time.  This 
church  had  an  organization  known  as  the  "Union  Valley  Church,"  with  Rev. 
Milo  Hobart  as  pastor.  It  was  established  in  1871  with  a  membership  of 

The  history  of  the  Methodist  church  begins  very  early.  In  the  latter  part 
of  June,  1837,  Rev.  Barton  H.  Cartwright,  a  nephew  of  the  famous  Peter  Cart- 




wrigfat,  preached  the  first  sermon  delivered  in  the  Cedar  River  country.  The 
place  was  in  the  cabin  of  Col.  Henry  Hardman.  About  twenty  persons  were 
present  There  was  a  common  candle  stand  behind  which  he  stood  to  preach. 
As  there  was  no  organ  or  choir  he  led  the  singing,  lining  out  the  hymns. 

During  1838-9  Chauncey  and  Norris  Hobart  preached  in  Washington  A. 
Rigby's  house.  In  1840  Rev.  M.  Brace  preached  at  Benjamin  Fraseur's,  about 
two  miles  west  of  the  present  site  of  Tipton. 

Rev.  Uriah  Ferree  was  the  first  regular  preacher  of  Spring  Rock  Mission, 
as  it  was  first  named.  This  was  in  1841.  The  same  year  he  organised  the  first 
Methodist  class,  of  which  the  following  named  were  members:  George  Carl 
and  wife,  Solomon  Aldrich  and  wife,  Washington  A.  Rigby,  Margaret  Culbert- 
son,  Martha  Friend  and  Flavia  Huff.  Soon  after  Callahan  Dwigans  and  wife, 
Patterson  Fleming  and  wife,  and  others  were  added. 

October  17,  1841,  the  first  Quarterly  Conference  was  held  at  Rochester. 
Bartholomew  Weed  was  Presiding  Elder;  Uriah  Ferree,  Preacher  in  Charge. 
For  the  sake  of  brevity  the  letters  Ofdy  will  be  used  hereafter.  The  estimating 
committee  reported  $48  table  expenses  and  twelve  for  house  rent.  No  doubt  a 
large  part  of  the  first  named  sum  had  its  equivalent  in  produce  and  other  articles 
which  were  more  plentiful  than  money. 

January  15,  1842,  the  second  Quarterly  Conference  was  held  at  Cci.  Hard- 
man's.  At  the  Quarterly  meeting  in  1857-61  Rev.  Samuel  Pancoast  became  P.  E. 

W.  W.  Bailey  remamed  as  pastor  one  year,  and  was  followed  by  E.  S.  Stout 
He  had  a  discussion  with  Col.  Sanford,  the  Universalist  champion.  The  Metho- 
dists thought  the  former  came  off  victorious,  but  the  Universalists  did  not  think 
so.    This  was  in  1858.    Wm.  Lee  and  A.  H.  Ames  entered  the  traveling  con- 


J.  T.  Coleman  was  pastor  one  year  and  was  followed  by  S.  C.  Freer.  This 
brings  us  to  1861,  when  Tipton,  bethel  and  Red  Oak  were  united ;  Henry  Reed, 
P.  E. ;  Rev.  Fellows,  as  pastor.  In  1863  J.  G.  Dimmit  became  P.  E.  About  this 
time  the  Bethel  Sabbath  School  was  organized.  In  1863  Rev.  Samuel  Pan- 
coast  became  pastor.  Wm.  Lee  was  appointed  assistant.  Wm.  Mooiiiead's 
name  af^pears  as  exhorter  in  1864. 

In  1865  George  Clifford,  P.  E.;  Elias  Skinner,  P.  C."«  The  members  of 
Rochester  were  attached  to  the  Tipton  chaiige.  It  is  now  Iowa  Qty  District 
J.  K.  Fuller  followed  Rev.  Clifford  as  P.  E. 

December  20,  1866^  thirty-one  persons  were  received  into  full  membership, 
and  six  by  letter.    In  1867-69,  J.  M.  Rankin  became  P.  C. 

August  a8,  1868,  the  first  movement  toward  building  the  second  church  home 
was  made  by  the  purchase  of  two  lots,  one  from  Wm.  H.  Tuthill  for  $50,  and 
anodier  from  F.  W.  Hirschfelt  for  $125.  Plans  were  secured  like  the  Waverly 

Rev.  C.  G.  Truesdell  became  P.  E.  in  the  fall  of  1868.  About  this  thne 
Tipton  asked  to  be  again  a  station  by  itself.  In  1869  J.  M.  Rankin  became  P.  E. 
At  the  same  time  Uriah  Eberhart  was  made  P.  C.  The  Official  Board  was  or- 
ganized October  18,  1869. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Board  held  March  16,  1870,  a  motion  was  made  and 
carried  that  we  forthwith  proceed  to  build  a  church  according  to  the  plan  sped- 


fied  with  the  addition  of  a  basement.  Rev.  Eberhart  was  instructed  to  procure 
plans.  Five  days  later  he  reported  three  plans  from  Henry  Hatch,  one  from 
S.  Bossert,  and  one  from  W.  W.  Sanborn  of  Clinton,  One  of  the  plans  fur- 
nished by  Mr.  Hatch  was  chosen.  It  was  after  the  style  of  a  church  in  Maine, 
having  a  plain  front  and  a  center  tower.  Building  committee,  Jdin  Culbertson, 
J.  W.  Bull,  and  Henry  Horn.  In  1870  the  name  of  the  district  was  changed 
from  the  Iowa  City  to  the  Davenport  District.  J.  S.  Anderson,  P.  E.;  W.  H. 
Brocksome,  P.  C.  A  special  meeting  of  the  Official  Board  was  held  in  the  base- 
ment of  the  new  church  on. December  29,  1871,  to  plan  for . dedication  day. 
There  were  present  at  that  meeting  W.  H.  Brocksome,  Wm.  Lee,  J.  H.  Reigart, 
S.  Aldrich,  B.  Wildhelm,  Henry  Horn,  J.  Culbertson,  H.  D.  Brown,  J.  W.  Bull 
and  J.  H.  Rothrock.  C.  L.  Long^ey  and  C.  W.  Rollins  were  appointed  secre- 
taries for  the  day.  L.  D.  Ingman  was  to  act  as  usher  for  the  south  aisle ;  J.  H. 
Rothrock,  W.  H.  Alden  and  S.  V.  Landt  for  the  center  aisle;  J.  O.  Westoott 
and  J.  W.  Bull  for  the  north  aisle.  For  the  gallery,  B.  Wilhelm.  Mrs.  Martha 
Culbertson  and  Mrs.  J.  H.  Rothrock  were  scrfidtors  at  the  center  door,  Mrs.  J.  W. 
Westcott  at  the  north  and  Mrs.  Whan  at  the  south  door.  Rev.  A,  B.  Kendig 
dedicated  the  building  to  sacred  usjcs. 

Expended  on  the  building,  including  furnaces  and  windows $^,455.77 

Furnishings  and  chairs 3S8.25 

Accrued  interest  * 225.00 

Insurance  on  building 60.00 

Expenses  of  dedication   60.00 

Two  lots   i7S-a> 

Total $9^364.02 

The  first  bill,  five  hundred  dollars  for  lumber,  was  paid  by  the  women  of 
the  church.  September  9,  1872,  the  old  church  was  ordered  sold  to  the  highest 
bidder^  Mr.  D.  K.  Deardorf  became  the  owner.  The  name  of  the  district  was 
changed  again  and  was  called  Mt  Vemon  District. 

1872-75,  Richard  Swcaringen,  P.  C.  The  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary 
Society  was  organized  in  1874.  October  20,  1875,  S.  H.  Henderson,  P.  E,, 
and  F.  C.  Wolfe,  P.  C.    It  became,  at  that  time  Cedar  Rapids  District. 

October,  1876,  Rev.  Emory  Miller  became  P.  E.  Rev.  S.  A.  Lee  served 
the  charge  from  1876  to  1879.  During  that  time  a  large  number  of  men  united 
with  the  church.  R.  N.  Earhart  became  P.  C.  and  remained  two  years.  Women 
became  members  of  the  Board  of  Stewards  under  his  administration.  W.  B. 
Frazelle  was  P.  C.  from  1881  to  1883.  Eugene  May  served  from  1883  to  1885. 
There  was  a  revival  in  the  Sabbath  School  .during  his  pastorate.  J.  T.  Crippen 
was  P.  E.  from  1885  to  1891.  W.  F.  Barclay  succeeded  Rev.  May  and  re- 
mained three  years.  There  was  an  increase  in  membership,  improvement  in  the 
church  building  and  parsonage  during  his  pastoratie.  Daniel  Sheffer  was  P.  C 
from  1888  to  '91.  C.  L.  Gould  was  P.  C.  from  1891  to  1895.  The  Woman's 
Home  Missionary  Society  was  organized  while  he  was  on  the  charge.  He 
went  to  Charles  City  from  this  place.  J.  B.  Albrook  became  P.  E.  at  the  ex- 
piration, of  J.  T.  Crippen's  term  of  service.  W.  W.  Carlton  P.  E.  for  years. 
L.  U.  McKee  P.  C.  from  1895  to  1897.    S.  W.  Heald  P.  C.  from  1897  to  1899. 


He  went  from  Tipton  to  Cresco,  died  at  Osage,  September  7,  1903.  F.  P. 
ShaflFer,  P.  C.  from  1899  to  1902.  J.  G.  VanNess  succeeded  W.  W.  Carlton  as 
P.  E. ;  R.  D.  Parsons  P.  C  in  1902. 

On  and  after  September,  1842,  the  name  Cedar  Circuit  was  used  instead  of 
Spring  Rock  Mission.  April  22,  1843,  the  name  Rock  River  Conference  ap- 
pears on  the  records.  Henry  D.  Brown  was  appointed  to  confer  with  the  Iowa 
Gity  brethren  about  holding  a  union  camp  meeting.  These  were  held  quite 
often  in  the  early  period  of  the  church's  history. 

In  the  fall  of  the  year  1843  Rev.  Uriah  Ferree  (his  pastorate  having  come 
to  a  close)  desired  to  attend  Conference  at  Chicago.  Money  was  very  scarce, 
but  Brother  Preston  J.  Friend  proved  "a  friend  indeed"  by  giving  his  last  five 
dollar  bill  to  enable  him  to  make  the  journey.  By  stopping  with  brethren  on 
the  way  he  made  out  to  get  there. 

November  11,  1843,  Quarterly  Conference  was  held  at  Tipton;  Henry  W. 
Reed,  P.  E.;  S.  W.  Ingham,  P.  C.  In  1844  the  list  of  classes  was  as  follows: 
Tipton,  Red  Oak,  Hardman's,  Moscow,  Mosquito  Creek,  Rochester,  and  Blay- 
lock  Settlement  November  23,  1845,  George  B.  Bowman,  P.  E. ;  John  Hayden, 
P.  C.    The  f (blowing  is  on  record  and  is  of  great  value  and  interest: 

"Territory  of  Iowa,  Cedar  County.  We,  the  subscribers,  and  our  associates, 
having  united  ourselves  together  as  a  religious  society  under  the  name  and  style 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Cedar  Circuit,  Iowa  Conference,  and 
located  said  society  in  Cedar  County  aforesaid,  having  chosen  as  officers  of  said 
society  the  following  named  persons,  to  wit:  Solomon  Aldrich,  William  Lee, 
Henry  D.  Brown,  Ethan  C.  Crippen,  Richard  Ransford,  Mahan,  Circuit  Stew- 
ards. Henry  Hardman,  John  Boydston^  William  Lee,  Henry  D.  Brown,  Solo- 
mon Aldrich,  Trustees.    Henry  D.  Brown,  Recording  Steward. 

-Dated  this  third  day  of  July  in  the  yeair  of  our  Lord  one  thousand,  eight 
hundred  and  forty-six. 

"Attested  by  Henry  D.  Brown,  Recording  Steward." 

The  recorder  of  Cedar  County,  Wm.  K.  Whitelsey,  certifies  that  the  above  in- 
strument of  writing  was  deposited  in  the  office  for  recwd  on  the  19th  day  of 
August,  A.  D.  1846,  at  twelve  o'clock  m.,  and  was  recorded  in  book  D,  page  298, 
at  Tipton,  August  24,  1846." 

For  want  of  time  and  space  no  adequate  history  of  the  Sabbath  school  can 
be  given.  There  was  a  union  school  organized  in  Tipton  in  1846  by  Rey. 
Ebenezer  Alden.  Wm.  Lee  was  the  first  Superintendent.  The  various  com- 
mittees on  missions  having  failed  to  report,  or  having  nothing  to  report.  Rev. 
Hayden  was  requested  to  preach  a  missionary  sermon,  and  take  up  a  collection. 
This  was  in  1847.  The  same  year  Rev.  Joel  B.  Taylor  succeeded  Rev.  Hayden 
and  Asbury  Collins  was  assistant. 

October  14,  1848,  Wm.  Simpson,  P.  C.  In  December  of  same  year  a  com- 
mittee of  five  was  appointed  to  consider  the  propriety  of  building  a  meeting 
house  in  Tiptwi.  Brothers  Fraseur,  Lee,  Aldrich,  Carl  and  Betts  composed  the 
committee.  They  evidently  thought  it  the  proper  thing  to  do,  for  the  frame  was 
put  up  in  1849, 2^"d  enclosed  the  next  year.  Wm.  Lee  went  to  Muscatine  for  the 
lumber  and  sawed  nearly  all  of  it  himself.  It  was  a  plain  frame  building  and 
cost  about  one  thousand  dollars.     It  was  seated  at  first  with  slabs,  furnished 


by  Henry  D.  Brown.  These  were  in  use  for  about  two  years.  The  building 
was  never  formally  dedicated.  In  1854  an  addition  was  built  and  a  cupola  put 
up  to  hold  the  first  church  bell  ever  brought  to  Tipton.  The  citizens  gave  part 
of  the  money  to  buy  it  and  Mr.  John  Culbertson  secured  the  balance  in  New 
York  and  Boston.  It  was  bought  in  Troy,  N.  Y.,  and  was  received  in  the 
summer  of  1856.  The  belfry  not  being  in  readiness,  it  was  hung  in  the  minis- 
ter's bam.  The  sexton  rang  it  for  a  few  weeks  by  taking  held  of  the  tong^ue 
with  his  hands  and  striking  it  against  the  side  of  the  bell.  He  struck  it  too  hard 
one  day  and  iM-oke  the  bell.  It  had  to  be  sent  back  and  exchanged  for  the  present 
one  at  the  expense  of  the  freight 

October  26,  1850,  Alcinus  Young  was  P.  E.  and  L.  C.  Woodford  P.  C.  The 
Stewards  of  those  days  could  get  released,  relieved  or  excused  whenever  they 
tried  to  as  the  records  show.  The  Stewards  of  more  modem  times  would  give 
a  pretty  penny  to  be  able  to  do  the  same. 

November  15,  185 1,  David  Worthington  became  P.  E.  in  place  of  Alcinus 
Young,  and  Ancel  Wright  P.  C.  in  place  of  L.  C.  Woodford.  The  first  Metho- 
dist Sabbath  School  was  organized  by  Rev.  Wright  in  the  spring  of  1852.  The 
first  Superintendent  was  J.  C.  Betts.  It  is  said  he  served  continually  for  fifteen 
years.  As  a  matter  of  contrast  the  first  report  of  this  school  is  here  given: 
Number  of  officers,  i ;  teachers,  4;  scholars,  40;  volumes  in  library,  70. 

The  first  revival  of  which  the  records  speak  was  during  the  pastorate  of 
Rev.  Wright,  when  over  a  hundred  were  converted. 

185a  Alcinus  Young  was  the  presiding  elder.  He  died  March  30,  1876.  E. 
H.  Twining.  P.  C.  In  1853,  Reuben  McCaskey  received  license  as  a  local 
preacher.  Rev.  A.  Coleman  succeeded  Alcinus  Young  as  P.  E. ;  Rev.  J.  T.  Cole- 
man, P.  C.  Wm.  Lee  was  licensed  as  a  local  preadier  March  11,  1854.  In  1855, 
Rufus  Ricker,  P.  C.  Local  preachers,  J.  W.  Kynett,  J.  B.  Huff,  and  N>.  Young. 
July  17,  1857,  J.  W.  Kynett  was  recommended  to  the  Annual  Conference  for 
Local  Deacon's  Orders.    There  was  a  revival  while  Rev.  Ricker  was  pastor. 

At  the  dedicatory  exercises  of  the  present  church,  it  is  fitting  to  say  that  to 
Dr.  R.  D.  Parson's  pastorate  much  credit  is  due  for  the  sucpess  of  the  great 
enterprise  undertaken  by  the  congregation.  The  cordial  union  of  all  interests 
and  the  helpful  and  united  spirit  of  all  under  his  ministry  alone  made  possible 
the  erecticm  of  this  magnificent  edifice.  In  a  sense  it  will  stand  as  a  monument 
to  his  long  and  successful  woiic  in  the  ministry.  Dr.  Parsons  was  bom  in 
Hadley,  Mass.,  in  1838  and  came  to  Iowa  when  a  boy  with  his  parents,  who  set- 
tled in  Tipton.  While  a  student  at  Cornell  he  heard  his  country's  call  and  en- 
Ibted  in  the  famous  College  Co.  D,  44  I.  V.  I.,  which  was  made  up  of  students 
from  Cornell,  Iowa  Wesleyan,  and  the  State  University.  After  an  honorable 
service  as  a  soldier  he  resumed  his  c<dlege  studies  and  graduated  from  Cornell 
with  the  class  of  1867.  His  life  since  that  time  is  a  long  record  of  faithful  and 
devoted  wodc  in  the  ministry  of  tiie  M.  E.  Church.  His  first  chaige  was  at 
Ly<ms,  Iowa,  and  after  that,  in  order,  Waverly,  Qinton,  Cedar  Falls,  Mt.  Ver- 
non, Vinton,  Iowa  City,  Osage,  Fayette,  Mason  City,  Manchester,  Vinton, 
Waverly,  Maquoketa,  and  Tipton.  In  these  thirty-seven  years  of  labor  in  the 
Upper  Iowa  Conference  Dr.  Parsons  has  made  himself  known  and  loved  by 
thousands  of  Methodists,  and  these,  together  with  his   fellow  ministers  and 





other  friends,  will  share  with  him  the  satisfaction  and  pride  he  must  feel  in  the 
great  work  just  accomplished,^*^ 

October  23,  1904,  the  new  Methodist  church  was  dedicated  by  Bishop  Johif 
W.  Hamilton.  The  sum  of  eight  thousand  dollars  was  raised  to  complete  the 
payments  of  twenty-three  thousand  dollars,  the  cost  of  tiie  building  and  fur- 
nishings. The  pipe  organ  was  installed  at.  this  time.  Three  separate  programs 
filled  the  day  and  evening. 

Territory  of  Iowa,  Cedar  County — ss : 

We,  the  subscribers,  and  our  associates,  having  united  ourselves  together  as 
a  religious  society  under  the  name  and  style  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
Cedar  Circuit,  Iowa  Conference,  and  located  said  society  in  Cedar  County  afore- 
said, have  chosen  officers  of  said  society  in  accordance  with  our  rules  the  follow- 
ing named  persons,  to  ,wit : 

Henry  Hardman,  Solomon  Aldrich, 

John  Boydston,  William  Lee, 

WiLUAM  Lee,  Henry  D.  Brown, 

Henry  D.  Brown,  Ethan  C.  Ouppen, 

Solomon  Aldrich,  Richard  Ransford, 

Trustees.  Mahan, 

Circuit  Stewards. 
Henry  D.  Brown,  Recording  Steward. 
Dated  this  third  day  of  July,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  forty-six. 

Signatures  of  the  officers  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Cedar  Grcuit, 
Iowa  Conference. 

Here  appear  the  signatures  of  the  following: 

Henry  D.  Brown,  John  Boydston, 

Solomon  Aldrich,  Wiluam  Lee, 

Henry  Hardman,  Trustees. 

The  recording  steward  certifies  as  follows: 
Territory  of  Iowa,  Cedar  County — ss : 

I,  Henry  D.  Brown,  ReccM-ding  Steward  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
of  Cedar  Circuit,  Iowa  Conference,  do  hereby  certify  that  the  foregoing  is  a  cor- 
rect and  true  abstract  of  the  organization  of  the  said  religious  society,  together 
with  the  names  and  titles  of  the  officers  thereof,  and  attached  to  which  is  the 
true  and  veritable  signatures  of  each  of  said  officers. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal,  this  third  day  of  July,  A.  D.  1846. 

Henry  D.  Brown,  (seal) 

Recording  Steward. 
On  the  reverse  side  of  the  original  agreement,  now  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  M.  H. 
Miller,  the  county  reccwder  makes  the  entry :  Ceda    C      tv   T   T 

Recorder's  Office — ss:  '     *' 

I  certify  that  the  within  instrument  of  writing  was  deposited  in  this  office  for 
record  the  19th  day  of  August,  A.  D.  1846,  at  12  o'clock  m.,  and  was  recorded 
m  Book  D,  page  298,  at  Tipton  August  24th,  1846. 

(Signed)  Wm.  K.  Whittlesey,  (seal) 

Recorder  Cedar  County. 


Three  miles  west  of  Tipton  there  once  stood  a  little  red  school  house  where 
the  church  people  of  the  early  day  met  together,  Congregational,  Methodist, 
and  United  Brethren^  all  in  earnest  and  in  harmony  to  establish  a  strong  Sunday 
School.  They  came  for  miles  around  since  this  was  the  only  place  where  such 
meetings  were  then  held.  Of  these  three  groups  the  United  Brethren  had  the 
greater  number  and  first  erected  a  church.'  This  was  called  Zion  and  was  built 
in  1856.  During  the  winter  of  the  year  in  which  this  was  built  a  most  remark- 
able revival  occurred  in  this  neighborhood  under  the  leadership  of  the  pastor  of 
the  United  Brethren  church,  Rev.  Geo.  Miller,  assisted  by  two  other  men,  Rufus 
Ricker  and  Wm.  Lee,  of  the  M.  E.  church.  Under  the  influence  of  the  three 
men  and  the  large  growth  of  all  the  denominatioas  the  Methodist  people  now 
built  a  church  to  accommodate  the  increased  gathering  and  nsuned  it  Bethel, 
erected  in  1857.  It  has  since  been  called  West  Bethel,  due  to  another  south  of 
the  county,  seat  called  by  the  same  name.  At  this  time  the  Congr^;ationalists 
united  with  the  Brethren  and  the  little  red  school  house  so  often  the  meeting 
place  of  all  these  people  was  abandoned  as  a  church  for  the  more  pretentious 

For  many  years  these  churches  exerted  a  strong  influence  over  the  entire 
neighborhood,  and  there  is-one  man  who  remains  very  faithful  to  his  first  trust 
and  each  Sunday  returns  to  the  old  home  place  to  keep  alive  the  associations  of 
former  years  and  to  see  that  the  later  generation  does  not  forget.  The  red 
sdiool  house  is  no  more,  but  W.  B.  Reeder  does  not  forget  and  tells  now  of  the 
early  joys  of  the  union  services  when  entire  families  came  together  in  tiie  early 
morning  and  remained  through  the  entire  service.  He  has  held  his  membership 
in  Bethel  church  since  its  erection,  helped  to  build  both  the  churches  in  that 
community  and  is  satisfied  to  be  counted  there  today.  ^*' 

In  the  fall  of  1857  the  entire  district  lying  west  of  the  central  part  of  the 
county  on  ^e  Cedar  River  was  organized  into  a  circuit  and  known  as  Cedar 
Circuit  in  Iowa  City  District,  and  the  Rev.  Samuel  Pancoast  as  Presiding  Elder. 

B.  C.  Barnes  was  the  first  pastor  and  this  was  his  first  work,  being  assigned 
here  by  Bishop  Ames  of  the  Marion  conference. 

His  chaise  consisted  of  Number  Six,  Coon  Creek,  Gower's  Ferry,  Linn 
Grove,  and  before  the  year  was  out  an  appointment  in  the  west  end  of  Red  Oak 
at  the  brick  school  house.  William  Lee  of  Tipton,  a  local  preacher,  had  worked 
in  this  territory  without  pay  and  now  gave  it  into  the  hands  of  the  r^jular  pastor. 

The  next  year,  1858,  Bethel  was  added  to  this  circuit  and  the  pastes-  resided 
here.  In  1862  Bethel  was  connected  with  Tipton  and  Rev.  S.  N.  Fellows  was  in 
charge.  He  held  meetings  in  the  churches  of  other  denominations  in  Red  Oak. 
The  Red  Oak  church  was  built  in  1867  when  Elias  Skinner  was  pastor.  In 
1868  and  '69  W.  A.  Allen  was  pastor  at  Clarence  and  organized  a  class  at  Stan- 
wood,  preaching  in  the  depot,  stores,  and  -starting  a  Sunday  school.  In  1869 
Bethel  and  Red  Oak  were  set  off  as  a  circuit  with  J.  W.  Kynett  as  pastor.  Stan- 
wood  was  at  this  time  in  connection  with  the  Clarence  charge  and  tiie  pastor 

C.  A.  Hawn. 

In  1870  what  was  called  Tipton  circuit  included  Bethel,  Red  Oak,  and  Stan- 
wood,  with  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  twenty.  In  1873  this  circuit  was 
called  Stanwood. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church 

PresbrMrian  Chtirch  ETangelical  Church,  School  and  ParaoDage 

Catholic  Church 


In  October,  1877,  the  retiring  pastor  of  this  circuit  wrote  the  history  of  the 
different  appointments  so  far  as  the  record  of  those  in  charge  and  the  local 
arrangements  could  be  condensed  into  a  record  of  a  few  lines.  This  is  the  only 
record  of  this  period  beyond  the  memory  of  man.  The  next  pastor  at  Stanwobd 
kept  no  record  and  the  record  Avas  continued  by  the  pastor  following,  a  student 
from  Cornell,  who  did  his  college  work  and  the  pastoral  work  also.  This  man 
needs  to  be  mentioned  in  particular,  for  he  worked  for  two  years  in  this  way 
until  compelled  by  ill  health  to  limit  his  work  to  his  studies.  When  he  gave  up 
the  pastorate  of  the  three  appointments  the  congregations  met  together  at  the 
Red  OsUc  church  and  to  assist  him  in  his  purposes  gave  him  $130  in  gold,  this 
purse  being  presented  by  Capt.  W.  T.  Rigby  for  the  assembled  people. 

In  1886  a  class  was  formed  at  Stotler's  school  house,  and  when  the  United 
Brethren  church  was  built  at  Buchanan's  Comers  the  meeting  was  moved  there. 

Last  February  the  Methodist  church  of  Mechanicsville  rededicated  the 
church  after  its  reconstruction.  Its  history  was  given  at  that  time  in  the  con- 
densed form  which  follows.  The  present-pastor,  Rev.  James  Ballz,  had  charge 
of  these  services,  and  was  assisted  by  a  number  from  abroad. 

The  building  committee  at  this  time  was  composed  of  F.  W.  Leech,  D.  C. 
Gilliland,  Dr.  Fairchild,  and  J.  D.  Blessing.  The  class  leaders  of  the  church  are 
Wm.  Albaugh  and  Samuel  Gilliland,  pioneers  of  this  county,  the  latter  being  in 
his  ninety-seventh  year. 

From  the  early  records  of  Methodism  in  Cedar  County,  we  learn  that  just 
fifty  years  ago  the  name  of  Mechanicsville  appears  in  one  of  the  appointments  on 
what  was  then  known  as  Pioneet  Circuit.  How  long  before  this  date  a  class  had 
been  organized  at  Mechanicsville  the  records  do  not  tell.  The  circuit  at  this  time 
was  composed  of  Pioneer,  Mechanicsville,  Greenfield,  Rome,  Simmons'  School 
House  and  Qarence.  About  the  year  1864  Valley  Chapel  and  White  Oak  became 
appointments  on  this  charge.  During  the  pastorate  of  J.  M.  Rankin  in  the  year 
1866,  the  church  building  at  Pioneer  was  moved  to  Mechanicsville  and  fitted  for 
service.  This  historic  building  is  still  in  existence  and  serves  as  the  dwelling  of 
Dr.  Scott  Russell. 

The  present  building  was  erected  during  the  year  1884,  S.  S.  Bradford,  pas- 
tor. Dr.  J.  T.  Crippen  ccfiiducting  the  dedicatory  services.  The  building  commit- 
tee oxisisted  of  Wm.  Hehner,  Joseph  Lee  and  Norman  Bennett.  Joseph  Lee 
died  April  i,  1884,  s^d  I.  B.  Johnson  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  He  and 
Norman  Bennett  are  living  to  see  the  rededication  of  this  house  of  worship.  The 
remodeling  of  the  church  was  begun  last  year  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  Ewert, 
now  of  Garrison.  The  remodeling  has  been  so  complete  that  a  new  church  is 
almost  the  result.  The  improvements  consist  of  a  commodious  kitchen  and  dining 
hall  in  the  basement  and  a  newly  arranged  heating  plant.  The  interior  of  the 
auditorium  has  been  completely  changed,  the  ceiling  lowered  and  both  ceiling  ai|d 
walls  beautifully  frescoed,  harmonising  in  color  with  the  new  art  windows.  New 
carpet  covers  aisles  and  rostrum.  The  furniture  consists  of  new  pulpit,  settee  and 
pews.  The  pews  are  a  monument  to  the  devotion  and  energy  of  Mr.  Samuel 
Gilliland,  who  first  conceived  the  notion  of  seating  the  new  church  with  pews  of 
modem  style,  and  by  personal  solicitation  secured  money  enough  to  nearly  cover 
the  cost  of  pews  and  pulpit. 


Too  much  cannot  be  said  in  honor  of  the  building  committee  who  devoted  so 
much  of  their  time  and  personal  effort  to  the  interests  of  this  work.  Likewise  the 
same  recognition  is  due  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society  which  has  been  an  important 
factor  in  carrying  to  ccxnpletion  this  enterprise.  The  church  as  it  now  stands  is 
a  model  of  beauty  and  harmony  and  of  which  the  citizens  of  Medianicsville  and 
vicinity  may  justly  be  proud. ^** 

Rev.  Cyrus  Morey,  a  minister  of  the  Methodist  church,  commenced  preaching 
in  Durant  the  summer  of  1869,  occupying  at  first  the  old  Butterfield  building. 
During  the  winter  of  1870  he  held  a  revival  which  was  the  means  of  establishing 
a  permanent  society  and  in  the  spring  of  '71  action  was  taken  for  the  erection  of 
a  church  and  accordingly  money  enough  was  soon  solicited  to  insure  the  comple- 
tion of  the  same.  The  comer  stone  was  laid  after  the  Masonic  order  May,  1871 ; 
the  church  was  dedicated  early  after  harvest,  1871.  The  articles  of  incoqx>ration 
were  approved  and  adopted  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  on  the  2nd  day  of  May, 
1874,  and  were  filed  in  the  Qerk's  office  at  Tipton  May  7th,  1874. 

The  ministers  that  have  occupied  this  field  since  Rev.  Morey  are:  Revs. 
Rankin,  Gortner,  Cler,  Jennis  and  £.  L.  Briggs.  The  society  has  no  regular 
pastor  at  present.  ^•^ 

The  first  Methodist  preacher  to  speak  in  Clarence  was  the  Rev.  T.  C.  Wood- 
ford, a  superannuate  of  the  Iowa  Annual  Conference,  who  th^i  resided  in  Tipton 
and  was  invited  to  speak  in  the  place  by  the  Lutherans.  This  was  in  1862.  This 
point  was  first  made  a  regular  2q>pointment  by  Rev.  J.  W.  Kynett,  who  was  then 
suppl3ring  the  Pioneer  charge.  He  was  afterward  prominent  in  the  local  military 
affairs  and  at  one  time  presiding  elder  of  the  district  He  was  a  familiar  figure 
on  the  streets  of  Tipton  until  the  last  two  years.  He  conducted  the  services  in 
Qarence  for  some  time  but  did  not  perfect  an  organization.  Clarence  was  a 
part  of  the  charge  of  the  pastor  who  had  to  care  for  Stanwood  and  Red  Oak  at 
one  time,  according  to  the  records.  The  appointment  was  made  an  independent 
work  in  1868  and  the  pastors  who  served  in  its  beginning  included  some  names 
now  long  out  of  service. 

The  church  was  built  in  1868,  the  parsonage  in  1877.  '^^  present  pastor  is 
Rev.  Smith.  The  pastors  before  it  became  an  independent  work  were,  in  addition 
to  the  one  mentioned,  Revs.  Scoles,  Paine,  Manning,  McClain,  and  Hawn.  The 
church  dedication  occurred  in  1869  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Hatfield,  Revs. 
Allen  and  Millcr.i«i 

The  first  religious  service  held  in  the  neighborhood  of  Louden  was  by  the 
Methodist  denomination,  one  and  a  half  miles  southeast,  by  Rev.  Gilruth.  The 
present  church  in  Lowden  was  built  in  1861,  Rev.  A.  J.  IQymett,  presiding  elder. 
The  records  of  its  fifty  years  of  history  are  very  meagre  and  illustrates  the  sad 
fact  of  neglect,  on  the  part  of  those  responsible,  to  make  any  systematic  record 
of  what  took  place.  This  is  the  only  church  in  town  where  there  is  preaching  in 
the  English  language  and  all  church  going  people  who  do  not  understand  German 
go  there  and  many  of  the  German  children  attend  the  Sunday  school.^*^ 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  West  Branch,  Iowa,  was  organized  pre- 
vious to  the  year  1870*  During  the  first  years  of  the  organization  the  religious 
services  were  conducted  by  the  pastor  from  Oasis,  Iowa.  Before  the  church 
building  was  erected  at  West  Branch,  which  was  in  1870,  members  of  the  sodeQr 


attended  for  a  while  at  Oasis  and  also  at  Brick  Chapel.  Later,  West  Branch 
became  the  head  of  the  circuit  and  the  pastor  visited  and  held  services  at  Oasis, 
!^ringdale  and  Brick  Chapel.  This  was  the  arrangement  for  the  work  during 
the  pastorate  of  S.  C.  Freer  in  1876.  S.^B.  Maltbie  became  the  pastor  in  the 
autumn  of  1877,  when  North  Liberty  was  added  to  the  circuit,  and  Oasis  became 
the  head  of  another  circuit.  Rev.  Maltbie  served  two  years  and  was  followed  in 
1880  by  H.  S.  Bargelt,  who  served  one  and  one-half  years,  L.  D.  Younkin  filling 
out  the  second  year.  L  C.  Lusk  served  two  years  from  October,  1882,  and  was 
succeeded  by  R.  Wolf,  who  served  from  1884  to  1887.  The  longest  pastorate  in 
the  history  of  this  church  was  that  of  Wm.  S.  Craft  covering  a  period  of  five 
years,  from  1887  to  1892.  The  next  three  pastorates  were  of  one  year  each,  J.  G. 
Eberhart  beginning  October,  1892,  John  H.  Hayward,  October,  1893,  and  Jno. 
M.  Wilkerson,  October,  1894.  A.  D.  Stevens  was  pastor  here  from  1895  to  '97, 
R.  W.  Coates  from  1897  to  October,  1901,  H.  H.  Barton  from  1901  to  1903,  W. 

B.  Davis  from  1903  to  1906,  F.  H.  Linn  from  1906  to  1908,  £.  A.  Lang  from 
1908,  pastorate  not  closed. 

The  society  at  Springdale  was  incorporated  Jan.  20,  1875,  and  since  that  time 
has  been  a  part  of  the  West  Branch  Circuit.  The  Trustees  who  composed  the 
board  in  1875  and  signed  the  Articles  of  Incorporation  were  Jno.  Worrall,  F.  A. 
Bates,  E.  B.  Randall^  Jno.  Leonard,  James  Phelps,  Elwood  Macy  and  Joseph 

The  original  church  buildings,  the  one  at  West  Branch,  erected  in  1870,  and 
the  one  at  Springdale,  erected  in  1875,  are  still  in  use. 

The  membership  on  this  circuit  has  varied  during  the  past  twenty  years  be- 
tween 200  and  245.  The  Sunday  schools  have  been  well  supported  and  have  had 
a  large  part  in  contributing  to  the  spiritual  life  of  these  communities.^*** 

The  beginning  of  the  history  of  St.  John's  congregation,  Tipton,  Iowa,  dates 
back  several  years  prior  to  the  Civil  War.  In  the  spring  of  1858,  Rev.  W.  K. 
Zieber  came  to  Iowa  on  an  exploring  tour,  and  visited  those  of  the  Reformed 
faith  who  happened  to  live  in  the  vicinity  of  Tipton.  As  he  was  only  to  look 
over  the  field  he  could  simply  encourage  the  people,  and  then  passed  on. 

It  seems  from  his  report,  action  was  taken  by  the  Mission  Boards,  and  Rev. 

C.  C  Russel  was  conmiissioned  to  come  and  loc^  after  these  people,  but  on  ac- 
count of  some  interference,  he  did  not  come.  Rev.  Joshua  Riale  was  at  that  time 
missionary  at  Boulder,  Iowa,  and,  as  there  was  no  sign  of  anyone  coming  soon 
to  look  after  the  interests  of  the  church  in  the  vicinity  of  Tipton,  he  visited  the 
members  and  seems  to  have  held  a  service,  January  29,  1859,  promising  to  come 
back  every  four  weeks.  His  two  fields  were  now  some  forty  miles  apart,  and  to 
be  as  near  as  possible  to  both,  he  moved  to  Lisbon. 

In  September  of  that  year,  1859,  the  three  ministers  then  in  Iowa,  Batmian, 
Riale,  and  Buser,  with  their  Elders,  met  in  Tipton  and  organized  the  Cassis  of 
Iowa.  The  same  day  St.  John's  congregation  was  organized  with  the  following 
members:  Isaac  Neiman  and  Eliza  Neiman,  his  wife,  Samuel  W.  Neiman  and 
Susan  Neiman,  his  wife,  Mrs.  Lidia  Millhouse  and  Harriet  Neiman,  sisters  of 
Isaac  and  Samuel  W.  Neiman,  and  Eliza  Bingeman,  a  neice  of  Mrs.  Isaac  Nei- 
man.   Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  these  first  seven  members  were  very  closely  re- 


lated.    They  have  all  passed  to  the  other  world  except  Eliza  Bingeman,  who  is 
now  Mrs.  Jacob  Smith  and  lives  at  Greyson,  Neb. 

As  there  were  but  two  men  in  the  congregation  the  contest  for  office  was  per- 
haps not  very  spirited.  Anyway,  it  was  settled  by  electing  Isaac  Neiman  to  the 
office  of  Elder,  and  Samuel  W.  Neiman  to  that  of  Deaccxi.  The  Holy  Communion 
was  at  this  time  celebrated  and  regular  services  held  thereafter  every  four  weeks, 
in  the  Lutheran  church,  in  the  afternoon. 

The  second  Communion  was  held  in  September,  i860,  at  which  time  George 
L.  Neiman,  Sarah  A.  Neiman  and  Nancy  Jane  Emerick  were  received  by  con- 
firmation, and  Ephraim  Neiman  and  J.  Dairy,  by  letter.  The  congregation  now 
numbered  twelve  members,  five  men  and  seven  women. 

At  the  third  Communion  season,  September,  1861,  Mr.  Riale  preached  his 
farewell  sermon  as  Supply,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  Tipton  was  placed 
with  Wilton  under  the  care  of  Rev.  J.  C.  Klar.  Mr.  IQar  IivckI  at  Wheatland 
find  preached  as  supply  in  Tipton  every  two  weeks.  During  the  year  1862  he 
also  preached  in  the  Hebron  school  house  and  organized  that  congregation, 
preaching  alternately  in  German  and  English. 

During  his  ministry  the  following  perscHis  were  received  from  the  New  Berfin 
charge,  Pennsylvania :  Josiah  Sweinhart,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Sweinhart,  Jacob  Swdn- 
hart,  Emma  L.  Sweinhart,  now  Mrs.  Delaplane,  Jerome  Sweinhart,  Mahlon 
Neiman,  Ester  Neiman,  Elizabeth  Emerick  and  Ephraim  Weil. 

In  October,  1862,  Rev.  Frederick  Wall  moved  into  the  charge  and  supplied 
Tipton  and  Hebron,  while  Rev.  J.  H.  Buser  supplied  Wilton.  Before  the  year 
closed  however,  Mr.  Wall  stopped  preaching  in  Tipton,  but  continued  at  Hd>ron 
six  months  longer.  No  record  is  made  of  the  cause  of  the  stopping  of  the  ser- 
vices at  Tipton,  but  it  is  reported  by  some  that  troubles  had  arisen  on  account 
of  the  "war  feeling,"  and  the  Lutheran  church  was  closed  to  our  people.  Early 
in  1863  ^^*  Wall  received  a  call  and  returned  to  Pennsylvania. 

The  congregation  now  should  have  nmnbered  twenty-one  members,  had  there 
been  no  losses,  but  Isaac  Neiman,  Lidia  Millhouse^  Harriet  Neiman  and  J.  Dairy 
had  passed  away.  Ephraim  Neiman  and  Ephraim  Weil  had  made  a  trip  to  the 
''far  west"  and  had  died  on  the  way,  so  that  the  membership  ntmibered  <Mily  fif- 
teen :  nine  Neimans,  five  Sweinharts,  and  Elizabeth  Emerick. 

The  first  r^^lar  pastor  was  Rev.  Joshua  Riale,  who  was  called  in  1864,  and 
came  to  Tipton,  November  of  the  same  year,  living  in  the  house  on  the  southwest 
comer  of  Sixth  and  Meridian  streets,  now  known  as  the  "Ingman  House."  Dur- 
ing the  first  winter  of  his  residence  he  organized  a  class  in  the  catechism  which 
he  confirmed  May  28,  1865.  They  were  J.  Nevin  Neiman,  Peter  Franklin  Swein- 
hart, J.  Howard  Neiman,  L.  Arthur  Neiman,  and  J.  Anna  Chew.  The  congre- 
gation at  this  time  numbered  twenty :  twelve  Neimans,  six  Sweinharts,  Elizabeth 
Emerick  or  Mrs.  Daniel  Shultz,  and  Miss  Chew.  The  officers  were,  elder,  S.  W. 
Neiman,  deacons,  Mahlon  L.  Neiman  and  Jacob  Sweinhart. 

Since  the  spring  of  1863  services  were  held  in  the  old  brick  Presbyterian 
church,  which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  Presbyterian  parsonage,  but  dur- 
ing the  stunmer  of  1865  the  matter  of  building  a  church  was  agitated.  A  lot  was 
bought  from  John  A.  Uchtenwalter  the  same  summer  for  $130.00,  upon  the  north- 
em  end  of  which  the  church  now  stands,  the  remainder  having  been  sold  to  Josiah 

The  "Hisloric"  house  where  the  first  prayer  meet- 
ing of   tlie  congregation  was   held  January  26,   18G6 

Mm.  Susan  Neiman  Eliza  Bingeman 

Isaac   Neiman      Mni,  Eliza  Neiman     Mrs.  Liiiia  MiJIhouae 
Samuel  W,   Xeiman  Harriet  Neiman 



■     '->'». 


1  '  '\    A  ^  ; 


H     (.«;Nt>I    A5D 

T.  . 

-K  ^      P^'N    N"lMr'*>'i8 




Sweinhart  in  two  different  sections.  Subscrii>tions  were  received  for  the  church 
building,  after  which  Mr.  Riale  started  East  for  help,  where  he  seems  to  have 
collected  considerable  funds.  A  building  committee  consisting  of  Josiah  Swein- 
hart, Lewis  Kcssler  and  Rev.  Riale  was  elected  Nov.  13,  1865,  and  at  the  same 
time  these  parties  were  elected  the  trustees  of  the  congregation. 

Up  to  this  time  no  prayer  meetings  seem  to  have  been  held,  but  January  26, 
1866,  some  of  the  members  gathered  at  the  home  of  Mr.  Riale  and  engaged  in 
the  first  prayer  meeting.  It  was  then  decided  to  continue  the  meeting  every  two 
weeks  at  the  homes  of  .the  members. 

The  church  building,  30x40  feet,  with  a  four  foot  extension  in  front  for  a 
tower,  was  erected  in  the  summer  of  1866,  and  September  of  that  year  Iowa 
Classis  convened  in  the  new  building.  The  dedicatory  services  were  held  Sunday 
morning,  Sept.  23,  Rev.  J.  P.  Bucher  preaching  the  sermon. 

At  this  service  $595.63  were  received  in  subscriptions,  to  complete  the  pay- 
ment of  the  building,  the  total  cost  being  $2,500.00.  This  offering  was  $100.00 
more  than  was  needed,  but  the  church  had  then  neither  spire,  bdl  nor  organ,  and 
a  carpet  had  not  been  thought  of. 

The  first  session  of  the  Sunday  School  was  held  October  28,  1866,  at  the  close 
of  the  morning  service.  The  offifcers  were:  Supt.,  S.  W.  Neiman,  Asst.  Supt., 
Rev.  J.  Riale,  Treas.  and  librarian,  Jacob  Sweinhart.  At  the  first  session  of  the 
school  there  were  sixteen  scholars  and  five  teachers. 

In  April,  1868,  an  effort  was  made  to  complete  the  building.  At  a  congrega- 
tional meeting  held  on  Good  Friday,  April  10,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  over- 
see the  work;  $210.00  was  subscribed,  but  this  was  not  sufficient  and  $57.00  was 
loaned  by  individuals  "until  the  spire  is  finished." 

Up  to  this  time  aid  had  been  received  from  the  Board  of  Missions,  but  in 
1868  it  was  taken  from  the  roll  of  missions  and  became  self-supporting.  In  the 
fall  of  that  year  the  new  bell,  weighing  650  lbs.,  was  placed  in  the  tower  at  a 
cost  of  $135.70. 

December  ^^  1868,  a  Missionary  festival  was  held,  in  which  Revs.  D.  S. 
Fouse,  F.  C.  Bauman,  Geo.  Rettig,  Cyrus  Cort  and  the  pastor  took  part.  The 
day  preceding  this  meeting  Rev.  Joshua  Riale  was  installed  pastor  of  the  charge 
by  Rev.  D.  S.  Fouse. 

Mr.  Riale  had  been  missionary  supply  for  almost  three  years,  pastor,  but  not 
installed  for  four  years,  and  regular  pastor  for  three  years,  making  a  total  of 
active  service  of  ten  years.  After  these  years  of  faithful  service,  he  preached  his 
farewell  sermon  May  7,  1871,  and  left  the  field  to  take  charge  of  an  academy  at 
Blairstown,  Iowa,  then  conducted  in  the  interests  of  the  Reformed  church. 

The  same  year  a  call  was  extended  to  Rev.  J.  B.  Shontz,  who  came  and 
preached  his  first  sermon  July  2.  This  new  pastoral  relation  extended  over  a 
period  of  a  little  more  than  two  years,  or  until  Nov.  30,  1873,  when  the  charge 
was  reconstructed.  Tipton,  Hebron,  Lisbon  and  Olin  were  constituted  one  field, 
while  Wilton  and  Qifton  comprised  another.  The  latter  one  extended  a  calt  to 
Rev.  Shontz  which  was  accepted. 

Rev.  D.  S.  Fouse  was  extended  a  call  to  become  pastor  of  the  charge,  which 
he  accepted  in  June,  1874,  and  continued  in  this  field  until  April,  1887. 


Since  that  time  the  following  ministers  have  served  the  charge:  Revs.  G.  D. 
Gurley  1887-1893,  Samuel  Shaw  1893-1895,  J.  A.  Hunsicker  '95-1900,  and  J.  N. 
Naly  from  1901  to  the  present  time. 

During  the  last  eight  years  the  church  building  has  been  remodeled  and  a 
parsonage  erected  at  a  cost  of  $5/xx).oo.^** 

The  following  account  of  the  pioneer  preacher  tells  something  of  the  expe- 
riences of  all  who  undertook  to  follow  the  work  of  the  pastor  among  a  scattered 
people.  Dr.  Kuhl,  who  left  this  record,  was  a  missionary  minister  of  the  L41- 
theran  church  and  his  widow,  Mrs.  Conrad  Kuhl,  is  a  resident  of  Tipton,  widi  her 
daughter,  Mrs.  J.  Kent  Rizer. 

''On  Monday,  Dec.  9,  1850,  rode  in  a  keen  wind  to  Squash  Bend  (West  Lib- 
erty) to  a  settlement  of  Pennsylvania  Lutherans  and  made  an  appointment  for 
night  preaching.  Had  a  crowded  house  and  many  asked  me  to  return  and  do 
something  permanent  for  them.  The  next  day  filled  my  Communion  appointment 
at  Iowa  City,  thirteen  having  communed  in  basement  room  of  M.  E.  church. 
Wednesday  started  toward  Cedar  Rapids,  dining  with  a  brother  Fuhrmeister, 
sixteen  miles  on  my  way. 

'Tipton,  Iowa;  reached  here  Thursday,  December  21,  1850,  and  took  dinner 
with  Rev.  Keith,  a  congr^;ationalist  who  introduced  me  to  Bossert  and  Shanver, 
the  former  from  Holidaysburg,  Pa.  Rode  out  to  Mr.  Klock's  two  miles  and  a 
half  west  of  here,  then  to  Mr.  Maurer's  and  after  supper  to  Laubscher's  to  make 
appointments  for  Sunday  preaching  ia  the  neighborhood,  German  at  11  and 
English  at  i  o'clock.  Returned  to  Bro.  Bossert's  where  I  rested  and  corre- 
spcmded.  Held  our  services  on  Stmday  as  announced ;  in  driving  oat  missed  die 
right  school  house  a  mile  and  a  half ;  returned  to  Tipton  in  the  afternoon  and 
preached  in  Methodist  church  in  the  evening  to  a  full  house.'' 

Then  followed  a  trip  to  Davenport  and  Western  Illinois.  At  Beardstown 
Dr.  Kuhl  preached  the  dedication  sermon  for  the  new  Lutheran  church,  then 
returned  to  Iowa  and  after  preaching  at  a  number  of  points  on  Sunday  and  dur- 
ing the  week  came  again  to  Tipton,  Feb.  22,  1851.    His  record  reads : 

"Leaving  Moscow,  I  rode  to  Bro.  Dale's  near  Rochester,  but  found  my  2^ 
pointment  to  preach  there  had  not  been  received  so  came  on  to  Tipton.  Was 
kindly  received  by  Bro.  Bossert  and  Saturday  rode  to  German  settlement  west  of 
town  stopping  on  my  way  at  old  Mr.  Klock's.  Found  him  l}ring  a  corpse.  Ar- 
ranged to  conduct  service  for  him  later  and  after  visiting  in  the  neighborhood 
stopped  over  night  at  Father  Laubscher's  and  son-in-law  PfafTs.  Sunday,  Feb. 
23,  weather  was  bad,  roads  muddy.  Rode  to  Klock's.  Found  casket  had  not  yet 
arrived.  Preached  in  German  and  again  in  English.  In  afternoon  went  to  Dale's 
and  preached  in  schod  house  and  again  in  evening  at  Bro.  Kline's. 

^'Monday  24th.  Reached  Cedar  River  at  Rochester.  It  was  near  noon  before 
the  ferryman  would  venture.  When  we  did  start,  a  large  ice  cake  strudc  our 
boat,  the  guide  rope  broke  and  we  were  flung  down  stream  a  quarter  of  a  mile, 
fortunately  toward  the  south  side.  By  much  hard  work,  with  poles  and  by  poll- 
ing on  bushes  we  got  his  boat  to  the  landing  place.  At  the  house  of  Bro.  Thos. 
ThcMnpson  we  arranged  ior  a  service  at  nig^t  and  made  announcement  at  school 
house,  also  called  on  Bro.  Larew,  a  son-in-law  of  Peter  Lang  at  Squash  Bend, 
and  on  Widow  Whistler  Whose  husband  I  had  buried  at  Quincy,  DL,  during 


cholera  season  there.  In  this  vicinity,  one  and  a  half  miles  from  Rochester,  there 
are  about  twenty  Lutheran  members,  mostly  from  Bro.  Sloan's  charge  in  Ohio." 

Dr.  Kuhl  in  above  pioneer  work,  traveled  1,755  miles,  over  1,500  of  which 
were  on  horse-back;  received  in  collections  $51.80  and  his  expenses  were  $51.15, 
leaving*  surplus  of  65  cents  for  four  months'  work. 

The  preliminary  work  of  the  founding  of  the  Lutheran  church  in  the  county 
is  described  in  the  previous  account  of  the  pioneer  preacher.  The  real  organi- 
zation took  place  a  few  years  later  under  the  direction  of  Rev.  Solomon  Ritz, 
who  brought  together  a  small  band  in  the  year  1855,  August  12. 

The  incomplete  records  give  the  names  of  the  pastors  as  follows :  In  additicMi 
to  the  pastorate  of  the  organizer,  D.  S.  Altman  served  the  Tipton  congregaticMi 
from  1866  to  1885,  J.  B.  Bloom,  H.  H.  Hall,  A.  J.  Kissell,  1885-1890,  W.  H. 
Noffziger,  S.  J.  Dclo,  C.  A.  Gelwicks,  1897-1903,  and  W.  W.  Hess  1903-1905. 
The  present  pastor,  J.  Kent  Rizer,  took  charge  of  the  work  in  1905. 

The  church  and  parsonage  buildings  are  new,  the  church  having  been  dedi- 
cated in  1905  and  the  parsonage  completed  in  1908. 

While  by  no  means  the  largest  congregation  in  ttie  vicinity  the  effect  upon 
the  community  and  the  service  rendered  to  distant  lands  has  been  steady  and 
sure.  An  event  of  more  than  ordinary  local  interest  was  the  organization  in 
the  local  church,  Trinity,  of  the  society  which  from  that  day  to  this  has  had  the 
control  of  the  missionary  operations  of  the  women  of  the  General  Synod  of  the 
Lutheran  church  not  only  in  this  country  but  in  foreign  lands.  It  was  at  Tipton, 
Aug.  23,  1875,  that  a  band  of  five  women,  from  five  different  congregations,  met 
m  the  home  of  Mrs.  A.  J.  Hart  and  formed  themselves  into  a  S3modical  organ- 
izaticm.  A  local  society  followed  the  next  year  by  the  same  kind  of  a  meeting  at 
Cedar  Rapids.  At  the  first  convention,  which  meets  annually,  there  were  seventy 
members  present,  and  thirty-seven  dollars  sent  to  the  India  field.  Today  the 
membership  is  over  thirty-six  thousand  and  their  biennial  contributions  amount 
to  the  gross  sum  of  one  hundred  twenty-five  thousand  dollars. 

It  is  but  due  to  the  pastor  at  tiiat  time.  Rev.  J.  B.  Bloom,  to  say  that  he  had 
a  large  part  in  fcmning  this  organization  through  his  faith  and  through  his  urgent 

The  German  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Lowden  was  organized  in  1871. 
The  church  building  of  this  congregaticm  was  built  the  same  year  at  an  expense 
of  four  thousand  dollars,  the  congregation  being  incorporated  in  1871.  Im- 
provements were  made  in  1881  by  the  erection  of  a  steeple  and  inside  remodel- 
ing. It  was  enlarged  and  further  improved  in  1901.  The  church  will  seat  six 
hundred  persons.  The  value  of  the  structure,  including  the  pipe  organ,  is  about 
seven  thousand  dollars. 

The  church  was  organized  by  the  Rev.  C.  Seuel,  of  Lyons,  Iowa,  who  served 
it  one  year.  He  was  followed  by  Rev.  H.  Engelbrecht,  of  Iowa  City,  who  ac- 
cq>ted  a  call  to  another  app(Mntment  in  1873.  The  present  pastor,  Rev.  J.  H. 
Brammer,  was  then  called  from  Denver  and  he  has  served  ttie  charge  ever  since. 

In  1896  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  was  observed  and  the  pastor  who  or- 
ganized the  congregation  preached,  as  did  the  second  pastor. 

The  congregation  counts  at  present  sixty  voting  members,  four  hundred 
communicants,  and  in  all  six  hundred  thirty.    The  congregation  owns  a  parson- 


ag€y  a  residence  for  the  teacher  of  the  parochial  school  and  a  school  building, 
since  a  school  has  been  connected  with  the  church  from  the  beginning.  Schod 
is  held  ten  months  in  the  year  and  a  tuition  of  fifty  cents  per  month  is  charged. 
During  the  first  year  the  pastor  taught  the  school.  In  1882  a  teacher  was  secured 
and  after  six  years  of  service  he  was  succeeded  by  the  present  teacher,  Wm. 
Schmidt.  These  teachers  perform  the  duties  of  organist  in  the  church  and  in  the 
absence  of  the  pastor  may  assist  in  the  service. 

The  present  pastor  has  baptized  969  children,  confirmed  462,  married  204 
couples,  and  buried  256  persons.  ^•^ 

St.  John's  German  Evangelical  church  of  Clarence  dates  its  organization  from 
1882.  Rev.  J.  Schwartz  of  Lowden  had  charge  at  that  time,  and  the  first  mem- 
bership included  sixteen  families.  Heinrich  IVuess,  Heinrich  Goldschmidt,  and 
S.  C.  Kintzel  were  the  first  trustees. 

The  comer  stone  of  the  present  building  was  laid  in  1885.  The  congr^^atioa 
has  grown  to  a  membership  of  ninety  families.  The  present  pastor  is  Emil  Han- 
sen, who  has  endeavored  to  furnish  its  history  with  a  limited  record.^** 

About  the  year  1875  R^^.  Brammer,  the  pastor  of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran 
church  of  Lowden  for  thirty-seven  years  at  the  present  time,  called  the  German 
settlers  in  the  vicinity  of  Mechanicsville  together  for  religious  services.  They 
met  in  private  houses  or  places  rented  by  the  congregation  for  temporary  quar- 
ters. For  some  seventeen  years  the  meetings  were  held  in  this  locality  until 
death  and  removal  reduced  the  membership  to  so  small  a  ntmiber  that  it  was  de- 
cided to  move  the  congregation,  so  far  as  services  were  concerned,  to  Stanwood. 
This  action  was  completed  in  1892  and  was  to  accommodate  a  number  of  German 
families  who  had  lately  settled  near  Stanwood.  The  public  school  building  fur- 
nished a  meeting  place. tmtil  the  present  church  building  was  completed  in  1893 
and  dedicated  the  same  year.  During  these  years  Rev.  Brammer  was  the  pastor, 
there  being  no  resident  minister  in  this  vicinity.  In  1908  the  present  pastor.  Rev. 
W.  G.  Nagler,  was  ordained  and  installed  as  pastor  of  this  church  and  placed 
in  charge  of  the  parochial  school.  This  pastor  has  studied  in  his  native  land, 
Germany,  and  also  in  the  Gemijin  seminary  of  this  country  and  hence  is  well 
prepared  to  conduct  the  congregation  to  right  ways  of  thinking  and  living.  They 
have  abundant  faith  in  his  aUlity.  The  school  building  was  erected  in  1908  and 
the  church  refinished  in  the  following  year.  A  very  excellent  parsonage  belongs 
to  this  congregation  and  the  membership  has  doubled  since  the  year  1908.^*^ 

The  old  Methodist  Protestant  church  which  stood  south  of  Bennett  was  moved 
to  that  town  by  the  founders  of  the  place  and  afterwards  was  scdd  to  the  present 
German  Evangelical  church  people.  The  lot  on  which  it  stands  formerly  was  the 
property  of  Mrs.  Bennett,  wife  of  the  man  for  whom  the  town  was  named.  The 
membership  of  this  church  now  is  something  over  thirty.  The  pastor.  Rev. 

In  1855  binder  the  direction  of  Rev.  Philip  Laurent  of  St  Matthias  church, 
Muscatine,  the  organization  of  St.  Mary's  Parish  was  begvm.  During  the  first 
year  of  St.  Mary's  history  Father  Laurent  said  mass  in  the  house  of  John  Mad- 
den, who  lived  in  the  west  end  of  the  town  of  Tipton. 

After  the  first  year  the  congreg^ion  decided  to  build  a  small  church.  This 
was  to  be  of  brick  and  the  contract  was  given  tp  a  Mr.  Hill.    Owing  to  his  failure 






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to  meet  the  conditions  of  his  contract  the  work  was  not  accepted  and  it  was  never 
completed  nor  used  as  a  church,  some  two  years  later  being  torn  down  and  re- 
moved by  John  Bireley.  From  this  date  Rev.  Wm.  Edmonds  of  St.  Mary's  at 
Iowa  City  served  this  congregation.  He  at  once  began  to  find  a  way  for  a  church 
and  let  the  contract  for  a  frame  building  which  was  completed  in  due  time.  This 
was  used  for  a  number  of  years,  when  the  congregation  grew  to  demand  better 
accommodations.  On  this  occasion  the  decision  was  made  to  build  farther  to 
the  east  for  a  more  central  location,  under  the  direction  of  the  pastor  then,  Rev. 
Patrick  McCabe.  The  site  was  purchased  and  the  building  committee  consisting 
of  Bernard  Lang,  Patrick  Carlin,  M.  C.  Kirby,  Matthew  Thiel,  and  John  Miehan, 

Not  long  after  the  church  was  completed  by  the  builder,  John  Werling, 
Father  McCabe  was  called  elsewhere  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Daly,  who 
was  soon  followed  by  Rev.  Kissane.  The  building  erected  at  this  time  served  the 
congregation  for  a  period  of  about  twenty  years. 

I^  the  year  nineteen  hundred  Father  Galligan  became  the  pastor  and  began 
at  once  to  find  means  to  enlarge  the  church  or  build  another.  Consultation  of 
pastor  and  people  led  to  the  purchase  of  the  vacant  building  belonging  to  the 
Congregational  church  and  adjoining  lots.  A  conmiittee  of  three,  W.  J.  Gilmore, 
Mike  Hiegel  and  T.  J.  Mahoney,  were  appointed  to  make  this  exchange,  which 
resulted  in  the  present  church  property  of  St.  Mary's  today. 

In  1903  the  residence  property  south  of  the  church  was  purchased  of  Mr. 
Russell,  remodeled  and  made  to  serve  as  the  parochial  residence.  A  committee 
to  attend  to  this  consisted  of  Wm.  Burk,  Fred  Siepman,  Peter  Graham,  and  Mr. 

After  ten  years  of  service  with  the  parish  Father  T.  F,  Galligan  was  called 
to  a  larger  field  in  Burlington  to  care  for  St.  Paul's  church  in  that  city.  His 
successor,  Rev.  H.  A.  Knebel,  took  charge  of  the  parish  in  October,  1909. 

During  the  time  from  1855  to  1900  St.  Mary's  church  was  attended  only  as  a 
mission,  consequently  many  different  pastors  served  the  charge,  although  during 
most  of  the  time  it  was  attended  by  the  Mechanicsville  church. . 

The  pastors  who  attended  here  and  have  not  been  mentioned  in  the  previous 
pages  arc:  Revs.  J.  Quigley,  F.  Walsh,  Patrick  Sullivan,  B.  Downey,  J.  F. 

The  services  in  Tipton  are  regular,  two  masses  on  the  first  Sunday  and  one 
at  other  times,  with  afternoon  services  in  Sunday  school  and  instruction  in  Chris- 
tian doctrine  twice  each  month. 

From  the  parish  the  pastor  serves  Cedar  Valley,  St.  Joseph's  church,  which 
has  always  been  a  mission  church.  Formerly  the  pastor  at  Morse  attended  here, 
but  for  the  past  ten  years  it  has  been  attached  to  the  Tipton  charge.  The  Cedar 
Valley  congregation  has  been  organized  for  more  than  fifty  years  and  consists 
of  forty  families. ^•^ 

The  Catholic  church  at  Mechanicsville,  in  1872  and  '73,  was  served  by  Father 
Downey,  mentioned  before,  who  celebrated  mass  in  Helmer's  Hall.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Father  O'Sullivan,  who  ministered  to  the  wants  of  the  little  handr 
ful  of  Cathcdics  for  four  years.  In  1876  Father  McCabe  took  charge,  remaining 
for  two  years.    Since  then  there  have  been  four  resident  pastors — Fathers  Daly, 


now  of  Atlantic,  Kissane  of  Williamsburg,  Gillespie  of  Kecdaik,  and  Father 
Glenn,  the  present  popular  pastor,  who  has  been  able  to  find  the  facts  of  the 
parish  thus  far,  coming  to  the  parish  in  November,  1909* 

At  one  time  the  parish  included  Tipton,  Qarence,  and  Lowden,  but  owing  to 
the  rapid  growth  of  the  Tipton  charge  they  petitioned  the  bishop  for  a  resident 
pastor.  The  present  parish,  therefore,  embraces  Lowden,  Qarence,  and  Big 
Rock  in  Scott  County,  the  latter  two  having  churches. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  facts  in  the  history  of  St.  Mary's,  Mechanics- 
ville,  is  the  parochial  residence.  It  is  said  to  be  the  real  landmark  of  the  place, 
being  the  oldest  residence  in  the  town.  Although  thoroughly  rebuilt  much  of  the 
original  structure  remains. 

The  church  building  was  erected  in  1874.  Previous  to  that  time  the  mass  was 
celebrated  sometimes  in  the  homes  of  the  parish,  sometimes  in  the  vacant  build- 
ings that  might  be  secured.  The  first  priest  t6  minister  to  the  people  was  Fatber 
Lowry.  Beginning  in  1867  he  held  services  for  the  first  time  in  the  home  of  P. 
Burke.  Residing  in  Cedar  Rapids  he  visited  the  parish  but  four  times  a  year. 
At  the  present  time  the  parish  represents  some  seventy  or  eighty  famiUes.^^* 

The  Congregational  church  of  Tipton  was  organized  May  5,  1844,  1^  Rer. 
E.  Alden,  afterwards  pastor  of  the  church  at  Marshfield,  Mass.  He  was  the 
minister  of  Daniel  Webster  and  preached  his  funeral  sermon.  Mr.  Alden  ^^ 
mained  pastor  of  the  church  for  five  years,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  W.  Keith; 
he  was  f<rflowed  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cobb,  under  whose  pastorate  the  church  erected 
their  first  house  of  worship  in  1852 ;  this  was  20x34  feet.  This  was  soon  after 
nearly  douMed  in  size,  and  was  used  by  the  church  for  twelve  years.  After  the 
departure  of  Mr.  Cobb  the  church  enjoyed  for  ten  years  the  ministrations  of 
Rev.  M.  K.  Cross.  Mr.  C.  S.  Harrison  succeeded  him  June  10,  1866.  In  1867  a 
new  church  36x60  feet  was  erected  and  was  neatly  finished,  having  a  gallery  for 
the  choir.  From  an  <rfd  record  of  this  church  commencing  in  1850  some  inter- 
esting facts  are  gathered.  The  standing  rules  were  adopted  on  F^.  27,  1850,  iP 
ten  sections  and  are  transferred  to  this  book,  which  contains  the  remainder  of  the 
record  from  '53  until  the  time  of  the  disposal  of  the  church,  Feb.  14,  1895. 

The  last  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Iowa  Home  Mis- 
sionary Society  of  the  Congrq^tional  church.  Rev.  T.  O.  Douglass,  and  a  com- 
mittee, consisting  of  J.  H.  Coutts,  Henry  Britcher,  and  H.  L.  Dean,  was  ap- 
pointed and  authorized  to  dispose  of  the  property  and  return  the  money  fur- 
nished the  church  from  the  Church  Building  Society  of  New  York  and  to  pay  in 
additicm  one  hundred  for  the  use  of  said  money.  All  the  church  fixtures,  organ, 
books  and  property  was  to  be  given  away  or  disposed  of  under  the  direction  of 
Rev.  Douglass. 

This  building  as  remodeled  is  the  present  Catholic  church. 

This  book  of  records  contains  the  names  of  the  members,  baptisms,  marriageS; 
deaths,  catal<^[ue  of  the  pastor's  library  and  the  records  of  the  business  sessions. 
It  is  now  at  the  City  National  Bank. 

The  first  death  recorded  was  in  1856,  Wm.  W.  Laylin,  aged  fourteen  years; 
the  last  one  in  i^^,  H.  H.  Linsley,  aged  fifty-seven. 

The  first  marriage  was  performed  by  Rev.  M.  K.  Cross  June  i,  1856,  the 
parties  being  G.  W.  Logan  and  Mary  A.  Qapp.    The  last  one  on  this  record  was 


.  Methodist  Protpatant  Church,  Downey  Baptist  Church,  Downej 

.(,'»/<     WD 
B  L 


performed  by  Geo.  S.  Biscoe,  Fred  N.  Sterling  and  Sophia  G.  Daniels  being  the 
contracting  parties  and  the  date  Nov.  ii,  1869. 

Attached  to  an  agreement  made  in  1866,  when  the  loan  was  made  by  the 
Building  Society,  are  two  revenue  stamps  that  would  be  very  desirable  to  the  boy 
collector  of  the  day  if  he  knew  they  were  there.  It  is  signed  by  P.  L.  Stryker, 
N.  Fairchild,  and  S.  P.  Daniels,  Trustees.^o 

An  interesting  item  to  those  concerned  is  a  clipping  from  the  Independent  in 
1866.  It  is  pasted  in  the  old  church  record  at  page  forty-two.  The  heading  is 
"Western  Correspondence." 

Chicago,  III.,  Dec.  17,  1866. 
To  the  Editor  of  The  Independent : 

"When  last  June  the  Congr^^tional  church  of  Tipton,  Iowa,  was  calling 
Rev.  C.  S.  Harrison  from  this  state,  I  thought  it  my  duty  to  warfi  them  that  such 
a  course  would  invcrfve  the  struggle  and  expense  of  building  a  new  house  of 
worship.  Entering  upon  this  work,  sure  enough,  his  first  proposition  was  to 
substitute  an  attractive  church  for  the  low,  narrow,  long,  nine-pin  alley  sanctuary, 
which  had  become  obscrfete.  Capt.  Pound,  who  had  smelt  gunpowder,  told  me 
that  when  this  suggestion  was  made  its  audacity  nearly  tock  away  his  breath. 
And  yet  the  church  has  been  built — a  house  36x60,  with  a  spire  and  all  the  ordi- 
nary appointments.  It  cost  $4,103.  The  Congregational  Union  had  held  out  the 
tempting  bait  of  $400.  The  ladies  had  raised  $300  for  carpets^  chandeliers,  and 
other  furnishings,  besides  securing  the  cabinet  organ.  On  the  second  Sabbath 
of  this  month  the  house  was  dedicated  with  the  usual  joyfulness  of  such  an  occa- 
sion. A  deficit  of  $880  was  raised.  A  hymn  composed  by  the  pastor  for  the 
occasion  was  sung  and  the  prayer  of  consecration  was  offered  by  the  Rev.  M.  K. 
Cross,  of  Washington,  Iowa,  who  had  been  the  pastor  of  this  church  for  ten 
years.  At  the  second  service  the  communion  was  administered  by  the  former 
and  the  present  pastor.  I  never  saw  a  floor  better  laid  than  that  which  was  laid 
by  the  minister,  who  also  did  the  mason  work  for  the  furnace  room.  His  own 
labor  at  regular  wages  would  amount  to  almost  $300.  Tipton  is  a  county  seat, 
and  this  church  was  gathered  by  Mr.  Alden,  one  of  the  "Andover  band,"  now 
at  Marshfield,  Mass.    Then  came  Mr.  Keith,  H.  W.  Cobb  and  M.  K.  Cross." 

No  name  is  signed  to  this  and  the  writer  is  not  known.  It  is  explanatory  of 
many  things  otherwise  difficult  to  trace. 

On  the  26th  day  of  March,  1856,  Rev.  John  Whittlesey,  a  Congregational 
minister  from  New  Britain,  Conn.,  ccxnmenced  preaching  in  Durant  under  ap- 
pointment from  the  American  Home  Missionary  Society.  Service  was  held  in 
the  station  house  of  the  R.  R.  Company  for  several  months.  In  May,  1856,  a 
house  of  worship  was  erected  and  a  church  organized  May  25th,  1856,  which 
consisted  of  twenty  charter  members.  The  council  for  organization  consisted  of 
Revs.  Julius  A.  Reed,  Geo.  F.  Magoun,  David  Knowles  and  Edward  Allen,  dele- 
gates from  the  Congregational  church  of  Davenport.  The  house  of  worship  was 
dedicated  July  22,  1857.  Rev.  A.  B.  Robbins,  of  Muscatine,  preached  the 
sermon  from  Haggai  2 19.  Revs.  D.  Knowles,  of  Wilton,  S.  N.  Grout,  of  Inland, 
E.  6.  Turner,  of  Illinois,  and  Chapman,  assisted  in  the  services. 

In  1878  the  membership  of  the  church  was  seventy-nine.  As  before  stated 
Rev.  John  Whittlesey  preached  his  first  sermon  here  May  26,  1856.    He  was 


supported  the  first  year  by  the  A.  H.  Missionary  Society.  At  the  end  of  that 
year  he  was  invited  to  remain  another  year,  which  he  accepted,  but  during  the 
year  he  found  a  bri^ter  field  for  more  extended  labor  and  asked  to  be  relieved 
from  the  charge;  preached  his  farewell  sermon  Nov.  28,  1858;  died  May  11, 
1862.  Rev.  Erastus  Rifdey  was  next  engaged  to  fill  the  Durant  pulpit  for  the 
year  1859.  Rev.  Henry  Bullen  was  the  next  minister  and  preached  his  first  ser* 
mon  May  30,  i860;  preached  his  farewell  sermcm  December  29,  1867.  Rev. 
Bullen  also  taught  in  the  public  school  here  for  a  number  of  years,  performing 
the  duties  of  a  pastor  at  the  same  time.  Rev.  E.  E.  Webber  was  next  engaged  to 
fill  the  pulpit;  preached  his  first  sermon  January  23,  1868;  preached  his  fare- 
well discourse  February  11,  1872.  Rev.  E.  P.  Whiting  was  the  next  minister; 
commenced  his  labors  the  first  Sunday  in  May»  1872 ;  ended  his  work  here  Jan- 
uary 3,  1875.  ^^'  Gibbert  was  next  called  and  preached  his  first  sermon  May 
g,  1875;  remained  only  one  year.  Rev.  Douglas  was  next  employed;  delivered 
his  first  address  June,  1876,  and  finished  his  woric  November  4,  1877.  ^^^  ^ 
P.  Smith  followed  him."* 

The  church  of  the  Universalist  Society  in  Tipton  was  dedicated  in  October, 
1872.  At  that  time  it  was  considered  a  handscmie  building  in  the  terms  of  the 
one  who  made  record  of  the  occurrence.  Now  one  recognizes  it  as  the  head-* 
quarters  of  the  "Tipton  Produce  Company/'  and  for  many  years  it  has  not  been 
the  scene  of  Sabbath  worship.  This  building  once  sheltered  a  prosperous  coo- 
gr^^tion,  but  now  it  has  almost  lost  its  resemblance  to  a  church  edifice.  The 
change  came  about  gradually,  as  will  be  noted. 

The  only  Danish  Lutheran  Church  in  the  county  is  located  at  West  Branch. 
It  was  organized  in  1895  with  Simon  Christensen  as  president  and  August  Peter- 
sen as  secretary,  J.  P.  Jensen  treasurer. 

Rev.  P.  L.  Hansen,  of  Cedar  Falls,  assisted  in  the  preliminary  work  and 
served  the  congregation  for  two  years  from  his  charge  there.  The  church  was 
built  the  following  year,  being  dedicated  in  October,  1896. 

Former  pastors  who  have  been  in  charge  of  this  church  are  the  Revs.  Proc- 
vensen,  Rohe,  Thisted,  and  Beck,  the  latter  now  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  the  second 
is  deceased;  the  first  is  at  Coulter,  Iowa,  and  the  third  in  Wisner,  Neb.  Rev. 
Hofgarrd  is  the  present  pastor 

All  the  services  in  this  church  are  conducted  in  the  Danish  language,  and 
this  includes  the  Sunday  school.  During  the  public  school  vacation  a  parochial 
school  is  held  by  the  pastor  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  the  Danish  language  and 

The  Missionary  Baptists  organized  a  church  in  Iowa  Township  in  1847,  which 
continued  about  two  years.  The  Free- Will  B24>tists  organized  the  Bethel  church 
in  1867.  This  church  was  a  mile  below  the  Rochester  Ferry  and  Rev.  Decker 
was  their  pastor  for  many  years.  Friends  commenced  heading  meetings  in  the 
house  of  J.  H.  Painter  in  1849,  which  place  continued  to  be  their  house  of  wor- 
ship for  probably  one  year.  It  was  then  held  at  the  house  of  Lawrie  Tatum  a 
year  or  more,  when  it  was  changed  from  Iowa  to  Springdale  Township. 

In  1865  a  Free-Will  Baptist  Church  was  organized  by  Rev.  O.  E.  Baker  in 
the  western  part  of  Farmington  Township,  of  which  John  Quincy  Tufts,  Jod 


dark  and  Frank  Butterfield  were  the  founders.  Prior  to  this  services  and  Sun- 
day sdKxd  had  been  held  in  the  school  house  by  Elder  Reeves. 

StiB  anodier  chnrdi — Methodist  Protestant — ^was  established  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  township,  but  was  later  on  removed  to  Bennett,  Inland  Town- 

The  Downey  Baptist  church  was  organized  in  1870,  the  comer  stone  having: 
been  laid  in  1869.  The  builders  of  this  church  were  the  pastor.  Rev.  Sangster  of 
Iowa  City,  and  A.  B.  CcMnwall,  Joseirfi  King,  C.  F.  Hoyt  and  J.  M.  Watson. 

The  Christian  Church  of  Durant  began  in  the  spring  of  1872,  Rev.  John  C. 
Hay,  State  Evangelist,  ccmimenced  a  series  of  meetings  in  the  Congregational 
church,  which  resulted  in  the  appointment  of  a  preliminary  meeting  to  be  held 
at  George  Deming's  April  20,  1872,  and  a  number  of  the  brethren  and  sisters  of 
that  denomination  were  in  attendance  to  consider  the  propriety  of  erecting  a 
house  of  worship  in  Durant,  viz:  John  C.  Hay,  George  Deming  and  wife,  G. 
W.  Deming  and  wife,  Alfred  Nye  and  wife,  W.  D.  Vermillion  and  wife,  Mil- 
ton Heinly,  Charles  Trunkey,  Moses  Nye  and  J.  D.  Petersen.  After  much 
discussion  George  Deming  was  appointed  chairman  and  W.  D.  Vermillion 
secretary.  Pledges  were  then  taken  to  raise  the  amount  to  built  a  church.  W. 
D.  Vermillion  offered  to  do  the  drafting,  write  the  specifications  and  act  as  sec^ 
rctary  for  the  society,  which  was  accq[>ted.  Geo.  Deming,  Alfred  Nye  and 
Charles  Truvkey  were  appointed  a  building  committee.  This  ccxnmittee  met  on 
the  24th  day  of  May,  1872,  at  the  Nesbitt  House  in  the  dfice  of  the  Justice  of  the 
Peace  and  entered  into  a  contract  with  Messrs.  Keator  and  Linsley  to  erect  the 
church.  The  chapel  was  finished  November  18,  1872,  and  the  following  Lord's 
Day  Rev.  John  C.  Hay  preached  the  first  sermon  in  it,  when  $769.10  were  con- 
tributed by  the  audience. 

At  this  visit  Rev.  Hay  agreed  to  preach  the  following  year  one-half  of  his 
time  for  $500.00.  The  following  are  the  original  members:  George  Deming, 
Cormelia  R.  Deming,  Alfred  Nye,  Sarah  Nye,  Charles  Trunkey,  Milton  Heinly, 
Teresa  Sry,  lona  Nye.    Number  of  members  now  belonging,  thirty-six. 

The  following  are  the  ministers  who  filled  the  pulpit  after  the  organization 
of  the  church :  Rev.  John  C.  Hay,  Rev.  L.  Lane,  Rev.  A.  J.  Garrison  and  Rev. 
R.  H.  Ingram. 

The  church  used  to  be  alive  to  all  missicmary  work.  A  ladies'  sewing  society 
was  organized  May  9,  1877,  for  the  prcMnotion  of  benevolent  work.  They  held 
their  meetings  semi-monthly.  The  cheers  of  the  society  then  were :  Mrs.  George 
Deming,  President;  Miss  Mattie  Fisher,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  Services 
were  held  in  the  chapel  every  alternate  Lord's  day.  This  church  has  no  organi- 
zation now  in  Durant*^* 

A  Protestant  Episcopal  church,  consisting  of  about  ten  members,  was  organ- 
ized in  Tipton  in  1856,  and  during  the  summer  of  1859  they  built  a  very  neat 
little  house  of  worship,  under  the  superintendence  of  their  pastor,  Rev.  W.  T. 
Campbell,  at  a  cost  of  about  $1,100.  After  Mr.  Campbell's  ministration  there 
was  only  occasicmal  public  worship  held  by  this  church.^''^^ 

The  first  religious  service  of  tfie  Episcopal  church  of  Durant  was  held  at 
the  depot  in  February,  1856,  by  the  Diocesan  of  the  State.  Right  Rev.  W.  H. 
Lee  preached  the  sermon,  at  which  time  a  parish  was  organized  under  the  above 


title  after  St.  Paul's  of  New  Haven,  Conn.,  from  which  they  afterwards  re- 
ceived $75.00  to  be  applied  in  establishing  and  erecting  a  church  at  this  place. 
On  the  2 1  St  day  of  June,  1856,  the  comer  stone  of  the  church  was  laid  with 
appropriate  ceremonies.  Bishop  Lee  conducting  them,  and  in  November  of  the 
same  year  the  church  was  consecrated.  The  second  sermon  was  preached  in 
the  church  by  Hon.  George  F.  Magoun,  afterward  President  of  Iowa  College. 
The  first  child  baptized  was  a  daughter  of  Joseph  Weaver,  by  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop 
Lee.  The  Rectors  of  this  society  have  been  Revs.  Geo.  C.  Street,  Campbell, 
Johnson,  Curry,  James  Allen  Webb,  Kaapka  and  C.  H.  Stroh.^^* 

The  only  church  remaining  in  Durant  is  the  last  one  mentioned,  at  least  the 
only  one  having  services. 


The  first  religious  services  at  Fairview  were  held  in  the  house  rented  for 
school  purposes  by  Mr.  Geiger  and  these  services  were  conducted  by  a  Protestant 
Methodist  minister.  Rev.  Mr.  Bolton  afterward  held  services  in  the  house  of 
Mr.  Tivis  and  Sabbath  scho(d  was  conducted  in  the  home  of  Mr.  Lichtenwalter, 
when  the  Elder  Martin  Baker,  mentioned  early  in  Cedar  County  history,  also 
preached  occasionally.  The  first  organization  was  effected  about  1855  ^  ^^ 
former  residence  of  John  Hecht,  by  Daniel  Wertz,  preacher. 

The  United  Brethren  church  was  organized  at  an  early  day  by  Rev.  Baker, 
the  first  pastor.  In  1868  the  two  denominations  built  a  Union  church  on  section 
twenty  and*  services  were  held  alternately  and  a  union  Sunday  school  was  in 
successful  operatic^. 

The  Lutheran  church  was  organized  by  Rev.  D.  A.  Altman  in  1867  ^^  ^^ 
scho(d  house.  In  1866  a  church  was  erected  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  J.  J. 
Huber.  This  was  located  a  half  mile  west  of  the  Uni(m  church.  The  first  elders 
were  Jacob  Geiger  and  Jacob  Stockslager.  As  the  new  settlement  is  composed 
mostly  of  Germans  who  belong  to  the  two  churches  in  Lowden,  the  Lutheran 
church  was  sold  a  few  years  ago  and  moved  to  Harmony  Point,  some  distance 
west  of  its  first  location,*^^ 

One  of  the  oldest  organizations  for  philanthropic  purposes  in  this  county  is  the 
BiUe  Society  which  meets  annually  to  this  day.  As  early  as  1842  it  fa^;an  to 
carry  on  its  work.  Daniel  Hare,  mention^  among  the  pioneers,  was  its  first 
president;  Henry  Hardman,  at  whose  house  the  first  sermon  was  preached; 
Judge  Tuthill,  recognized  as  a  citizen  of  much  influence;  Solomon  Aldrich,  a 
charter  member  of  the  first  Methodist  church ;  John  P.  Cook,  who  conducted  the 
first  mercantile  business  in  Tipton,  were  chosen  as  vice  presidents.  Rev.  Uriah 
Ferree  was  the  first  secretary,  and  E.  E.  Edwards,  once  sheriff  of  the  county,  the 

This  organization  sought  then  and  now  to  keep  the  county  supplied  with  the 
scripture  where  somt  were  unable  to  furnish  themselves,  and  to  diat  end  made 
an  effort  to  keep  a  census  of  the  county  where  such  service  was  needed. 

Dr.  J.  F.  Kennedy,  afterward  for  twenty-five  years  secretary  of  the  State 
Board  of  Health  for  Iowa,  was  one  of  its  presidents.  S.  S.  Daniels,  war  editor 
of  the  Advertiser,  was  its  treasurer  and  depositor.  Hon.  J.  H.  Rothrock,  later  a 
judge  of  the  supreme  court  of  Iowa,  was  a  member  of  its  most  important  com- 
mittee.    Rev.  Wm.  Lee,  a  pioneer  minister,  and  Wm.  Elliott  were  zmotig  the 

Bcforme.1  Clitirfh' 

Methoiiist    Episi-opal   CMurvh 

Catlinlie   Cliiirfb 



»T      '.    ■ 

t       ^ 


leaders  in  the  organization.    This  society  was  organized  in  1842,  as  mentioned, 
and  is  the  sixth  oldest  in  the  state  of  Iowa. 

In  May,  1867,  the  first  movement  was  made  to  organize  the  Sunday  school 
forces  of  the  county.  Rev.  E.  Skinner  presided  at  this  meeting  and  Rev.  J.  Riale 
was  the  secretary.  A  constitution  was  adopted  which  specified  the  qualifications 
for  membership  as,  "That  of  any  person  residing  in  the  county  and  directly  en- 
gaged in  Sunday  school  work  and  shall  have  attended  at  least  one  meeting  of  the 
associaticMi,  and  shall  have  enrolled  in  and  contributing  to  the  Sunday  school 
cause/'  The  following  Sabbath  schools  were  reported  in  part  and  were  enrolled : 
Methodist  Episcopal,  Lutheran,  St.  John's  Reformed,  Congregational  and  Pres- 
byterian of  Tipton,  Methodist  of  Lowdcn,  York  Prairie  and  Inland.*^*  Con* 
ventions  of  the  Sunday  schools  of  the  county  now  include  all  the  churches  men- 
tioned in  these  accounts  of  church  history  with  the  exception  of  one  or  two  or- 

Eakly  History  of  the  Settlement  of  "Orthodox''  Friends  at  Springdale, 

Iowa,  and  Their  Meetings. 

by  lawrie  tatum — 1892.    revised  by  wm.  mather — i9io. 

Lawrie  Tatum  was  the  pioneer  Friend  in  Cedar  County,  locating  there  in 
1844.  J.  H.  Painter's  was  the  first  family,  who  settled  there  in  1845.  His  house 
was  of  logs.  It  was  customary  to  furnish  liquor  at  house  raisings,  and  he,  be- 
lieving it  was  not  right  to  do  that,  informed  the  men  when  asking  them  to  help 
raise,  that  he  could  not  furnish  liquor.  They  took  it  kindly  and  no  one  declined 
to  go  on  that  accotmt,  although  he  had  been  informed  that  he  could  not  get  his 
house  "raised"  without  liquor. 

In  fifth  month,  1848,  M.  V.  Butler,  Stephen  Dean  and  Lawrie  Tatum,  with 
their  wives,  went  to  Salem,  some  seventy  miles,  in  a  road  wagon  with  three  spring 
seats,  to  attend  the  opening  of  Salem  Quarterly  Meeting,  the  first  Quarteriy 
Meeting  of  Friends  held  in  the  state  of  Iowa. 

The  few  members  commenced  holding  meeting  in  the  forepart  of  1849  '^^ 
the  house  of  J.  H.  Painter  on  the  E.  J4  of  sw.  J4  Sec.  31-80-3,  now  owned  by 
Wm.  A.  Phdps.  The  heads  of  families  who  were  there  at  that  time  were  G.  P. 
Wood,  David  Tatum,  J.  H.  Painter,  M.  V.  Butler,  J.  W.  Cattell,  Stephen  Dean, 
Shaidlock  Negus,  James  Schooley,  and  Lawrie  Tatum.  Besides  the  above  named 
families,  there  was  one  other  Friend,  Rebecca  Bowersock.  There  was  no  min- 
ister belonging  to  the  meeting  at  that  time  and  it  was  usually  held  in  silence,  but 
the  meetings  were  enjoyed,  and  they  were  Messed  to  those  who  attended  them. 

In  1850  the  meeting  was  removed  to  Lawrie  Tatum's  log  house.  While  there 
Benjamin  Seebohm  and  Robert  Lindsley,  ministers,  from  England,  made  the 
new  settlement  a  visit.  They  were  the  first  "Traveling  Friends  with  Minutes,'' 
who  attended  the  meeting.  J.  A.  Grinnell,  a  minister,  moved  with  his  family  of 
seven  into  the  neighborhood  in  the  autunm  of  1850.  They  lived  with  Lawrie 
Tatum's  in  their  log  house,  which  was  16x22  feet,  one  and  a  half  stories  high, 
for  a  few  weeks  while  he  built  a  small  "plank  house."  Such  instances  of  "taking 
in  a  &mily"  of  emigrants  for  a  few  days  or  weeks  were  very  common  with  the 
early  settlers. 


In  185 1  the  meeting  was  removed  to  J.  H.  Painter's  gravel  house  on  NE. 
corner  of  Sec.  1-79-4,  now  owned  by  Henry  Negus,  and  a  preparative  meeting 
established.  A  number  of  others  had  by  that  time  settled  in  the  neighborhood 
Hannah  B.  Tatum  had  become  a  frequent  speaker  in  the  meetings,  and  gave 
satisfactory  evidence  that  she  was  called  of  God  to  preach  the  gospel.  Her  gift 
as  a  preacher  was  acknowledged  by  Salem  Monthly  Meeting  in  Fifth  Month, 

In  1852  a  concrete  or  gravel  meeting  house  with  flat  roof  was  built  (mi  a  lot 
deviated  by  J.  H.  Painter  near  the  center  of  Sec.  1-79-4.  It  was,  I  believe,  the 
first  church  building  erected  in  Cedar  County.  (Probably  the  second. — ^Ed.) 
On  the  4th  month,  9th,  1853,  Red  Cedar  Monthly  Meeting  was  established  there, 
and  the  Friends  of  Linn  and  Jones  Counties  made  a  request  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  preparative  meting. 

In  the  appointment  of  committees,  etc.,  in  the  first  two  months  we  find  the 
following  names  on  the  minutes  of  men's  meetings :  J.  A.  Grinnell,  David  Tatum, 
Samuel  Abbott,  Samuel  Hampton,  Brinton  Darlington,  Abram  Parmer,  Stephen 
Dean,  Dilworth  Schooley,  Zachariah  Hampton,  Israel  Negus,  Stephen  South- 
wick,  James  Schooley,  Lawrie  Tatum,  Elisha  Stratton,  Moses  V.  Butler,  Nathan 
Taber,  Isaac  Jackson,  Septimus  Sharpless,  Benjamin  Ball,  Benjamin  Grundy, 
G.  P.  Wood,  Isaac  Negus,  Moses  Vamey,  Emmor  Rood,  Enoch  Peasley,  Mat- 
thew Winslow,  Wm.  Hampton,  Peter  Collins,  Andrew  McBride,  Isaac  Parmer, 
Albert  B.  Neg^s,  Elisha  Todd,  Samuel  Fawcett  and  Shaidlock  Negus. 

Red  Cedar  Monthly  Meeting  was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  Iowa  in 
1853.  In  7th  Month,  1853,  Salem  Meeting  referred  Springdale  Indulged  Meet- 
ing (now  West  Branch  Meeting)  to  the  care  of  Red  Cedar  Monthly  Meeting. 
It  was  made  a  Preparative  Meeting  in  nth  M(Mith,  1853. 

Springdale  postofiice  was  established  about  two  and  one-fourth  miles  west 
of  where  the  vilk^e  and  P.  O.  by  that  name  now  is.  The  settlement  near  and 
west  of  the  postoffice  was  called  Springdale.  When  there  was  a  store  started 
at  the  present  site  of  Springdale  the  postoffice  was  removed  to  it,  much  to  the 
chagrin  of  the  Springdale  settlers.  West  Branch  postoffice  and  town  were 
subsequently  started  and  Springdale  Meeting  was  held  in  that  town,  and  Red 
Cedar  Meeting  was  held  at  Springdale,  which  was  confusing  and  misleading. 
Therefore  the  names  of  both  meetings  were  changed  to  the  names  of  the  post- 
offices  where  each  was  situated. 

In  First  McMith,  1854,  the  Monthly  Meeting  appointed  a  committee  ''to  carry 
out  the  advice  of  the  Yearly  Meeting  in  establishing  and"  having  the  care  of 
First-day  Schools.'' 

Red  Cedar  Monthly  Meeting  received  by  certificate,  during  the  first  year  that 
it  was  held,  290  persons.  There  were  also  twelve  received  by  request,  making 
an  addition  of  302  the  first  year.  There  were  some  received  every  month.  The 
greatest  number  was  fifty-nine.  A  few  of  the  heads  of  families  received  during 
this  eventful  year — 4th  Month,  1853,  *o  3d  Month,  1854-^were:  Richard  Pink- 
ham,  Wm.  Townsend,  Michael  King,  Caleb  Gregg,  Wm.  D.  Branscm,  John 
Thomas,  Geo.  Hughes,  Nathan  Satterthwait,  Samuel  Peasley,  Griffith  Lewis, 
James  Walton,  David  W.  Miles,  Jas.  Staples,  Samuel  Dean,  Thos.  Montgomery, 
G.  P.  Smith,  Jas.  Townsend,  Thomas  C.  Battey,  Samuel  Pearson,  Alpheus  Hirst, 


and  Wm.  Miles.  The  Friends  received  during  that  year  came  from  Ohio,  Mich- 
igan, Iowa,  Indiana,  Pennsylvania,  New  Ybrk,  Vennont,  Maine  and  Canada. 
The  second  year  there  were  some  received  every  month  but  one.  Total  received 
second  year  192.  There  were  176  received  the  third  year.  In  1856  H<Miey  Grove 
Meeting  was  held  one  mile  east  and  three  miles  north  of  where  West  Branch  now 
is,  and  meetings  were  continued  to  be  held  there  for  nearly  thirty  years. 

Red  Cedar  Quarterly  Meeting  was  established  by  Indiana  Yearly  Meeting  and 
the  first  session  held  in  5th  Month,  1858.  In  anticipation  of  the  Quarterly  Meet- 
ing, Red  Cedar  Preparative  Meeting,  with  the  help  of  Philadelphia,  and  other 
Friends,  had  enclosed  a  new  frame  Meeting  house  67x42  feet  and  finished  one 
end  at  a  cost  of  $2,362.50.  The  estimated  cost  to  complete  the  building  was  $500* 
It  is  the  present  Meeting  house  at  Springdale. 

In  the  second  Monthly  Meeting,  held  5th  Month,  4th,  1853,  is  recorded: 
/'Albert  B.  N^^  and  Martha  Ball  propose  marriage  with  each  other;  parents 
consenting  thereto.''  Theirs  was  the  first  marriage  according  to  Friends  cere- 
mony in  Cedar  County.  During  this  year  five  couples  were  married  according 
to  Discipline  and  two  members  disowned  for  marrying  contrary  to  Discipline, 
and  one  disowned  for  providing,  and  partaking  of  marriage  entertainment  of 
daughter  who  was  married  contrary  to  Discipline.  Many  were  subsequently  dis- 
owned for  thus  marrying.  In  1865  Iowa  Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends,  and  since 
that  time  many  other  Yearly  Meetings  changed  their  Disciplines  to  allow  l^;al 
marriage  in  any  form  although  not  celebrated  in  the  manner  Friends  recom- 
mended in  their  Discipline.  On  the  28th  of  8th  Month,  1876,  J.  Y.  Hoover,  a 
Friend  minister,  officiated  in  the  marriage  of  Charles  E.  Negus  and  Ellen  Tatum, 
using  substantially  the  marriage  ceremony  in  the  Discipline.  Thjs  was  the  first 
marriage  solenmized  by  a  Friend  minister  in  Springdale  Monthly  Meeting.  In 
the  spring  of  1865  Elizabeth  Ann  Harris,  a  Friend  minister,  sang  a  hymn  in 
Springdale  Monthly  Meeting  held  at  West  Branch.  A  few  months  previously 
Julia  Ann  McCool,  a  minister  of  LeGrand  Monthly  Meeting,  Iowa,  had  sung  a 
hymn  in  their  meeting.  These  were  probably  the  first  hymns  sung  by  Friend 
mimsters  in  any  of  their  meetings  in  America  for  more  than  one  hundred  years. 
It  was  very  trying  indeed  to  some  of  the  members  to  have  the  singing  by  E.  A. 
Harris,  but  J.  A.  Grinnell  and  Joel  Bean,  J.  Y.  Hoover,  and  some  others  thought 
it  was  called  for  of  the  Lord,  and  therefore  was  right.  George  Fox,  and  Friends 
of  two  hundred  years  before,  placed  preaching,  prayer  and  singing  on  the  same 
basis.  But  singing  had  so  dropped  out  of  use,  that  the  report  that  a  Friend  min- 
ister had  sung  a  hynm  in  Springdale  Monthly  Meeting,  was  received  with  great 
surprise  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States.  But  now  how  changed.  The  church 
has  again  become  evangelistic,  aggressive,  and  missionary,  more  as  it  was  during 
the  first  thirty  years  after  George  Fox  first  began  to  preach.  At  the  close  of  the 
first  thirty  years  the  church  had  increased  to  sixty  thousand  members.  Now. 
singing,  testimony  and  prayer  are  encouraged  throughout  the  Friends'  church  in 
America,  with  few  exceptions.  That  the  blessing  of  God  is  upon  it  is  shown  by 
the  large  numbers  converted  and  taken  into  church  membership  since  the  change. 

In  1850  to  1855  when  Friends  were  immigrating  so  rapidly  to  this  part  of  the 
country,  many  of  them  ''entered  their  land."  That  is,  bought  it  of  the  Govern- 
ment at  $1.25  per  acre.    It  could  be  bought  in  40,  80  or  160  acre  lots.    At  that 


time  the  Government  had  no  limit  to  the  amount  that  a  person  might  "enter.'' 
With  very  few  exceptions  the  early  settlers  came  with  little  more  funds  dian 
enough  to  purchase  their  land.  As  oxen  were  preferred  for  breaking  the  tough 
prairie  sod,  and  they  cost  so  much  less  than  horses,  many  of  the  early  settlers 
had  no  other  team  for  some^years.  The  oxen  were  hitched  to  the  farm  wagons 
to  take  the  families  to  meeting,  and  visiting,  and  their  produce  to  market,  etc 
The  settlers  were  contented,  happy  and  thankful  for  what  they  had,  and  thankful, 
too,  that  they  had  no  mortgage  notes  to  harass  them.  They  lived  within  their 
means,  which  was  very  limited.  Dressed  pork  delivered  in  Muscatine  would 
bring  from  $1.25  to  $240  per  100  pounds.  Wheat,  which  was  the  staple  crop  of 
g^n  at  that  time,  would  bring  from  25  to  50  cents  per  bushel 

We  have  now  traced  the  early  settlement  of  Friends  in  the  vicinity  of  Spring- 
dale  from  the  small  Indulged  meeting  in  1849,  hdd  in  a  private  house,  with  no 
minister,  through  the  rapid  growth  of  Preparative  and  Monthly  Meetings,  and 
the  establishment  of  a  large  Quarteriy  Meeting  in  nine  years.  During  those  years 
one  minister  moved  to  Red  Cedar,  and  three  developed  their  gifts,  and  were  re- 
corded ministers.  Many  who  were  here  during  those  nine  years  have  moved  to 
other  parts.  A  number  have  passed  to  their  eternal  rewards.  The  few  who 
remain,  with  those  who  are  with  them  now,  in  1892,  have  cause  to  bless  God  for 
his  over-ruling  care  and  providence  of  us  in  those  early  days,  and  for  his  g(x>d- 
ness  and  mercy  and  blessing  that  has  been  to  us,  and  over  us  to  the  present  time. 
Then  Jet  us  tmite  in  fiaying,  "Praise  ye  the  Lord,  O  give  thanks  unto  the  Lord; 
for  he  is  good ;  for  his  mercy  endureth  forever." 

Additional  History  of  the  Regular  ''Orthodox'^  or  '"Progressive""  Branch 


During  the  settlement  oi  Friends  in  Cedar  County  they  scattered  over  the 
prairies  between  the  Cedar  and  Iowa  rivers  from  northwest  of  Atalissa,  around 
Springdale,  West  Liberty,  Downey  and  West  Branch  and  west  to  within  a  few 
miles  of  Iowa  City,  and  west  of  Cedar  Valley,  keeping  a  little  west  of  Cedar 
River  on  nearly  to  S<rfon.  At  one  time  part  of  this  territory  was  called  ''Quaker 

These  Friends  were  earnest  advocates  of  education,  peace,  temperance,  and 
freedom  for  all  races.  For  many  years  after  the  Civil  War  they  aided  much  in 
the  education  and  training  of  the  Freedmen,  contributing  freely  of  their  means 
and  sending  teachers  to  aid  the  work  in  the  South.  Many  of  the  Friends  aided 
in  the  Government  Indian  Schools  as  superintendents,  teachers  and  helpers. 

Regular  services  and  Bible  schools  are  now  maintained  at  Springdale  and 
West  Branch. 

From  time  to  time  large  numbers  of  Friends  have  removed  from  this  vicinity 
to  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Colorado,  Oregon,  and  especially  since  1880  very  laige 
numbers  have  removed  to  the  vicinity  of  Pasadena,  California.  In  many  of  their 
new  places  of  residence  large  and  active  meetings  have  been  established. 

Iowa  Yeariy  Meeting  of  Friends  at  its  47th  annual  meeting  held  in  Oska- 
loosa,  Iowa,  in  1909,  reported  fourteen  Quarterly  Meetings,  and  8,929  members; 
95  congregations ;  74  pastors. 


'  I 
'  I 

PUIVLIC    l'!i\U;Y 

TTLDWN    pot  .^l'ATU»h« 
1  L 


The  conservative  branch  of  Friends  have^  since  1883,  maintained  semi-weekly 
meetings  at  their  meeting  house  in  West  Branch,  Iowa,  and  held  yearly  meetings 
there  and  at  Earlham,  Iowa,  alternately. 

The  "Wilbur*'  branch  of  Friends  for  over  fifty-five  years,  have  held  meetings 
in  their  meeting  house  two  and  one-half  miles  east  of  West  Branch;  for  many 
3rears  maintiuned  a  primary  school  and  for  twenty  years  past  have  kept  up  a 
boarding  school  in  their  fine  large  three-story  building  called  "Scattergood  Semi- 

»  170 

-1  fc  t» 



In  the  past  Cedar  County,  in  average  assessed  valuation  per  acre,  has  been 
surpassed  only  by  Scott  and  Fo!k  Counties  and  both  these  counties  have  large 
cities.  This  may  be  due  to  several  causes,  the  length  of  time  that  it  has  been 
settled,  the  skill  of  its  citizens  in  making  use  of  the  soil,  the  desirability  of  the 
place  as  a  residence  and  another  of  vital  importance  is  the  influx  of  the  German 
population  in  tiie  eastern  half  of  the  county  and  tiie  gradually  extending  of  the 
ownership  of  the  land  by  these  foreign-bom  citizens  who  are  ready  to  pay  for  ttie 
land  all  the  owner  asks,  even  beyond  his  expectations.  When  once  he  buys  this 
land  he  does  not  sell  it,  but  pays  for  it,  keeps  it  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation  and 
buys  more  if  he  can. 

There  are  natural  reasons  for  the  fertility  of  the  soil  due  to  its  formation  that 
are  of  interest  to  the  scientist  and  to  the  one  who  commences  tiie  study  of  scien- 
tific agriculture.  These  cannot  be  mentioned  here,  but  there  is  a  secti(m  of  the 
county  that  is  pronounced  especially  rich  or  especially  poor  that  the  man  of  keen 
insight  knows  and  understands  either  through  long  acquaintance  or  because  he 
has  been  taught  the  characteristics  of  good  land.  The  good  ridge  extending 
through  the  county  from  the  southeast  to  the  northwest  is  fast  passing  from  the 
hands  of  tiie  original  settler  to  the  ambitious  German  who  has  made  his  way 
from  the  river  through  the  county  of  Scott  across  the  line  far  into  Cedar  and 
now  crowds  the  western  line  in  places.  How  much  he  has  added  to  the  farm 
value  it  is  difficult  to  tell  and  probably  no  method  of  averages  could  be  devised  to 
show  in  just  what  way  this  has  occurred,  yet  the  fact  is  patent  and  cannot  be 
disputed.  Machinery  has  made  possible  the  economic  management  of  the  large 
farm  and  cut  tiie  smaller  producer  out  of  certain  large  undertakings  since  the 
added  expense  of  this  equipment  could  not  be  borne  with  equal  return  on  the 
investment.  The  stock  men  of  the  county  have  added  much  to  the  continued 
value  and  its  increase  through  the  restoration  of  the  worn  land  and  the  great 
com  product  of  the  county  tells  more  eloquently  than  anything  dse  can  of  the 
natural  advantages  of  this  favored  region.  Streams  are  abundant  enough  to  fur- 
nish the  water  supply  for  the  pasture  in  many  parts  of  the  county  and  are  taken 
into  consideration  when  farm  values  are  discussed.    The  use  of  them  for  other 



purposes  of  water  power  has  had  its  day  until  the  increased  demand  makes  the 
construction  of  power  plants  profitable.  The  local  timber  supply  is  fast  passing, 
yet  some  is  now  going  to  waste.  For  purposes  of  fuel  it  is  no  Icmger  economical 
unless  a  tract  of  timber  is  owned  by  the  consumer  and  is  carefully  managed  to 
secure  a  future  growth. 

In  an  agricultural  state  the  first  industry  as  well  as  the  last  must  be  the  rais- 
ing of  crops  to  feed  the  herds  of  stock  that  make  the  farmer  the  master  of  the 
situation  in  the  event  of  tracing  the  source  of  prosperity.  When  he  fails  all  else 
fails  with  him.  Hence  in  a  history  of  industrial  and  monetary  affairs  in  a  county 
tike  Cedar,  one  must  first  of  all  sound  the  farmer's  standing  if  he  would  arrive 
at  any  certain  conclusion. 

The  statement  accompanying  tiie  banks  of  the  county  shows  that  the  cheers 
of  many  of  those  banks,  the  stockholders,  tiie  men  who  carry  the  deposits  are  in 
a  large  number  of  cases  the  farmer  who  has  made  the  financial  institutions  pos-^ 

Long  ago  the  gfrain  raised  on  these  prairies  was  sent  to  market  by  the  train 
load  and  the  harvest  time  was  one  of  great  stress  for  men  to  reap  the  crop  and 
make  it  safe.  This  continued  for  many  years  until  the  era  of  com  raising.  Since 
that  time  the  fine  stock  of  the  county  has  never  failed  to  pass  the  test  of  the  ex- 
pert and  as  such  reputation  has  grown  the  changes  have  been  accounted  for  in 
the  steady  habits  of  good  men  to  find  out  the  best  that  could  be  procured  and  to 
bring  it  into  the  county  at  great  expense  but  with  the  pride  of  having  done  some- 
thing to  make  the  county  better  and  richer  for  those  who  came  after. 

The  date  of  the  introduction  of  the  first  horses  for  fine  breeding  purposes 
is  fixed  at  about  i860.  The  Percheron  breed  brought  from  Illinois  began  to  be 
popular  at  that  time  and  many  of  the  best  farmers  engaged  in  the  raising  of  this 
draft  animal.  "McCroskey"  is  mentioned  as  one  of  the  first  of  the  good  horses 
to  be  brought  to  the  county,  and  from  this  the  idea  of  the  draft  horse  seems  to 
have  begun  to  take  root  in  the  minds  of  breeders.  Later,  James  Gress  of  Clar- 
ence, imported  a  Qydesdale  draft  horse  which  made  a  very  good  impression  on 
the  men  who  were  tfien  coming  into  the  possession  of  the  stock  of  the  future.  It 
was  about  this  time  that  J.  G.  Truman  of  Bushnell,  111.,  brought  the  Shire  horse 
to  this  part  of  the  state  and  one  of  the  first  to  buy  from  him  was  the  late  W.  C. 
Bryant  of  Marion,  Linn  County.  The  Elgin  breed  came  some  time  soon  after  the 
ones  just  referred  to  and  the  carriage  horses  were  introduced  about  the  period 
of  the  latter  part  of  the  Civil  war. 

Attention  has  been  called  to  the  introduction  of  the  Kentucky  horse,  in  the 
war  period,  by  Col.  Bradshaw  whose  home  was  in  that  state.  He  was  the  first 
man  to  introduce  the  breeding  of  fine  horses  for  trotting  purposes  exclusively. 
Dorsey  and  Harbiston  engaged  in  this  line  of  horses  among  the  first  in  the 
county  and  Alex.  Spear  kept  a  dozen  or  more  of  this  breed. 

Draft  horses  are  a  popular  kind  since  the  demand  ^or  them  seems  always  to 
be  of  staUe  nature.  The  Spears  have  been  and  are  at  the  present  heavy  breed- 
ers of  tiie  Shire  horse.  Alex.  Spear  has  owned  some  famous  prize  winners. 
"Eldorado  the  Second'"  was  a  prize  winner  in  England  and  three  days  after 
being  imported  was  tiie  champion  in  the  Chicago  show.  John  Wilier  at  his 
stock  farm  south  of  town  is  a  producer  of  this  class  also.    "Joliet  Wolfe"  is  one 


of  the  well-known  horses  in  this  part  of  the  county.  These  men  are  not  only 
interested  in  the  production  of  fine  animals  but  prepare  for  the  market  as  well. 

In  Linn  township  Alexander  Mcrfiit  has  one  of  the  largest  of  the  many  stocks 
in  the  territory  famous  for  its  good  horses.  His  reputation  for  fine  specimens 
has  long  been  established.  Wendell  Willer's  Percher<m  stock  is  pronounced 
fine  enough  for  any  purpose. 

On  the  neighboring  farm,  known  long  as  "Border  Lawn,"  W.  W,  Aldrich 
used  to  grow  the  trotting  and  running  horses  of  the  county.  He  owned  at  one 
time  "Ansel,"  a  fine  horse  of  this  stock,  a  thoroughbred  English  racer.  He 
also  kept  the  Qyde  horses  for  a  time,  but  he  continued  to  breed  the  trotting 
horses  until  the  time  of  his  death  a  few  years  ago. 

As  many  as  thirty  years  ago  the  French  coach  horse  was  introduced  into  the 
vicinity  by  Mr.  W.  C.  Bryant,  of  Marion.  Among  the  famous  imported  ones  of 
that  day  were  "Escobas,"  champion  at  the  great  horse  show  on  the  lake  front  in 
Chicago,  owned  by  Alex.  Spear,  and  he  is  still  engaged  in  breeding  this  stock. 
Three  or  four  others  were  of  equal  prominence  later  in  the  horse  history.  One 
or  two  that  sound  like  French  noble  names  and  others  a  little  Spanish,  "Elossant," 
"Romos,"  "Dedios,"  "Elebas."  The  last  one  was  kept  by  Mr.  Spear  for  six 
years  and  was  then  sold  and  taken  to  Scotland,  Penn.,  in  the  Cumberland 
Valley.  The  other  suggestive  names  that  show  the  origin  of  the  thoroughbred 
mare  now  in  possession  or  once  in  possession  of  the  best  breeders  are  diose  of 
"Bellone,"  "Malone,"  "Cologne."  So  much  for  the  horses  with  big  names. 
There  are  many  who  have  fine  stocks  that  cannot  be  described  for  want  of  data, 
yet  the  Hemmingways  of  Springdale  township  are  known  for  the  best  of  draft 
animals,  Marion  Gray  and  Sons  are  also  mentioned  as  good  producers.  Brennan 
Bros,  were  the  breeders  of  the  Belgian  horse  in  Gower  township,  and  in  the  same 
vicinity  the  Shire  horse  is  found  on  the  farm  of  Dwyer  Bros.  In  connection 
with  the  latter  breed  one  must  not  forget  to  speak  of  the  Shires  of  Samud 

Percherons  are  grown  for  the  best  stock  .by  Julius  Popp,  and  also  the  same 
breed  by  Wm.  Leech.  A.  J.  Click  of  Da}rton  township  and  the  Schieles  of  Farm- 
ington  are  among  the  large  producers  of  good  horses. 

Col.  Bradshaw,  who  was  mentioned  as  the  man  who  first  brought  in  the 
Kentucky  horse,  was  the  first  man  to  introduce  the  Durham  and  ShcHthom 
cattle  from  the  same  source.  He  sold  them  to  M.  Bunker  at  the  "Bunker  Hill" 
stock  farm,  to  W.  W.  Aldrich,  Mr,  McNeil  of  Clarence,  Peter  Wingert,  Gca 
King,  the  Spears,  Alex.  Yule  and  many  other  breeders  of  good  cattle. 

About  thirty-five  years  ago,  the  first  Aberdeen  Angus  cattle  were  brought  to 
the  county.  John  and  Alex.  Spear  owned  a  large  herd.  The  latter  owned 
"Shamrock,"  the  grand  champion  of  the  world  in  1902.  Other  breeders  of  this 
variety  are  John  Wilier  and  James  Spear. 

The  largest  herd  of  Hereford  cattle  in  the  county  belongs  to  Alexander  Moffit 
of  Linn  township.  His  stock  are  thoroughbreds  and  he  has  kept  in  this  line 
for  many  years.  Gideon  Bailey  of  Rochester  has  always  taken  great  pride  in 
good  stock.  The  fine  old  house  of  the  very  early  type  of  construction  and  the 
home-like  old  bam  suggest  a  good  old  age  for  ever3rthing  and  what  is  g^own  is 
that  of  good  ancestry. 


tj       ■(   <  I  #  L 

TVy.U'   !'''■  •'  ''^ 

B  ^ 


Some  maiiced  herds  of  cattle  haaee  been  shown  at  the  county  fair  by  their 
representatives  as  prize  winners.  Aamong  these  are  the  herds  of  Wm.  Penning- 
roth  and  Qarence  McClellan.  The  latter  is  a  breeder  of  the  Shorthorn.  Ed. 
Cosgriff  of  Qarence  has  the  same  stock. 

Jersey  stock  was  introduced  from  New  York  when  Allen  Elijah  brought  five 
cars  of  these  cows  from  that  state.  They  were  the  best  of  their  kind  that  money 
could  buy.  Those  who  trace  the  Jersey  supply  will  arrive  at  this  source  finally. 
In  the  records  of  the  first  agricultural  societies  there  is  mentioned  the  breed  of 
hogs  known  as  the  "Magees."  In  one  instance  a  writer  refers  to  the  time  as 
suitable  to  find  something  better  than  these  hogs  for  the  increase  of  profit.  It 
has  been  forty  years  since  these  swine  were  brought  into  the  county  for  the 
supply  of  the  breeder.  They  came  from  Ohio  originally,  and  were  sent  for  by 
Robert  Spear.  Since  that  time  they  have  tiie  name  Poland  applied  to  them  as 
the  grading  improved.  The  Chester  White  is  bred  by  Lon  Fraseur  and  Son, 
Red  hojsrs  bv  the  Spears  and  John  Wilier.  The  present  large  breeders  of  PcJand 
Chinas  include  the  names  of  Escher  and  Regennitter.  There  was  a  special 
variety  of  ttie  kind  supposed  to  produce  good  bacon,  a  kind  of  ranger,  once 
raised  by  the  Nebergall  Bros.  They  had  a  pleasant  name,  "The  Tamworth 
Red."  James  Spear  has  a  large  drove  of  the  "Jersey  Red,"  Spear  and  Son 
raise  these  also  for  stock  and  the  market.  John  Wilier  is  an  extensive  producer 
of  this  hogf  his  stock  running  into  the  hundreds. 

Henry  Hoyman  is  a  well-known  leader  in  the  Percheron  stock  and  in  the 
buying  and  feeding  of  draft  horses.  J.  W.  Reeder  has  always  supplied  his  farm 
witii  the  best  of  stock  in  both  horses  and  cattle. 

Probably  the  heaviest  buyer  in  this  section  of  the  country,  not  only  in  the 
county  but  extending  beyond  its  borders  in  many  directions,  is  Mr.  Dodson  of 
Stanwood.  The  amount  of  the  sales  in  that  town  and  shipments  from  the  station 
is  far  beyond  the  opinion  of  the  public. 

Mofiit  Bros,  of  Red  Oak  are  specialists  in  the  fitting  of  fine  teams  and  make 
this  their  chief  business  in  this  phase  of  farm  work. 

And  finally  we  should  not  forget  the  old  running  horse  of  Caleb  Jones,  "Old 
Iowa,"  when  he  and  his  partner  in  the  racing  business  thirty-five  years  ago  staked 
their  money  on  the  races  and  made  it  interesting  for  the  men  who  beat  them. 

Land  values  since  1880  have  so  risen  that  the  time  has  come  when  compari- 
sons can  be  made  with  dif&ulty.  It  sold  then  for  an  average  of  $35  per  acre. 
The  highest  sale  in  this  county  to  date  is  a  quarter  section  at  $225  per  acre  and  the 
most  recent  sale  when  this  is  written  at  $215  per  acre,  a  sale  amounting  in  round 
numbers  to  close  to  $60,000.  Some  contrast  to  the  sale  referred  to  in  the  early 
history  of  Tipton,  where  the  natives  were  astonished  because  a  sale  of  $2,000 
was  made — all  in  cash.^^^ 

Cedar  County  at  the  date  of  this  work  has  seventeen  banks  in  the  ten  towns 
of  the  county  that  support  banks.  Each  one  of  those  banks  has  a  special  history 
which  can  in  some  measure  be  drawn  from  its  reports  or  statements,  but  which 
is  not  complete  in  that  form.  No  one  not  familiar  with  the  institutions  can 
make  its  history,  hence  the  major  part  of  what  is  found  in  this  chapter  comes 
from  the  ofiicials  of  these  institutions  or  from  their  co-operation  in  securing  the 
data  used. 


The  Durant  Savings  Bank  was  organized  in  1889,  Sq>tember  tbe  second,  widi 
a  capital  of  thirty  thousand  dollars.  Its  growth  has  been  cptite  remarkable  and 
from  a  recent  statement  tiie  coital  is  given  as  fifty  thousand  dcrflars,  deposits  as 
five  hundred  and  sixty  thousand,  with  surplus  and  undivided  profits  as  fifty 
tiiousand.  From  a  statement  issued  in  1909  the  information  that  is  desirable 
for  all  those  patrcmizing  banks  is  set  forth  in  the  fc^owing:  The  mortgage 
loans  exceeded  the  large  sum  of  three  hundred  and  nineteen  thousand  dollars 
and  this  was  secured  by  first  mortgages  on  farm  lands  and  some  on  town  prop- 
erty not  to  exceed  fifty  per  cent  of  its  value.  Ccdlateral  loans  are  defined  as 
those  secured  by  bonds,  stocks  and  approved  personal  security,  duly  transferred 
to  the  banks  as  collateral  on  which  the  sum  of  seventy-seven  thousand  dollars 
was  loaned.  Bills  receivable  amounted  to  more  than  one  and  seventy-si^c  thou- 
sand and  these  are  the  notes  of  solvent  farmers  and  business  men  with  one  or 
more  signatures.  The  bank  declares  that  it  is  against  its  rule  to  allow  overdrafts, 
but  in  cases  where  they  are  secured  they  try  to  accommodate  their  patrons. 
Their  real  estate  holdings  consist  of  the  banking  house  and  farm  lands  valued 
at  sixteen  thousand  dollars.  At  the  time  of  this  report  the  cash  available 
amounted  to  something  above  forty-six  thousand.  The  total  assets  amounted 
then  to  the  sum  of  six  hundred  and  forty  thousand  d(^rs.  The  capital  stock 
is  owned  by  forty-five  stockhcdders,  and  it  is  reported  that  this  bank  did  at  one 
time  declare  a  dividend  of  fifty  per  cent.  Its  dividend  now  is  r^^arly  declared 
at  six  per  cent  semi-annually. 

A  National  bank  is  considered  sound  if  its  surplus  is  twenty  per  cent  of  its 
capital  stock.  The  surplus  and  profits  of  this  bank  amount  to  about  one  hundred 
per  cent  of  its  capital.  Surplus  is  that  portion  set  aside  as  a  saf^[uard  and 
comes  from  the  net  profits. 

The  deposits  of  the  bank  at  the  present  time  amount  to  about  five  hundred 
and  sixty  thousand  dollars,  belonging  to  over  twelve  hundred  individuals,  cor- 
porations and  business  firms. 

It  is  a  sound  business  principle  that  the  public  should  know  how  the  financial 
house  with  which  it  deals  stands,  and  for  this  reason  the  officials  of  this  bank 
have  published  in  detail  this  report  at  certain  specified  times.  The  names  of  its 
officers  and  directors  are  the  following: 

Wm.  Wulf,  President;  Hy.  Gruemmer,  Vice  President;  F.  C.  Langfeldt, 
Cashier;  J.  H.  Meyhaus,  Assistant  Cashier.  The  additional  directors,  Cbas. 
Diehn,  O.  W.  Schiele,  F.  W.  Schiele,  A.  Bemick,  Hy.  Paulsen.  Four  of  these 
are  retired,  three  are  farmers,  and  one  is  a  physician.^®  ^ 

In  August,  1903,  the  Farmers'  and  Merchants'  Savings  Bank  of  Durant  was 
organized  with  a  capital  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars.  Theo.  Sindt  was  the 
president;  R.  Tagge,  vice  president,  and  W.  H.  Crecilius,  cashier.  These  stiB 
hold  their  respective  offices.  Deposits  now  in  this  bank  amount  to  two  hundred 
and  forty  thousand,  surplus  and  undivided  profits  seven  thousand  five  hundred 
The  bank  has  paid  dividends  since  the  seccmd  year  of  its  organization.  There 
is  no  aim  beyond  a  conservative  business.^®* 

In  1899  ^  number  of  business  men  and  farmers,  assisted  by  D.  H.  Sndce  of 
Durant  and  Wm.  Bierkamp,  Jr.,  cashier  then  of  the  Bennett  bank»  organized  the 
Savings  Bank  of  Lowden.    It  has  a  capital  stock  of  twenty-five  thousand  and 


at  the  present  time  assets  of  two  hundred  and  seventy-five  tiiousand  dollars. 
The  out-of-town  parties  have  since  sold  their  interests  and  it  is  now  owned  by 
the  Lowden  people.  The  present  directors  and  officers  are:  Chas.  Heiner, 
president;  H.  F.  Kemmann,  vice-president;  H.  O.  Sander,  second  vice-president; 
Dr.  H.  A.  Runkle,  H.  Hinrichs,  Albert  Petersen,  H.  Twachtman,  A.  H.  Licht, 
and  H.  H.  Petersen.  The  latter  has  been  the  cashier  from  the  beginning  of  its 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Tipton  succeeded  the  private  bank  of  Charles 
Hammond.  It  began  business  as  a  National  Bank  June  g,  1883,  under  the  man- 
agement of  Herbert  Hammond  and  his  associates.  B.  J.  Rodgers,  H.  G.  Coe, 
now  of  Clarence,  W.  W.  Aldrich,  for  many  years  proprietor  of  the  Border  Lawn 
stock  farm;  Wm.  H.  Cobb,  a  merchant  of  Tipton ;  H.  L.  Dean,  interested  in  many 
lines  of  business ;  W.  T.  Rigby,  of  Red  Oak ;  and  Hem.  Alex.  Moffit,  a  pioneer  of 
Linn,  constituted  the  first  board  of  directors,  with  Herbert  Hammcmd,  the  organ- 
izer. H.  L.  Dean  became  the  president  of  the  bank  in  1888,  serving  in  this  posi- 
tion until  1891,  when  J.  H.  Coutts  succeeded  him.  At  the  same  time  W.  J. 
Moore  was  selected  to  succeed  C.  W.  Hawley  as  cashier. 

June  3,  1903,  the  charter  of  the  bank  expired. 

Immediately  following  the  expiration  of  the  First  National  Bank  charter,  or 
in  the  spring  of  the  same  year  in  order  that  it  might  succeed  the  first  one,  the 
4th  of  April  of  1903  the  City  National  was  organized.  It  was  chartered  May  i, 
1903,  commencing  business  June  3  of  the  same  year.  The  incorporators  were 
J.  H.  Coutts,  Geo.  E.  Beatty,  F.  D.  Wingert,  Henry  Britcher,  and  W.  J.  Moore, 
the  officers  being  J.  H.  Coutts,  president ;  W.  W»  Aldrich,  vice-president ;  W.  J. 
Moore,  cashier.  On  January  4,  1904,  the  president  was  stricken  without  warning 
while  away  from  his  home,  leaving  his  office  vacant.  In  April  the  same  year 
the  vice-president,  W.  W.  Aldrich,  also  died,  and  these  two  vacancies  were  filled 
by  the  election  of  W.  J.  Moore  as  president,  who  still  retains  this  office;  F,  D. 
Wingert  as  vice-president,  and  Paul  Heald  as  cashier.  The  first  officers  are  as 
above  at  the  present  time,  but  Chas.  Swartzlender  has  succeeded  Paul  Heald  as 
cashier,  with  F.  J.  Beatty  as  assistant  cashier. 

The  bank  to-day,  according  to  statement  for  June  30,  1910,  has  a  capital  of 
$50,000,  surplus  and  prc^ts  of  $58,000,  deposits  of  about  $500,000,  red  estate 
and  fixtures  valued  at  $13,000. 

The  directors  in  addition  to  the  officers  mentioned  include  W.  B.  Reeder,  W. 
G.  W.  Geiger,  Geo.  E.  Beatty,  J.  P.  Matthews."* 

The  earliest  banker  to  conduct  any  business  in  this  county  that  may  be  con- 
sidered in  that  connection  was  Judge  W.  H.  Tuthill,  whose  life  and  that  of  the 
affairs  of  Tipton  are  pretty  well  linked  together.  In  1850  he  began  doing  an 
exchange  business,  some  collecting,  and  made  loans  where  the  party  borrowing 
did  not  even  need  to  give  a  note  in  exchange.  On  the  old  book  at  the  Cedar 
County  Bank  there  is  no  record  of  bills  receivable.  He  kept  an  account  in  some 
form  of  the  money  lent  and  charged  one  per  cent  a  month  for  its  use,  a  very 
moderate  rate  if  cme  examines  the  rate  paid  by  Stq>hen  Toney  in  the  first  instru- 
ment on  record  in  the  office  of  the  County  Recorder,  where  $262  are  paid  at  tiie 
end  of  twelve  months  when  the  borrower  got  but  $200  from  Samuel  P.  Hig- 


For  something  like  twenty  years  this  method  of  banking  was  carried  on  t^ 
the  proprietor  of  this  first  individual,  who  used  no  safe  in  his  business,  believing, 
like  some  of  the  present  day,  that  you  should  not  advertise  the  place  of  keeping 
your  money. 

However,  in  1879,  this  was  after  the  West  Branch  State  Bank  had  been  organ- 
ized, the  Judge  headed  a  movement  to  incorporate  a  bank  to  be  called  the  Cedar 
County  Bank.  On  August  6  of  that  year  the  institution  was  ordered  or  coo- 
structed  in  tiie  office  of  J.  N.  Neiman  with  the  subscribers  for  stock  as  below: 
Wm.  H.  Tuthill,  Moreau  Carroll,  Moses  Bunker,  H.  W.  Bailey,  Wm.  Gihnore, 
Perrien  Dean,  John  W.  Casad,  Henry  Sherwood,  J.  W.  Reeder,  Henry  Wakcr, 
J.  C.  Reichert,  Watson  Huber,  John  N.  Neiman,  P.  Wallace,  J.  H.  Rdchert, 
Samuel  Yule,  Wm.  Coutts,  C.  G.  Wright,  John  Ferguson,  Longley  and  Pect, 
John  S.  Lichtenwalter,  Alex.  Spear,  G.  W.  Geller,  C  S.  Neiman,  Whan  and 
Adams,  H.  W.  Fields,  Henry  Fulwider,  Chas.  Kelley. 

The  coital  stock  was  to  be  fifty  thousand  debars,  which  was  not  fully  paid 
up  until  1884.  The  affairs  at  first  were  to  be  managed  by  the  president,  vice- 
president  and  nine  directors.  October  5,  1879,  the  bank  opened  for  business  in 
a  building  purchased  of  Chas.  Hammond  and  which  it  has  since  occupied. 

The  first  officers  were  W.  H.  Tuthill,  president ;  J.  W.  Casad,  vice-president, 
and  Herbert  Hammond,  cashier.  The  first  nine  directors  included  Moses 
Bunker,  Samuel  Yule,  Moreau  Carroll,  J.  H.  Reichert,  Wm.  Gilmore,  Thos.  C 
Prescott,  A.  C.  Reeder,  Perrien  Dean,  and  Wm.  Coutts. 

For  twenty  years  this  bank  continued,  or  until  1899,  when  tiie  present  Cedar 
County  State  Bank  was  organized.  The  presidents  of  this  bank  since  its  orgdn- 
ization  in  1879  have  been:  Wm.  H.  Tuthill,  '79-'8o;  John  W.  Casad,  '8o-'92; 
Wm.  Dean,  '92  to  1904 ;  C.  M.  Cook,  i904-'b7 ;  M.  H.  Miller,  1907,  and  he  con- 
tinues in  office.  The  vice-presidents  during  this  time  have  been  J.  W.  Casad, 
Wm.  Gilmore,  T.  C.  Prescott,  J.  H.  Reichert,  and  Wm.  T.  Gilmore,  the  present 
vice-president  since  1903. 

Herbert  was  cashier  until  January  i,  1880;  Moreau  Carroll,  1880-84,  when  he 
was  succeeded  by  the  present  cashier,  S.  G.  Frink,  he  having  served  this  bank  con- 
tinuously for  almost  twenty-six  years,  probably  longer  than  any  one  in  that 
position  in  tiie  county.  In  1903  Miss  Enmia  G.  Graybill  was  elected  assistant 
cashier.  In  July,  1909,  a  savings  department  was  added  to  the  other  business 
of  the  bank. 

There  are  now  eleven  directors  instead  of  nine,  as  at  first  in  the  history  of 
this  bank.    They  are  listed  here: 

John  W.  and  A.  C.  Reeder,  T.  A.  Spear,  Montgomery  Frascur,  Paul  H. 
Downing,  M,  H.  Miller,  John  T.  Moffit,  W.  R.  Fields,  S.  G.  Frink,  H.  W. 
Reichert,  and  W.  T.  Gihnore 

The  last  statement  gives  the  capital  as  $50,000,  surplus  $35,000,  deposits 
$400,000,  and  value  of  building  and  fixtures  $9,000.^^' 

The  Farmers'  and  Merchants'  Savings  of  Tipton  was  organized  in  May,  1905* 
with  J.  C.  France  as  president;  F.  H.  Milligan,  vice-president;  S.  A.  Jennings, 

The  directors  in  the  beginning  were  P.  R.  Pine,  E.  A.  Marks,  F.  H.  Milligan, 
P.  H.  Downing,  J.  E.  Britcher,  P.  VanLeshout,  J.  C.  France,  and  A.  C.  Lauschcr. 


t    »:.    * 

':  vv 

';   ( 







7  t«# 



The  first  capital  was  fixed  at  fifteen  thousand  dollars.  At  that  time  the 
bank  was  located  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  and  further  to  the  west  of  the 
business  section.  So(hi  after  its  organization  it  was  moved  to  its  present  loca- 
tion and  its  present  capital  is  $30,000.  Its  president,  W.  W.  Little;  vice-presi- 
dent, F.  H.  Milligan ;  cashier,  D.  L.  Diehl.  In  addition  to  its  officers  the  direc- 
tors are  J.  C.  France,  A.  C.  Lauscher,  Geo.  H.  Escher,  Fred.  L.  Reeder,  Henry 
Hect  and  L.  J.  Rowell.  The  deposits  from  the  last  statement  are  about  $110,000, 
value  of  real  and  personal  property  $13,000,  surplus  $1,500. ^®® 

The  First  Naticmal  Bank  of  Clarence  was  organized  in  1905.  It  is  the  out- 
growth of  one  of  the  oldest  banks  in  the  county,  having  been  established  in  1869 
by  brown  Brothers,  when  it  occupied  a  lot  where  the  jewelry  store  of  J.  L. 
Escher  is  located.  In  August  of  the  following  year,  1870,  Bent  and  Cottrell 
purchased  the  business.  It  was  about  this  time  that  W.  H.  Tuthill  commenced 
a  banking  business  in  Tipton,  but  made  all  his  transactions  wherever  he  hap- 
pened to  be,  carrying  the  money  around  in  his  pocket,  having  no  office.  The 
next  bank  to  organize  was  the  Helmer  and  Gortner  of  Mechanicsville. 

Bent  and  Cottrell  continued  the  business  until  1879,  when  Peter  Bent  retired. 
After  that  W.  D.  G.  Cottrell  was  the  sole  proprietor  until  the  reorganization, 
when  he  became  the  first  president.  The  C24>ital  was  then  fixed  at  $30,000, 
divided  amoi^  thirty-seven  stockholders.  The  first  officers  in  addition  to  those 
mentioned  were:  Cashier,  M.  B.  Cottrell;  Directors,  George  E.  Smith,  C.  E. 
Read,  A.  Seaman,  S.  B.  Stonerook,  Sr.,  F.  B.  Riggs,  W.  D.  G.  and  M.  B. 

The  officers  at  the  present  time  are:  President,  ,Ml  B.  Cottrell;  Vice-Presi- 
dent, C.  E.  Read ;  Cashier,  R.  O.  Hoyer. 

From  the  last  statement  of  the  bank  the  following  figures  are  taken:  De- 
posits atxnit  $135,000,  capital  $30,000,  surplus  $6/X)0,  value  of  building  and  fix- 
ture, $7,000.  In  December,  1909,  a  comparative  statement  was  made  that  shows 
its  progress.  It  is  appended.  May  16,  1905,  at  the  time  of  the  organization  the 
total  resources  were  approximately  $104,000;  December  16  of  the  same  year, 
$139,000;  one  year  later  and  annually  thereafter  until  1909  the  record  is  as  fol- 
kms :    $167,000,  $172,000,  $208,000,  $249,060.^^^ 

The  Clarence  Savings  Bank  was  organized  in  1894  with  D.  Elijah  as  presi- 
dent; Fred  Hecht,  vice-president,  and  D.  L.  Didil,  cashier.  The  capital  was 
$25,000.  The  first  board  of  directors,  H.  G.  Coe,  A.  C.  Cartwright,  John  Bau- 
msm,  Wm.  McNeil  and  the  dficers.  At  present  the  bank  has  the  same  crfficers 
with  tiie  exception  of  cashier,  Ingram  Bixler  having  succeeded  D.  L.  Diehl,  who 
became  cashier  of  the  Farmers'  and  Merchants'  Savings  Bank  of  Tipton,  P.  T. 
Mitchell  is  assistant  cashier  and  one  of  the  directors.  Other  directors  at  the 
present  time  are  C.  Peterson,  Wm.  Thomas,  and  Ed.  Cosgriff,  the  first  two  offi- 
cers, and  H.  G.  C6e."« 

The  coital  remains  the  same,  the  undivided  profits  given  on  the  last  state- 
ment being  $28,000.  Deposits  at  this  date  $212,000.  Real  estate  and  fixtures 

In  1897  the  Bennett  Savings  Bank  was  incorporated  with  a  capital  of  $2,000 
and  a  board  of  directors  composed  of  D.  H.  Snoke,  O.  W.  Schiele,  P.  F.  Broader, 
Wm.  Biericamp,  Sn,  Aug.  Hinrichs,  Aug.  Dresselhaus,  John  Bannick.    The 


officers  at  organization  were  Frank  Haller,  president;  D.  H.  Snc^e  and  Aug. 
Dresselhaus,  vice-presidents;  Wm.  Bierkamp,  Jr.,  cashier. 

The  coital  of  the  bank  in  1910  is  $90,000,  with  a  surplus  and  undivided 
prc^ts  of  $8,000.  It  owns  its  building,  valued  at  $8,000,  and  tiie  deposits  reach 
the  sum  of  $270,000.  Its  present  dficers  are:  Aug.  Hinrichs,  president;  Jdm 
Bannick,  vice-president ;  Wm.  Bierkamp,  vice-president ;  E.  P.  Wingcrt,  cashier. 
In  addition  to  the  officers  the  directors  are  H.  W.  Franco,  R.  Roberdec,  G.  W. 
Montz,  Fred  Schluter,  and  P.  L.  Ayres."* 

The  Sunbury  Savings  Bank  began  business  in  1901,  having  a  czpital  then 
of  $15,000.  J.  H.  Meyhaus  is  the  president;  Wm.  Miller,  vice-president;  O.  V. 
Meyhaus,  cashier.    Its  deposits  are  $200,000  and  surplus  $6^000. 

The  Savings  Bank  of  Downey  has  a  capital  of  $15,000,  surplus  of  $1,500, 
and  deposits  of  $90,000.  It  was  organized  in  1902.  The  officers  are  Wilson 
Norris,  president;  R.  W.  Hinkhouse,  vice-president;  W.  A.  Cameron,  cashier; 
E.  L.  Cornwall,  assistant  cashier.^*® 

One  of  the  oldest  banks  in  the  county,  the  West  Branch  State  Bank,  began 
to  do  business  in  1875  with  a  capital  of  $25,000,  and  under  the  name  then  of 
the  ''West  Branch  Bank."  The  present  name  was  applied  at  reorganization  in 
1895.  Joseph  Steer  was  the  first  president;  Alex.  H.  Graham,  vice-president, 
and  J.  C.  Chambers,  cashier.  After  one  year  of  business  the  capital  was  in- 
creased to  $50,000,  as  it  is  today,  with  a  suqdus  now  of  $25,000.  At  reorgani- 
zation John  Pearson  was  chosen  vice-president  and  now  holds  the  office  of  presi- 
dent. T.-  Coggeshall  was  the  president  following  Mr.  Steer,  and  J.  E.  Muers, 

In  the  last  twelve  years  the  bank  has  more  than  doubled  its  assets  and  capital. 
The  other  officers  in  addition  to  Mr.  Pearson  are:  J.  L,  Crozer,  vice-president; 
J.  F.  Adair,  cashier,  and  A.  R.  Cavin,  assistant  cashier. 

This  bank  possesses  an  interesting  old  safe  purchased  from  the  prize  exhibi- 
tion at  the  centennial  of  i876.^*^ 

In  the  fall  of  1892  J.  H.  Coutts  and  M.  L.  Simmons  started  a  bank  under 
the  name  of  the  J.  H.  Coutts  Bank,  with  J.  H.  Coutts  as  president  and  M.  L. 
Simmons,  cashier.  This  bank  continued  in  business  under  the  same  manage- 
ment until  November,  1900,  when  the  bank  was  incorporated  under  tiie  name  of 
Stanwood  Savings  Bank  with  a  capital  of  $20,000.  The  officers  were  J.  H. 
Coutts,  president;  M.  L.  Simmons,  cashier,  and  C.  H.  Haesemeyer,  assistant 
cashier.  The  bank  continued  under  this  management  until  the  death  of  Mr. 
Coutts  in  the  winter  of  1903,  when  M.  L.  Simmons  was  elected  president;  F.  R. 
McGellan,  vice-president ;  C.  H.  Haesemeyer,  cashier.  Mr.  Simmons  died  Sep- 
tember, igoi/,  and  Mr.  F.  R.  McQellan  was  elected  present  and  Mr.  C  L 
Rigby,  vice-president.  The  bank  was  thus  conducted  until  October,  1909,  when 
it  was  consolidated  with  the  Citizens'  Bank,  which  organized  in  Stanwood,  Sep- 
tember, 1903.  The  officers  were  Thomas  Alexander,  president;  H.  G.  Coc, 
vice-president;  Otto  Evers,  cashier.  Mr.  Alexander  served  as  president  until 
1905.  At  this  time  James  J.  Spear  was  elected  president  and  M.  M.  Davidson, 
vice-president,  who  served  in  that  capacity  until  the  consolidation. 

The  Union  Savings  Bank  incorporated  with  a  capital  of  $30,000,  has  a  sur- 
plus and  profits  of  $10,000  and  deposits  of  $200,000.    The  officers  are  C.  L. 


Rigby,  president;  Otto  Evcrs  and  Jas.  J.   Spear,  vice-presidents,  and  C.  H. 
Haesemeyer,  cashier. 

The  directors  now  are  C.  E.  Hoyman,  C.  C.  Smith,  W.  A.  Jackson,  C.  L. 
Righy,  Harry  Miller,  W.  A.  Findlay,  M.  H.  Davidson,  Otto  Evers,  James  J. 

The  West  Branch  Savings  Bank  was  organized  in  1898,  capital  $20,000. 
Opened  for  business  July  of  that  year.  First  officers  were  J.  C.  Crew,  presi- 
dent ;  N.  H.  Crook,  vice-president ;  P.  V.  N.  Myers,  cashier.  The  first  directors 
were  N.  H.  Crook,  Jos.  Albin,  J.  C.  Crew,  J.  T.  Emmons,  P.  J.  Thomas,  and 
C.  H.  Hathaway  and  L.  J.  Leech. 

In  January,  1899,  J-  E.  Michener  succeeded  P.  J.  Thomas  as  director,  and 
was  also  elected  president,  J.  T.  Emmons  being  made  vice-president.  April  18, 
1899,  V.  S.  McKarahan  was  elected  to  fill  the  office  of  director  to  complete  the 
unexpired  term  of  J.  C.  Crew,  who  had  resigned.  In  March,  1901,  W.  H.  Brown 
succeeded  J.  T.  Emmons  as  director,  C.  H.  Hathaway  being  elected  vice-presi- 
dent. At  the  same  time  J.  E.  Michener  resigned  as  president.  E.  L.  Hdlings- 
worth  was  elected  a  director  about  the  same  time.  In  January  of  1902  C.  H. 
Hathaway  was  elected  president;  L.  J.  Leech,  vice-president.  In  May  of  1902 
O.  C.  Pennock  succeeded  J.  E.  Michener  as  a  director,  and  in  January  of  the 
next  year  became  president,  in  which  office  he  has  served  ever  since.  In- 
January,  1903,  E.  McConnell  was  elected  on  the  board  and  served  until  1910, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  Jens  Thompson. 

The  officers  of  the  bank  now  are  O.  C.  Pennock,  president;  L.  J.  Leech, 
vice-president;  and  P.  V.  N.  Myers,  cashier.  The  directors  are  O.  C.  Pennock, 
L.  J.  Leech,  W.  H.  Brown,  V.  S.  McKarahan,  N.  H.  Crodc,  E.  L.  Hollings- 
worth,  Jens  Thompson.  In  1908  the  bank  built  their  present  building.  The 
capita]  of  the  bank  is  still  $20/X)o;  the  surplus  $4,000;  the  total  assets  of  the 
bank  being  about  $135,000.  The  bank  has  experienced  a  steady  growth,  has 
paid  regular  dividends,  and  looks  forward  to  a  prosperous  future.^** 

The  articles  of  incorporation  of  the  Mechanicsville  Savings  Bank  were  ac- 
knowledged on  August  5,  1903.  The  first  dficers,  D.  H.  Snoke,  president;  W. 
C  Page,  vice-president,  and  Emil  Webbles,  cashier,  the  latter  remaining  in  office 
until  the  present  year.  The  present  crfficers  of  this  bank  are  H.  P.  StofFel,  presi- 
dent; A.  T.  Spitler,  vice-president;  O.  M.  Bundy,  cashier,  and  H.  S.  Pierce, 
assistant.  The  average  deposits  run  about  $425,000.  The  bank  owns  its  build- 
ing, which  was  erected  in  1904  at  a  cost  of  $10,000.  The  capital  stock  is  given 
as  $2$fioo,  with  a  surplus  of  about  $12,000. 

The  directors  at  the  present  time  include  Adam  Krumroy,  John  V.  Kerwin, 
Geo.  W.  Fall,  the  president  and  vice-president,  John  Jackson,  J.  H.  Onstott, 
C.  J.  Lynch  and  S.  A.  Wilson.^** 

The  Mechanicsville  bank  of  Helmer  and  Gortner  was  organized  as  early  as 
1874,  but  not  incorporated  until  1902.  Its  present  officers  are  Lines  Bennett, 
president;  H.  E.  Gibeaut,  cashier,  and  M.  G.  Gortner,  assistant  cashier.  Its 
present  coital  is  forty  thousand,  and  surplus  twelve  thousand  dollars.  The 
usual  banking  business  is  conducted  and  in  addition  the  bank  rents  boxes  in  a 
steel  fire  and  burglar  proof  vault.  Offers  to  furnish  its  friends  credit  and  in- 
formation in  every  way  that  it  can  command.^*' 


The  total  deposits  in  Cedar  County  banks  on  June  30  were  $4,150,223.38; 
the  loans  were  $4,233,195.58,  and  the  total  cash  on  hand  or  on  deposit  with 
other  banks  was  $637,321.12. 

Below  is  presented  in  tabular  form  items  from  each  bank  report  showing 
loans,  deposits  and  cash  resources,  the  last  item  being  the  total  cash  actually 
held  by  the  bank  or  on  deposit  with  other  banks  and  subject  to  be  drawn  at 
sight.  The  last  previous  statement  was  called  in  February  last,  at  which  time 
the  deposits  of  practically  all  the  banks  touched  the  high  point  in  their  history. 
Since  then  there  has  been  a  small  shrinkage  in  deposits  while  loans  have  in- 
creased. This  accounts  for  the  fact  that  ten  of  the  banks  show  by  their  state- 
ments that  they  have  borrowed  funds  to  accommodate  their  customers,  the  total 
amount  for  the  ten  being  $170,643.94. 

The  Durant  Savings  leads  the  banks  of  the  county  in  point  of  loans  and 
deposits,  having  nearly  $ioo/xx>  more  than  its  nearest  competitor.  The  Helmer 
&  Gortner  State  of  Mechanicsville  makes  the  strongest  showing  in  the  matter 
of  cash  reserve,  having  in  cash  in  its  vaults  and  on  deposit  with  other  banks, 
more  than  twenty-two  per  cent  of  its  total  deposits.  The  City  National  of  Tip- 
ton and  the  Qarence  Savings  are  close  seconds  in  this  respect. 

The  condition  of  the  Cedar  County  banks  represents  pretty  closely  the  condi- 
tion of  banks  throughout  the  Mississippi  valley.  There  has  been  an  unprece- 
dented demand  for  loans  tiiis  year  and  it  has  resulted  in  a  general  stiffening  of 
the  rates.  A  prominent  banking  authority  ascribes  the  cause  of  the  present 
condition  to  speculation  in  lands  and  extravagant  expenditures  by  nearly  all 
classes  of  people. 

Loans.  Deposits.      Cash  Reserve. 

Bennett  Savings  $261,614.71  $269442.36         $37»668.3S 

Durant  Savings 586,029.23  549»03447  46,712.32 

F.  &  M.  Savings,  Durant 223,874.98  243,641.74  39»i04-3S 

Union  Savings,  Stanwood 188,896.21  182,388.87  28,316.28 

H.  &  G.  State,  Mechanicsville 322,844.75  372422.25  81,976.88 

Mechanicsville  Savings 337^55-^7  360410.71  45,712.32 

Qarence  Savmgs   212,718.14  21248742  44344.01 

First  National,  Clarence I79»304  43  134.004.78  19,951^ 

Citizens'  Savings,  West  Branch..      100,657.67  106,900.99  ii,i47S3 

West  Branch  State 224,820.37  189,396.01  35,886.84 

City  NaticMial,  Tipton 483,670.93  467,349-74  98,S93S6 

Downey  Savings .' .       89,361.36  94,996.63  16,997.55 

F.  &  M.  Savings,  Tipton 150,678.63  144,956.00  27,784.08 

Cedar  County  State,  Tipton 474,255.71  409,940.30  43,990-88 

Lowden  Savings 234,698.77  246,284.71  37,066.01 

Sunbury  Savings 161,914.52  166,566.40  21,568^7 

*•« Totals   $4,233,19558        $4,150,223.38       $637,321.12 

While  the  White  Pigeon  Mutual  Insurance  Company  has  its  headquarters  in 
the  neighboring  town  of  Wilton,  at  the  same  time  the  greater  part  of  its  business 
is  in  this  county  and  the  greater  number  of  its  officers  are  found  in  Cedar.  It  is 
proper  for  that  reason  to  take  it  into  account  in  this  clu4>ter. 



It  was  organized  in  1872,  and  the  form  of  the  old  policy  states  the  particulars 
of  its  business  in  that  it  expresses  in  the  first  part  of  the  constitution  the  reasons 
for  the  agreement  to  form  such  a  company. 

"Whereas,  the  farming  community  of  Muscatine  and  Cedar  Counties  has 
long  felt  the  necessity  for  a  cheaper  and  safer  fire  and  lightning  insurance  than 
that  which  it  now  has;  also  desiring  to  retain  the  large  sum  of  money  which 
has  heretofore  been  taken  from  it  without  adequate  consideration. 

Now,  therefore,  we:  John  B.  Ross,  Thos.  H.  Fishbum,  Peter  Hildebrand, 
S.  W.  Whitmer,  Chas.  F.  Brown,  Amos  Barnard,  Jas.  C.  Walton,  Eli  Ross,  John 
Ayres,  C.  P.  Healy,  Chas.  Crawford,  D.  L.  Wilson,  C.  W.  Derby,  J.  M.  Barn- 
hart,  J.  Piggott,  Wm.  Johnson,  Michael  Whitmer,  L.  C.  Lindsey,  Joseph 
Weaver,  M.  G.  Whitmer,  Eli  Whitmer,  C.  P.  Furst,  Joseph  Witmer,  and  all 
other  persons  who  may  beccmie  members  hereof,  do  hereby  associate  ourselves 
into  a  Fire  and  Lightning  Insurance  Company  to  be  known  by  the  name  of  the 
White  Pigeon  Fire  and  Lightning  Insurance  Company,  and  do  hereby  organize 
by  adopting  the  following  articles  of  association:  The  object  of  the  company 
is  to  insure  buildings  and  personal  property  against  loss  by  fire  or  lightning. 
The  company  is  to  be  perpetual,  except  as  provided  by  article  18,  and  to  assume 
the  rights,  pivileges  and  immunities  as  provided  by  law  for  mutual  fire  insur- 
ance companies." 

Note. — ^Article  18  referred  to  provided  for  the  action  of  the  board  of  direc- 
tors in  the  matter  of  cancellation  of  policies  and  the  authority  was  given  them 
to  direct  the  affairs  of  the  company  according  to  their  judgment  in  this  respect. 

The  crfBcers  of  the  company  are  a  secretary  and  treasurer,  vice-president  and 
president,  and  thirteen  directors.  Thos.  H.  Fishbum  was  the  first  president; 
D.  L.  Wilson,  vice-president ;  C.  P.  Furst,  secretary  and  treasurer. 

This  company  was  to  be  a  mutual  affair  and  could  never  be  changed  to  a 
stock  company.  After  a  loss  has  occurred  and  has  been  adjusted  each  member 
is  to  pay  his  proportion,  that  is  according  to  the  amount  of  insurance  he  carries 
in  the  company.  Of  course  penalties  are  provided  for  one  who  does  not  pay  at 
the  time  he  is  notified. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  company  is  held  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  Octo- 
ber of  each  year.  Directors'  meeting,  second  Wednesday  in  January  and  Sep- 
tember of  each  year,  and  the  executive  committee  of  the  board,  consisting  of 
three  members,  on  the  first  Saturday  in  April,  June,  and  November,  at  ten 
o'clock  a.  m. 

At  the  last  annual  statement  of  the  company  the  following  figures  were 
given:  Amount  of  insurance  in  force  about  $3,000,000;  net  gain  for  1909, 
$64,000;  amount  paid  in  losses  1909,  $7,000;  amount  paid  other  expenses,  $860. 
Average  cost  of  insurance  per  thousand  for  each  year  during  the  past  thirty- 
seven  years,  $1.90. 

When  the  company  was  reorganized  recently  some  changes  were  made  in 
the  constitution.  Protection  will  be  furnished  on  town  property  of  some  de- 
scriptions and  vehicles  will  be  insured,  barring  the  automobile,  churches  and 
school  houses,  and  it  is  provided  that  they  must  be  in  good  repair. 

A  single  risk  cannot  be  greater  than  $4,000.  The  company  limits  itself  in 
responsibility  in  the  case  of  carelessness. 


It  is  provided  that  when  the  insurance  falls  below  the  gross  amount  of 
$100,000  the  company  may  by  agreement  disband  by  notifying  all  the  parties 
interested.  A  resurvey  of  all  property  insured  is  to  be  made  in  1910  and  every 
five  years  thereafter,  as  provided  by  the  by-laws  of  the  company. 

The  present  officers  and  board  of  directors  are  here  given : 

President,  C.  W.  Derby;  vice-president,  John  Severin;  secretary  and  treas- 
urer, H.  Wildasin;  directors,  R.  W.  Hinkhouse,  A.  H.  Klepper,  J.  S.  Hetzler, 
F.  W.  Gray,  Otto  Schiele,  C.  L.  McQellan,  H.  D.  Thierring,  F.  L.  Sheldon, 
]6tin  Bauman,  John  Bannick,  ]chn  G.  Klein,  W.  J.  Leech,  and  J.  C.  Ferguson. 

This  association  is  permitted  by  its  constitution  to  do  business  in  all  of  Cedar 
County  excepting  the  townships  of  Springdale  and  Gower.^^ 

The  Springdale  Fire  Insurance  Association  is  a  mutual  organization.  It 
b^ian  business  in  1871,  was  reorganized,  or  reincorporated  in  1889,  and  again 
in  1909,  so  it  is  up  with  the  present  ccmception  of  such  companies.  As  its  title 
indicates,  it  has  its  headquarters  at  Springdale,  where  its  secretary  resides.  Its 
first  territory  was  west  of  the  river  in  Cedar  County  and  Graham  and  Scott 
townships  in  Johnson  County.  This  territory  has  been  enlarged  and  takes  in 
Cass,  Center  and  Rochester  townships  in  Cedar  County  and  now  includes  Wapsi- 
nonoc  and  Goshen  townships  in  Muscatine  County,  Lino^,  Scott,  Graham, 
Cedar,  Newport,  East  Lucas,  and  Pleasant  Valley  in  Johnscm  County. 

The  policyholders  elect  nine  directors,  three  each  year,  to  manage  the  busi- 
ness. The  directors  elect  the  officers  annually,  namely,  a  president,  vice-presi- 
dent and  secretary-treasurer,  who  constitute  the  executive  committee.  The 
last  named  officer  is  the  business  manager. 

During  the  first  year  Samuel  Macy  was  the  secretary-treasurer  and  there- 
fore the  business  manager;  the  second  year,  G.  H.  Maris;  the  third,  D.  W. 
Smith ;  and  since  that  time  or  for  the  last  thirty-six  }rears  Wm.  Mather  has  held 
this  office.  The  present  board  of  directors  is  composed  of  the  following  named 
gentlemen:  Al.  Pearson,  president;  L.  C.  Greene,  vice-president,  and,  as  men- 
tioned, Wm.  Mather,  secretary-treasurer,  and  in  addition  to  the  officers,  Eb. 
Fogg,  J.  W.  Gray,  W.  Andrews,  A.  N.  Hemmingway,  P.  M.  Schooley,  and 
C.  C.  Hampton. 

The  present  amount  of  risks  represent  $1,580,000,  showing  a  steady  gain 
for  each  year  since  organization.  The  cost  per  one  thousand  of  insurance  for 
the  entire  time  of  thirty-nine  years  is  the  small  sum  of  $58.09.  The  cost  per 
thousand  for  the  past  ten  years  has  been  $23.29,  making  the  cost  per  year  only 
$2,329.  The  expense  of  conducting  the  business  in  secretary-treasurer's  salary 
for  ten  years  has  been  but  $3,032,  and  the  policyholders  get  their  insurance  at 
actual  cost  and  save  for  themselves  many  thousands  of  dollars  paid  in  premiums. 
In  this  state  alone  there  are  one  hundred  and  fifty-three  such  organizations. 
In  1884  a  mutual  Tornado  and  Windstorm  Association  was  organized  in  the 
state  on  a  plan  similar  to  the  above  to  insure  Iowa  property.  The  Springdale 
Association  insures  against  fire  and  lightning.  The  policyholders  have  full  and 
free  invitations  to  attend  its  annual  sessions  on  the  second  Saturday  in  January. 

One  of  the  recent  industries  to  come  to  the  county  was  organized  in  the  fall 
of  1905  to  care  for  the  sweet  com  product  the  following  year.    The  articles  of 


incorporati(Mi  were  not  completed  until  March,  1906.  The  men  concerned  in  the 
business  as  incorporators  were  Chas.  and  Walter  Swartdender,  Wm.  Wisener, 
R.  A.  Peters,  C.  O.  Boling,  R.  P.  Stout,  G.  D.  Heming,  Paul  Heald,  Sam  Block, 
F.  K.  Gregg,  J.  E  Britcher,  W.  W.  Little,  D.  F.  Alcorn,  D.  J.  Lee,  W.  J.  Moore, 
C.  K.  Ross,  Sherman  Yates,  A,  E.  Pierce,  W.  T.  Gilmore,  Romeo  Tracht,  and 
R.  Roberdee,  nearly  all  of  these  men  residents  of  Tipton.  At  that  time  the  di^ 
rectors  were  chosen  from  the  incorporators,  who  selected  Chas.  Swartzlender, 
C.  O.  Boling,  Sherman  Yates,  C.  K.  Ross,  and  D.  F.  Alcorn. 

The  officers  were  Messrs.  Chas.  Swartzlender,  Boling,  Block,  and  Moore. 

This  institution  was  located  near  the  Rock  Island  tracks  for  the  convenience 
of  shipping  and  at  a  point  where  the  interurban  to  be  built  will  probably  enter 
the  city  limits.  The  business  is  that  of  canning  com  exclusively,  and  the  factory 
is  in  operation  only  during  the  canning  season.  The  capital  is  fixed  at  $20,000. 
The  annual  product  is  a  standard  as  high  as  the  market  demands  for  the  season 
and  the  company  endeavors  to  have  an  acreage  sufficient  to  supply  the  output 
contained  in  twenty  to  thirty-five  thousand  cans.  The  officers  of  this  institution 
now  are  W.  J.  Moore,  president;  W.  T.  Gilmore,  vice-president;  Chas.  Swartz- 
lender, treasurer;  B.  R.  McGirr,  secretary.  Messrs.  Peters,  Roberdee,  and 
Ross,  the  president  and  vice-president,  are  the  present  board  of  directors.^^* 

The  telephone  system  has  been  of  gradual  development.  The  first  phones 
mentioned  in  the  county  history  are  referred  to  in  the  topic  of  "County  Organi- 
zation,'' when  under  certain  conditions  the  county  would  use  an  instrument. 
This  was  that  the  company  would  reach  a  certain  point  before  any  pay  would 
be  due.  It  is  said  and  probably  without  any  reason  to  doubt  the  truth  of  the 
matter  that  the  first  toll  service  began  at  West  Branch  eastward.  The  local 
I^ones  formed  the  early  exchange  service.  The  present  organization  began 
from  these  combined.  About  1896  the  organization  of  the  Tipton  exchange 
occurred.  The  Davenport  and  Tipton  line,  as  it  is  known  now,  was  put  into 
operation  in  1902. 

At  the  present  time  there  are  100  miles  of  toll  line  and  approximately  500  of 
rural  lines.  One  thousand  two  hundred  and  sixty-three  phones  are  now  iii 
service.  It  is  estimated  that  about  $9,000  has  been  expended  recently  in  the 
equiiHnent  in  Tipton  alone. 

The  switchboard  is  selected  from  the  best  obtainable  and  there  are  four 
thousand  feet  of  cable.  Copper  line  has  been  substituted  on  much  of  the  line 
for  the  betterment  of  the  service.  The  line  has  exchanges  at  Bennett,  Durant, 
and  New  Liberty,  as  well  as  in  Tipton.  There  are  twelve  outside  toll  stations. 
The  aim  is  to  buy  the  best  material  and  employ  the  best  workmen.  Eight  em- 
ployees are  kept  very  busy  in  Tipton,  the  payrdl  amounting  to  about  four  hun- 
dred dollars  per  month. 

In  this  company  there  are  five  stockholders  with  303  shares  of  stock.  The 
officers  are  H.  R.  Chapman,  president  and  manager.^^^ 

In  1883  the  Iowa  Telephone  Company  proposed  to  place  an  exchange  in  the 
county  and  a  plea  was  then  made  for  a  union  of  all  the  tdephone  interests. 
During  the  fall  of  that  year  the  only  place  left  to  complete  the  connection  of  all 
the  districts  was  Cedar  Bluffs. 


In  1904  there  were  nearly  1,000  miles  of  telephone  and  teleg^raph  in  this 
county  aJone,  according  to  the  taxing  lists.  At  that  time  thirty-three  companies 
were  doing  business  in  this  county. 

The  cement  block  and  stone  industry  of  the  county  has  taken  a  large  growth 
in  recent  years.  Heigel  and  Gihnore  of  Tipton  began  in  1904,  when  they  incor- 
porated. Recently  the  industry  was  started  in  West  Branch  by  A.  C.  Hunter 
and  C.  A.  Macombcr  to  produce  high-grade  building  blocks  and  other  products 
of  like  nature. 

At  Stanwood  a  company  was  recently  organized  to  manufacture  cement 
products  and  it  was  duly  incorporated  under  the  title  of  the  Stanwood  Cement 
and  Tile  Company.  The  company  was  incorporated  for  $4,000  and  the  follow- 
ing board  of  directors  were  appointed:  Chris.  Stoecker,  Geo.  Findlay,  Chas. 
Hoyman,  Jas.  Maley,  A.  D.  Qaney,  Sr.,  C.  L.  Rigby,  and  B.  E.  Burgess.  C  L. 
Rigby  was  elected  president  of  the  company.  The  company  will  manufacture 
cement  tile,  bricks,  building  block,  in  fact  anything  in  the  cement  products. 

The  company  is  composed  of  Stanwood's  leading  business  men  and  prominent 
farmers.  Plans  will  be  b^^  at  once  for  the  erection  of  a  plant  conveniently 
located  and  equipped  with  the  latest  cement  machines.  As  soon  as  the  articles 
of  incorporation  have  been  completed  and  the  legal  part  of  the  company  attended 
to,  they  will  be  ready  for  business.^^^ 

A  new  industry  in  the  county,  which  is  perhaps  the  least  known  as  to  its 
business  extent  and  plans,  was  organized  at  Mechanicsville  in  1904.  This  is  the 
Graham  Nursery  Ccmipany.  J.  M.  Graham  is  the  president  and  the  head  of  the 
business,  spending  much  of  his  time  putting  the  stock  on  the  market  Delia  M. 
Graham  is  the  secretary  of  the  company  and  William  Gibbs  foreman.  At  the 
present  time  the  company  have  forty-five  acres  of  trees  and  produce  300,000  an- 
nually. They  are  capitalized  at  ten  thousand  dollars  and  are  now  doing  a 
wholesale  and  retail  business  in  their  line.  This  is  a  growing  firm  and  its  possi- 
bilities are  large.^^^ 

In  1893  Mr.  Huchendorf  sold  his  mill  at  Pine  Credc  and  in  looking  for  a  new 
site  was  undecided  as  to  the  choice  between  Wilton  and  Durant.  About  that^ 
time  some  of  the  public-spirited  farmers  in  the  vicinity  of  Durant  oflFered  to 
give  some  inducement  toward  the  building  of  a  mill,  which  suggestion  settled 
the  matter  of  doubt  in  the  mind  of  the  builder,  and  Durant  got  the  mill  The 
structure  was  completed  in  1894.  In  1903  the  mill  was  sold  to  Kruger  and 
Nelson  and  four  years  later  M.  E.  Nelson  bought  the  interests  of  his  partner, 
and  the  new  firm  was  called  Nelson  Brothers,  who  now  operate  the  mill  in  the 
manufacture  of  high-grade  flour.  This  is  sold  to  the  trade  of  the  surroimding 
country  in  a  radius  of  twenty  miles  and  is  delivered  by  team  over  diis  distance. 
They  have  furnished  the  county  farm  north  of  Tipton  with  flour  at  various 
times.  Their  exchange  trade  comes  from  as  far  as  thirty  miles  distant,  all  the 
old  mills  of  the  early  trade  now  being  out  of  business.  The  capacity  of  this  mill 
in  full  service  is  seventy  barrels  daily,  and  it  aims  to  turn  out  all  the  products  of 
a  first-class  mill.  Finally  it  may  be  said  that  this  4s  the  only  flour  mill  in  Cedar 
County  and,  to  quote  from  the  Davenport  Democrat,  "an  industry  of  which 
Diuant  and  Cedar  County  may  justly  be  proud."*^* 











Before  Mr.  Kettell  began  the  manufacture  of  brick  on  the  ground  south  of 
the  Masonic  cemetery,  near  the  road  leading  to  Mormon  Hollow,  the  brick  and 
tile  used  in  Cedar  County  had  come  from  factories  in  Illinois.  His  was  one  of 
the  first  ventures  in  Eastern  Iowa. 

The  firm  at  the  beginning  was  Kettell  and  Lambert.  They  put  up  a  kiln, 
molded  the  brick,  burned  and  sold  them  on  this  ground.  Business  being  of  a 
discouraging  nature  they  ceased  to  manufacture  any  for  one  year.  Then  they 
added  tile  machinery  and  continued  the  business.  A  horse-power  machine  with 
a  capacity  of  six  thousand  three-inch  tile  per  day  was  installed.  The  first  year 
30,000  were  sold^  and  the  increase  in  trade  led  to  increase  in  capacity  and^a  new 
engine  and  machine  was  purchased.  Additions  were  made  to  the  yard  until  the 
equipment  was  complete  and  the  output  was  400,000  annually. 

All  this  product  was  distributed  over  the  adjoining  counties,  most  of  it  by 

In  1886  the  tile  factory  was  moved  to  the  present  site  near  the  track.  Th* 
cost  of  moving  was  about  three  thousand  dollars. 

The  brick  in  the  Cedar  County  Bank  building,  Rowell  block,  the  Gty  Hall, 
buildings  at  the  poor  farm,  and  the  school  house  were  made  by  the  Kettell  yard. 

Since  Mr.  E.  Wilson  took  possession  many  improvements  have  been  made 
that  make  the  factory  modem  in  all  its  features.  It  may  run  the  year  round 
since  the  steam  drying  rooms  onay  be  heated  to  the  desired  temperature  at  any 
time  of  year.  There  are  four  kilns  and  s  one  is  usually  burned  at  a  time.  Two 
drying  sheds  of  two  floors,  making  practically  four  of  the  usual  capacity. 
Steam  pipes  carry  the  heat  the  entire  length  of  these  sheds.  The  sheds  are  filled 
and  dried  alternately,  so  that  while  one  is  heating  the  other  is  cooling  ready  to 
be  put  into  the  kiln.  The  burning  is  on  the  same  plan  of  alternately  firing  and 
cooling.  No  heat  is  used  in  the  brick  shed,  that  being  needed  only  in  the  summer 
season.    One  hundred  thousand  three-inch  tile  may  dry  at  one  time. 

There  is  everjrwhere  an  evidence  of  the  economy  of  labor  and  material.  The 
water  is  pumped  on  the  ground  and  carried  in  pipes  to  the  clay  pit  to  be  used  in 
softening  the  hard  earth,  making  it  much  easier  to  handle.  The  clay  must  be 
soaked-at  some  time  before  g^nding  and  the  use  of  the  water  in  the  field  is  no 
waste.  A  dumping  platform  for  the  clay  carts  allows  the  load  to  fall  into  the 
pit  for  the  daily  supply  without  any  handling  by  hands  or  delay. 

The  yard  employs  from  fifteen  to  twenty  men  all  the  time,  and  during  the 
year  1910  burned  78  kilns  of  brick  and  tile.  The  previous  year  54  kilns  were 
burned.  The  output  and  sales  of  1909  amounted  to  $20,000.  The  stock  now  on 
hand,  1910,  is  the  largest  in  the  history  of  the  yard. 

Territory  in  a  radius  of  fifty  miles  is  supplied  in  car  lots.  Contrary  to  the 
custom  in  the  days  of  the  first  factory  established  by  Mr.  Kettell  the  wagon 
trade  is  of  little  consequence. 

The  season  affects  the  trade  very  materially,  it  being  very  difficult  to  tell  what 
the  market  may  be.  The  large  stock  on  hand  may  be  in  demand  or  not  as  the 
seascm  may  be  wet  or  dry. 

Some  time  is  required  when  a  kiln  is  opened  before  the  tile  is  cool  enough  to 
^^naove.   As  an  illustration  of  the  retention  of  the  heat  one  may  mention  that  the 


second  day  after  the  kiln  has  been  opened  bread  may  be  nicely  baked  as  m  the 
old  brick  ovens  of  our  grandfathers.*^* 

The  largest  produce  packing  and  shipping  concern  in  the  county  now  is  reptt- 
sented  by  the  Craven  Company  of  Tipton,  Geo.  F.  Craven,  proprietcM-.  The 
record  of  the  business  since  it  was  established  is  well  shown  in  the  figures  given 
since  its  organization  in  1906,  October  i. 

The  business  conducted  includes  the  handling  of  poultry,  eggs,  butter,  and 
cream.  During  the  packing  season  the  first  fall  and  winter,  1906-07,  about  fif- 
teen hands  were  employed  and  150,000  pounds  of  poultry  shipped  by  local  freight 
(mly,  as  no  car  lots  were  sent  out  the  first  year.  Car  lots  of  ^;gs  were  shipped 
in  the  spring  of  1907  to  the  number  of  eighteen.  In  the  winter  of  1907-08 
twenty-five  men  were  employed  and  200,000  pounds  of  poultry  put  upon  die 
market  in  car  lots.  The  following  spring  during  the  seas(Mi  thirty-four  cars  of 
eggs  were  shipped  from  Tipton.  Repeating  the  experiences  of  the  previous  year 
about  the  same  number  of  men  were  employed  and  260,000  pounds  of  chickens, 
ducks,  and  like  product  shipped  to  the  eastern  market,  much  of  this  going  as  iv 
as  Boston. 

In  the  egg  season  of  1909  the  large  number  of  sixty-four  cars  left  this  plant 
and  the  mark  is  set  this  year  to  seventy-five  cars  of  eggs  alone.  This  number 
will  be  reached  if  the  present  rate  is  continued  through  the  following  mootiis. 
The  past  fall  and  winter  was  not  a  favorable  one  for  packing  so  far  as  the  earij 
part  of  the  year  was  concerned  and  not  so  large  a  shipment  of  poultry  was  put 
up,  although  over  200,000  pounds  was  a  fair  output  for  one  establishment  whea 
a  number  of  other  shippers  from  near-by  cities  are  buying  in  the  vicinity  or  00 
the  borders  of  the  county. 

This  firm  handles  packing  butter  only  and  ships  cream  at  the  rate  of  one 
hundred  ten-gallon  cans  per  wedc. 

One  stops  suddenly  when  he  learns  that  horse  hides  are  sometimes  sold  and 
sent  to  market  along  with  the  ordinary  sheep  skin  and  cow  hide,  yet  it  is  veiy 
reasonable  when  the  shoes  men  wear  are  manufactured  from  the  skin  perhaps 
of  the  favorite  roadster. 

What  once  promised  to  be  a  great  field  of  industry  was  devdoped  in  Sugar 
Creek  township  in  1883.  At  that  time  the  Sugar  Creek  quarries,  on  the  old  Leech 
place,  also  known  as  the  Scott  quarries,  which  furnished  the  rock  years  before 
for  the  Moscow  railway  bridge,  and  which  had  remained  idle  because  of  being 
inaccessible,  were  transformed  into  an  active  fidd  of  operation  by  a  combinatioo 
of  capital  and  business  foresight.  This  was  called  the  United  States  Lime  Com- 
pany, surely  a  big  enough  name  for  any  company  then  and  since  used  in  energetk 
ways  by  firms  of  larger  capital.  Land  had  been  purchased  here,  and  the  Rock  Is- 
land lines  had  put  a  branch  line  into  the  territory  purchased  in  July,  1883,  and 
the  line  was  substantially  built,  it  is  said.  Even  then  there  were  three  large  stone 
kilns  in  operation,  each  capable  of  turning  out  one  hundred  barrels  of  lime  each 
per  day,  and  they  were  running  at  full  blast.  Then  the  place  indicated  progress, 
with  the  great  cooling  and  barreling  houses  and  the  huge  piles  of  wood  for  burn- 
ing the  kilns. 

In  the  fall  of  the  same  year  a  new  company  apparently  was  organized,  called 
the  Sugar  Creek  Lime  Company,  under  the  directing  force  of  Mr.  Lowry,  of 


Rock  Island.  Both  these  companies  had  sc»ne  connection  with  the  Rock  Island 
since  their  paymaster  was  the  pa)rmaster  of  the  railway.  These  companies  put- 
chased  some  three  hundred  acres  of  land  in  the  vicinity,  section  fifteen  of  this 

The  second  company  constructed  ten  large  kilns  and  the  railway  lines  kept 
pace  with  the  movement,  at  one  time  a  hundred  men  being  employed  in  the  con- 
struction of  track  and  bridges^  Part  of  this  track,  long  since  removed,  was  diffi- 
cult of  construction  and  is  said  to  have  cost  very  much  money,  twenty-five  thou- 
sand dollars  per  mile. 

These  kilns  were  eighteen  feet  square  at  the  bottom,  fourteen  at  the  top 
and  thirty-two  feet  high,  and  made  from  solid  masonry  thirty  inches  thick  and 
lined  with  fire  brick  and  filled  with  clay  between  the  brick  and  the  stone,  then 
clamped  on  the  outside  with  iron  hoops  in  the  manner  of  barrds  to  keep  the  kiln 
from  expanding  when  filled  for  burning. 

The  town  of  Lime  Kiln,  or  Lime  City,  or  Munn  on  the  map,  was  laid  out  and 
a  dozen  or  more  buildings  put  up  before  the  trees  were  cut  from  the  street.  Here 
a  store  was  established  by  L.  T.  Munn  &  Co.  and  O.  Howe  opened  a  butcher  shop. 

The  railway  company  made  some  signs  of  going  toward  Tipton  on  the  old 
M.  T.  &  A.  grade,  but  the  future  never  felt  any  security  in  a  line  from  that 

In  July  '88,  the  Sugar  Creek  Company  tried  an  experiment,  one  called  it  "a 
startling  new  dq>arture" — one  of  the  many  wonders  of  that  recent  age.  Instead 
of  burning  wood  to  make  their  lime — because  the  wood  business  was  about  ex- 
hausted— they  began  to  use  petroleum,  the  fire  being  made  of  the  vapor  of  oil, 
steam  and  air  combined.  The  first  kiln  to  try  the  new  way  turned  off  one  hun- 
dred and  forty  barrels  of  lime  in  twenty-four  hours  with  ten  barrels  of  oil.  The 
best  ever  done  with  wood  was  ninety  barrels  to  three  cords  of  wood.  The  lime 
made  by  the  new  process  was  superior  to  the  other  also.  This  method  was  sup- 
posed to  make  the  business  permanent 

This  plant  became  the  very  largest  manufacturing  concern  in  the  county, 
at  one  time  having  a  capital  invested  of  $75,000  in  case  of  the  U.  S.  Co.  and 
$50,000  in  the  Sugar  Creek  Co.  These  twelve  kilns  employed  as  many  as  sixty- 
five  men  and  the  United  States  Company  sold  50,000  barrels  of  lime,  the  other 
company  valuing  its  sales  at  $33,000.  The  industry  ceased  after  a  time  to  be 
profitable,  probably  on  account  of  fuel,  and  the  old  tracks  were  finally  removed.*^* 

Many  great  and  successful  enterprises  have  been  the  result  of  chance.  On 
the  winter  morning  early  in  the  eighties  when  E.  J.  C.  Bealer  went  rabbit  hunt- 
ing in  the  woods  where  the  Cedar  Valley  quarries  are  now  located,  he  little 
dreamed  that  that  region  would  become  the  scene  of  industrial  activity,  and  that 
his  would  be  the  master  hand  to  direct  the  enterprise.  But  an  outcropping  ledge 
of  stone  caught  his  trained  eye  and  told  him  something  of  the  possibilities  buried 
there  in  the  ground  and  unnoted  for  years.  Mr.  Bealer  at  that  time  was  engaged 
in  building  the  railroad  bridge  three  miles  up  the  river  f  rcon  the  present  quarries. 
He  had  been  a  quarryman  and  contractor  for  years  and  experience  told  him  of 
the  immense  value  of  that  ledge  of  stone  in  this  rapidly  developing  section  of  the 
west  The  land  practically  worthless  for  farming  purposes,  was  purchased  for 
a  few  dollars  an  acre,  and  with  limited  capital  but  great  faith  in  the  enterprise. 


Mr.  Bealer  began  the  development  of  these  now  famous  quarries.  The  right  of 
way  to  the  Rock  Island  tracks,  three  miles  north,  was  bought  and  the  railway 
company,  recognizing  the  importance  of  the  project,  laid  the  track.  Since  that 
time  (1884)  many  thoustods  of  car  loads  of  stone  have  been  shipped  irom 
Cedar  Valley.  Vast  sums  of  money  have  been  expended  in  wages  and  improve- 
ments, and  a  reputation  for  the  quarries  established,  which  extends  all  over  the 
northern  Mississippi  Valley  and  far  into  the  .northwest. 

The  stone  of  the  Devonian  age  lies  close  to  the  surface  all  along  the  Cedar 
river,  but  not  all  of  it  is  suitable  for  the  builder's  use.  Much  of  it  contains  lime 
in  such  quantities  as  to  render  it  valueless  save  for  the  lime  kiln,  but  the  stone 
quarried  at  Cedar  Valley  is  of  the  best  quality,  containing  just  the  right  propor- 
tions of  sand  and  lime.  Soft  and  easily  woiiced  when  first  exposed  to  the  ele- 
ments, it  hardens  gradually  and  without  becoming  flinty  acquires  a  durability 
which  makes  it  par  excellence  a  stone  for  constructive  purposes. 

The  quarry  is  a  beehive  of  industry.  Where  a  few  years  ago  was  the  wildest 
and  most  inaccessible  region  in  Cedar  county  now  flourishes  the  greatest  labor 
employing  industry  in  this  section.  Where  the  forest  stood  and  the  wild  fox  d\3g 
his  hole  unscared,  is  now  a  forest  of  derricks,  great  massive  oak  timbers  stand- 
ing 70  and  75  feet  in  air  and  held  in  place  by  miles  of  steel  cables.  Steam  engines 
by  the  dozen,  bolsters,  channellers,  crushers,  bring  to  the  aid  of  human  strength 
the  mighty  forces  of  nature.  Most  of  the  ballasting  and  masonry  work  on  the 
Cedar  Rapids  route,  which  has  given  that  railroad  in  recent  years  one  of  the 
best  roadbeds  in  the  west,  has  been  done  under  contract  with  Mr.  Bealer  with 
Cedar  Valley  stone. 

There  is  almost  no  limit  to  the  size  of  stone  which  can  be  quarried  over  there. 
On  one  occasion  as  a  sort  of  experiment  a  solid  mass  of  stone  165  feet  long  and 
six  feet  square  in  cross  section  was  cut  up  and  turned  over  before  being  broken 
up.  Solomon  obtained  ho  such  stone  as  that  frcmi  the  quarries  of  Zeredathah 
when  he  was  building  the  Temple,  nor  can  the  pyramids  of  Egypt  boast  of  one 
so  large. 

Ever)rthing  at  the  quarry  runs  like  clock  woric.  Under  the  efficient  super- 
vision of  Mr.  M.  Y.  Bealer,  the  division  of  labor  is  perfect  and  all  confusion 
banished.  One  gang  of  men  under  a  foreman  are  constantly  engaged  in 
"stripping"  or  removing  the  earth  and  debris  which  covers  the  rock.  Hydraulic 
power  is  used  to  aid  in  this  work  and  thousands  of  tons  have  been  washed  into 
the  Cedar  river  as  easily  as  hundreds  were  removed  in  the  old  way.  When  the 
rock  has  been  exposed,  the  steam  channellers,  in  charge  of  expert  workmen,  are 
set  at  work  cutting  out  stone  of  desired  thickness,  which  are  then  swung  by  big 
derricks  on  to  the  flat  cars  standing  near  on  the  track.  The  poorer  rock  goes  by 
mule  tramway  to  the  big  crusher,  where  ten  cars  of  railroad  ballast  or  macadam 
for  streets  are  crushed  daily.  In  another  part  of  the  yard  a  force  of  skilled  stone 
cutters  are  at  work  on  material  for  some  special  contract.  A  railroad  engineer 
designs  a  big  arch,  such  as  the  forty-five  foot  structure  erected  by  Mr.  Bealer  for 
the  Rock  Island  near  Vinton  in  '98.  The  plans  and  specifications  are  drawn. 
Blue  prints  are  sent  to  Supt  M.  Y.  Bealer,  and  his  cutters  go  to  work  on  the 
job.  Every  block  of  stone  is  cut  and  numbered  according  to  plan.  They  axe 
then  shipped  to  the  scene  of  erection  where  each  piece  goes  to  its  place  under  the 


•(•      • 

PUiVMc  i.!';;^:^^  . 


eye  of  a  master  mason  with  mathematical  precision.     By  this  plan,  rather  than 
cutting  on  the  scene  of  erection,  a  saving  is  effected  both  in  stone  and  freight. 

Every  precaution  is  taken  for  the  safety  of  the  men  and  accidents  are  com- 
paratively few.  The  great  wire  cables  which  hold  the  derricks  and  are  used  on 
the  hoisting  machines  are  mspected  every  day  and  at  the  first  sign  of  weakness 
are  discarded.  The  quarrymen  are  a  stalwart  lot  of  workmen.  Many  nationali- 
ties are  represented.  Norwegians,  Bohemians,  Irishmen,  Germans,  Swedes  and 
native  Americans  find  employment  here  and  work  side  by  side.  Discipline  among 
the  workmen  is  strict.  There  is  no  smdcing  on  the  job,  for  instance,  and  the  rule 
applies  not  only  to  men  and  foremen,  but  the  superintendent  enforces  it  on 

The  thousands  of  trainloads  of  stone  taken  out  of  these  quarries  have  made 
an  impression  on  the  hillside.  The  bottom  of  the  pit  where  work  is  now  car- 
ried on  is  far  below  the  bed  of  the  river  and  an  engine  is  constantly  at  work 
pumping  out  water  to  enable  work  to  go  on.  Operations  are  of  necessity  con- 
tracted during  the  winter,  but  between  fifty  and  a  hundred  men  are  employed  in 
preparations  for  the  next  busy  season. 

A  large  amount  of  money  has  been  expended  in  improving  this  valuable 
property.  In  addition  to  machine  and  blacksmith  shops,  there  are  37  other  build- 
ings for  various  purposes.  Supt.  Bealer  is  devoted  to  his  work,  and  visitors  in- 
terested in  seeing  the  operations  receive  every  attention.  As  Mr.  Bealer  sees  it, 
there  is  a  great  future  ahead  of  the  Cedar  Valley  quarries.  He  calls  attention 
to  the  fact  that  in  railroad  work  especially,  iron  is  losing  its  grip.  During  floods 
iron  bridges  have  been  swept  away  while  the  stone  ettlverts  stood,  and  the  policy 
of  railroads  now  is  to  erect  stone  work  in  preference  to  iron  wherever  possible. 
This  means  an  increasing  demand  and  consequently  great  development.  As  there 
is  practically  no  limit  to  the  stone  supply  at  Cedar  Valley,  these  conditions  must 
be  pleasing  to  the  owners  and  to  all  dependent  on  the  industry .^^* 

These  quarries  began  to  be  developed  about  twenty-five  years  ago  and  the 
history  of  their  product  is  well  expressed  in  the  foregoing  summary.  It  is  not 
now  as  extensive  in  operation  in  some  respects  as  it  was  in  the  past.  The  de- 
mand is  not  so  great  as  then.  In  order  to  protect  the  quarry  at  this  place  against 
high  water  f rcrni  the  overflow  of  the  Cedar  river,  a  levee  was  built  at  a  cost  of 
$20,000.  Railway  tracks  in  the  quarries  were  so  built  that  the  force  of  gravity 
could  be  employed  to  move  out  the  loaded  cars,  making  it  possible  to  get  along 
without  an  engine.  The  great  machine  called  a  channeller  has  made  a  record 
of  cutting  four  hundred  feet  in  five  hours  and  for  ten  hours  its  record  is  seven 
hundred  fifty  feet  Scnnething  of  the  capacity  of  this  quarry  at  one  time  may  be 
understood  when  the  equipment  is  described:  Four  eighty  horse  power  engines, 
two  forty  horse  power,  and  five  of  fifteen  horse  power,  one  steam  pump,  capacity 
three-quarter  million  gallons  daily,  and  three  pumps  of  a  quarter  million  gallons 
each.  A  large  machine  shop  was  used  to  keep  the  tools  in  repair.  At  one  time 
there  were  fourteen  derricks  in  operation,  ten  of  which  had  steam  hoists  lifting 
from  four  to  twenty  tons  each. 

A  force  as  high  as  one  hundred  men  has  been  employed  here.  They  occupied 
cottages  along  the  river  usually  with  an  allotment  of  land  for  their  use,  as  these 
cottages  belonged  for  the  most  part  to  the  owner.    In  the  full  tide  of  its  pros- 


perity  the  quarry  could  supply  forty-five  cars  of  stone  each  day  and  it  was  often 
at  full  speed  to  supply  this  demand.  Formerly  the  output  consisted  of  bridge 
stone  for  piers  for  which  the  proprietor  contracted  in  their  ccmipleted  form  hav- 
ing force  in  their  construction.  Dressed  dimension  stone  and  crushed  stone  was 
a  staple  product.  The  pit  from  which  this  stone  has  been  taken  is  many  feet 
below  the  level  of  the  river,  more  than  sixty  feet,  it  is  said.  As  the  depth  in- 
creases, the  stone  becomes  of  finer  quality.  Professor  Norton  gave  the  name  of 
Gower  to  the  stage  of  rock  here  exposed,  since  that  was  the  only  name  he  could  ap- 
ply to  this  region  where  the  rock,  he  says,  represents  the  particular  f CMtnation  better 
than  any  other  point  in  Iowa.  The  name  Cedar  Valley  had  been  employed  in 
another  connection.  The  technical  geological  formation  of  any  quarry  of  this 
kind  cannot  be  interesting  to  the  person  who  is  not  familiar  willi  the  terms  in 
that  science.  They  may  be  seen  in  the  map  of  the  deep  well  under  the  topic 
of  the  Tipton  deep  well  which  may  be  found  in  the  index.*'^ 

Other  quarries  of  value  in  this  county  that  belong  in  the  chapter  on  industries 
are  found  at  Cedar  Bluffs  for  the  local  supply,  McLeod's  quarry  in  MassiUon 
township  not  far  from  the  village  by  that  name.  The  itxdc  here  are  pronounced 
picturesque  where  they  form  the  lofty  ledge  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Wapae. 
Wallick's  quarry,  north  of  Cedar  Bluffs,  furnishes  a  certain  supply  for  local 
use.  The  rock  here  was  well  exposed,  being  reached  without  much  effort  in  re- 
moving surface  dirt.  Cary's  quarry,  southwest  of  Tiptcm,  must  be  included  in 
this  class  of  small  development  but  so  far  as  service  is  concerned  equal  to  the 
demand.  On  Rocky  Rtm,  in  Gower  township,  the  Burroughs  quarry  is  found 
where  an  old  pot  kiln  suggests  the  possibilities  for  llie  production  of  lime. 
Frink's  and  also  Hecht's  quarries  in  the  same  section  of  Dayton  township  have 
been  worked  for  the  local  supply.*^® 

The  silver  craze  at  Rochester  and  other  parts  of  the  southern  portion  of  the 
county  was  not  the  only  mineral  find  that  caused  some  excitement  and  curiosity 
as  to  the  future  fortunes  of  the  finders.  Coal,  peat,  and  petroleum  have  each 
had  their  turn  at  discovery,  but  none  of  these  finds  have  ever  been  carried  any 
farther  than  to  remove  the  surface  enough  to  demonstrate  the  impracticability  of 
use.  Coal  was  found  in  Yankee  Run  in  1862  while  digging  a  well ;  it  was  fbund 
again  on  the  Swartzlender  farm  at  a  depth  of  some  180  feet,  during  the  year 
1876.  Yet  in  1902  it  was  still  in  the  minds  of  men  and  when  an  old  shaft  was 
found  and  the  traces  of  the  early  hopes  were  brought  to  the  front  once  more,  the 
search  was  renewed.  Not  coal  now,  but  zinc  and  lead ;  traces  of  these  have  been 
reported  and  doubtless  all  these  appear  in  the  rocks  of  the  county. 

Peat  beds  of  untold  value  were  once  the  talk  of  neighborhoods.  In  1866  a 
man  north  of  Qarence  found  a  bed  fourteen  feet  thick,  and  in  August  of  the 
same  year  a  great  area  of  the  same  material  was  found  in  Gower  township, 
somewhere  in  the  neighborhood  of  section  twenty-two. 

A  Mr.  Risley,  living  near  Mechanicsville,  dug  a  well  about  six  feet  deep  and 
to  his  surprise  he  found  it  stocked  with  petroleum,  or  at  least  there  was  "oil  on 
the  water."  Most  men  who  have  seen  the  wells  of  the  old  slough  pastures  can 
tell  of  the  same  discoveries  many  times  a  year. 



The  first  record  of  any  mode  of  tranq)ortation  other  than  the  methods  of  the 
Indian  is  that  of  a  keel  boat  kept  at  the  Indian  trading  post  established  by  the 
Frenchman  Cote,  or  by  those  whc»n  he  served  as  manager.    This  old  point  of 
transfer  was  located  according  to  story  at  a  point  not  far  above  the  present  site 
of  Rochester,  but  on  the  west  side  of  the  Cedar  river.    This  was  a  favorite 
r^on  for  the  early  settlements  and  must  have  been  a  favorite  region  also  of  the 
Indian,  since  it  was  wooded  and  watered  in  such  a  way  that  it  was  almost  an 
ideal  hunting  ground.    The  boat  mentioned  was  used  to  transfer  skins  which 
were  purchased  by  the  traders  from  the  red  men  and  then  to  bring  up  supplies 
and  articles  for  barter  in  securing  the  Indian  products.    How  long  this  continued 
is  not  a  matter  of  record,  but  the  points  on  the  Mississippi  furnished  an  outlet 
for  the  traders  until  other  and  nearer  posts  developed.    The  first  ferry  was 
located  at  Rochester  and  from  records  given  was  operated  by  George  McCoy, 
afterward  sheriff  of  Cedar  County,  and  whose  name  appears  on  the  first  court 
records  as  now  found  in  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  the  courts  among  the  most  in- 
teresting documents  of  the  county.    This  same  ferry  was  operated  afterwards 
for  many  years  by  Cordis  Hardman,  a  son  of  Col.  Henry  Hardman,  whose  his- 
tory is  forever  linked  with  this  particular  r^on.    The  Rochester  ferry  was  at 
other  times  imder  the  control  of  a  Dr.  Henry  and  John  Dillon.    No  one  now 
living  can  tell  of  these  surroundings  since  they  were  too  young  to  remember. 
We  say  now  living,  because  there  are  some  who  were  then  here  who  are  glad,  at 
this  time^  1910,  to  give  as  full  acounts  of  remembered  events.    At  the  time 
Rochester  was  settled  the  Cedar  was  considered  navigable  and  as  referred  to  in 
the  county  seat  controversy,  this  plan  was  worked  to  its  fullest  capacity.   Steam- 
boats from  the  Mississippi  did  occasionally  come  up  the  river,  and  it  naturally 
gave  the  impression  that  this  might  continue,  since  then  water  and  teaming  were 
the  only  means  of  carrying  gr>ods  to  the  various  points  for  distribution.    The 
first  ferry  at  Cedar  Bluffs  was  established  in  1838.    It  was  called  Washington's 
Ferry.     William  Fraseur  has  said  that  he  helped  to  build  the  first  boat  used  here. 
James  H.  Gower  bou|^t  this  ferry  in  1839,  which  then  belonged  to  Conlogue 
and  GoYe.    About  this  time  a  steamer  belonging  to  the  Mormons  from  Nauvoo, 



III.,  came  to  Gowcr's  Ferry,  afterward  Cedar  Bluffs,  and  purchased  a  large 
quantity  of  grain.  Mr.  Robert  Gower  came  to  this  place  in  1841  and  he  pur- 
chased the  ferry  from  his  brother  James.  A  note  of  the  time  makes  this  state- 
ment: ''The  Red  Cedar  River  is  navigable  for  steam  and  other  boats  at  all 
seasons  of  the  year  when  free  from  ice.  It  possesses  at  this  point  (Cedar 
Bluffs)  superior  advantages  for  damming  and  bridging,  and  the  settlement  in 
this  vicinity  requires  both."  That  reads  in  some  ways  like  a  prophecy,  since  with- 
in the  past  three  years  several  surveys  have  been  made  of  this  point  of  "supe- 
rior advantage  for  damming,"  in  view  of  locating  a  large  power  plant  for  the 
furnishing  of  electric  power  to  surrounding  towns  and  possibly  to  the  several 
interurbans  already  now  in  operation  or  proposed.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  to 
record  the  early  view  of  this  r^on  that  now  seems  destined  to  furnish  a  realiza- 
tion of  this  apparent  prophecy. 

A  construction  train  on  the  Rock  Island  furnished  the  first  railway  trans- 
portation out  of  this  county.  Mr.  Joseph  Weaver  of  Farmington  township 
shipped  six  hundred  bushels  of  wheat  to  Davenport  from  Durant  station  at  that 
time,  1855.  In  the  fall  of  this  year  the  Western  Stage  Cotopsmy  opened  a  route 
f fiom  Durant  to  Tipton,  the  cotmty  seat,  and  continued  it  for  three  months,  for 
which  they  received  five  hundred  dollars  from  the  town.  The  track  of  the  Rode 
Island  was  laid  through  Durant  in  1855  and  was  the  first  c^rated  road  in  the 
county.    This  is  discussed  elsewhere.*^* 

When  the  first  settlers  traveled  over  this  county  their  way  was  marked  bj 
faint  trails  upon  the  higher  land  or  by  some  more  certain  means  in  later  years— 
as  a  furrow  run  with  a  breaking  plow  to  "blaze"  the  prairie  trail.  No  trees  were 
there  to  "blaze"  beyond  scattered  patches.  One  of  that  early  time  tells  of  being 
lost  on  the  prairie  between  Tipton  and  Posten's  Grove  because  of  a  fog  whidi 
prevented  them  seeing  the  poles  put  up  at  points  to  "indicate  the  way.'^* 
Stream  courses  furnished  landmarks,  but  when  men  were  obliged  to 
cross  the  wide  prairie  they  must  trust  to  their  sense  of  observatioQ 
of  stars  or  fixed  heavenly  bodies.  There  were  impassable  swamps  or 
"sloughs,"  as  they  were  called,  that  became  obstacles  to  the  prairie  sdiooner 
almost  equal  to  running  streams,  and  often  more  difficult  to  pass.  Fording  was 
common  when  smaller  streams  intervened  and  ferrying  the  only  means  for 
crossing  the  others.  The  Indian  canoe  was  pressed  into  service  on  occasions 
when  tile  original  owner  served  as  ferryman  at  a  small  price.  One  authority 
states  that  wagons  were  carried  over  streams  of  considerable  size  by  means  of 
the  canoe.  Stock  could  swim  over  and  thus  the  entire  "plant"  be  transported 
after  some  delay  and  not  a  little  danger.  The  freight  wagon  appeared  as  soon 
as  centers  of  supply  became  located  within  reasonable  distance.  Goods  came  by 
river  to  points  along  the  eastern  part  of  our  state,  and  from  distributing  points 
there  wagons  and  ox  teams  began  the  task  of  carrying  goods  to  the  consumer. 
This  was  a  profitaUe  business  in  these  early  times,  and  when  we  complain  about 
freight  rates  we  are  not  to  be  pitied  if  we  consider  the  rates  of  our  grandfathers. 
Early  routes  across  the  county,  both  for  freight  and  passengers,  were  numerous. 

The  veteran  stage  driver  of  this  county  who  lives  today,  well  and  hearty, 
describes  the  route  from  Davenport  to  Iowa  City  in  1849.  When  a  boy  of  six- 
teen he  assisted  his  father  in  transporting  mail  and  passengers  over  the  prairie 


V  - 





r  * 




t  1. 

:  •  i'  V 







T-  A-' 




%  i<r"-'i»^'« 




when  he  says :  "At  that  time  there  was  not  a  tree  f ronn  river  to  river."  Joseph 
Albin,  as  a  boy^  made  the  trip  over  the  line  mentioned  above  when  streams  were 
crossed  by  fording  or  on  the  ice,  when  passengers  were  of  great  variety,  both 
good  and  bad,  and  when  the  stage  carried  valuable  cargoes  of  cash  sent  in  from 
land  sales  and  these  required  a  special  detail  as  guard ;  when  slave  drivers  came 
into  the  state  looking  for  those  who  were  concealed  or  oxicealed  themselves, 
although  regarded  as  having  no  right  to  do  so  under  the  laws  of  the  land.  On 
one  journey — ^and  by  one  journey  we  mean  from  the  river  terminus  to  the  west- 
em  end  of  the  line,  Iowa  City — five  southern  gentlemen  boarded  the  old  Concord 
coach  at  Davenport  to  be  carried  to  the  capital  city.  The  boy  of  sixteen  did  not 
r^;ard  their  company  with  pleasure,  and  after  they  tried  by  various  means  to 
make  him  tell  what  he  knew  he  says :  "I  was  never  so  glad  to  unload  any  pas- 
sengers as  these  five  fellows."  They  passed  on  this  very  ride  the  places  where 
darkies  were  concealed,  and  the  driver  knew  it,  but  he  knew  how  to  keqp  a  secret, 
and  while  they  might  threaten  him,  or  flatter  him,  no  intimation  was  given  of 
what  he  knew  about  the  region. 

Among  the  passengers  of  those  days  were  many  eastern  capitalists  coming 
out  to  make  investments  or  to  investigate  the  new  country.  The  land  office,  col- 
lector of  the  time  was  Gill  Fcdsom  and  he  intrusted  this  stage  and  mail  line  with 
caring  for  his  funds  on  these  journeys.  Ten  hours  was  the  usual  time  from 
Davenport  to  Iowa  City.  Horses  were  exchaiq;ed  at  ten-mile 'stations,  and  when 
roads  and  loads  were  heavy  four  horses  were  used  or  extra  rigs  followed.  Much 
the  same  as  two-section  passenger  trains  would  do  now  only' on  a  more  limited 
plan.  Seven  passengers  made  a  load,  and  an  average  of  twenty-one  passengers 
was  reached,  necessitating  of  course  a  number  of  extras  all  the  time.  The  sta- 
tions on  the  journey  are  pven  by  Mr,  Albin  as  follows:  From  Iowa  City, 
toward  the  river,  they  came  first  to  Townsend's,  then  called  "Travelers'  Rest," 
and  whose  original  house  is  found  pictured  in  the  chapter  on  John  Brown,  and 
stands  in  the  eastern  part  of  West  Branch,  on  the  western  slope  of  the  hill  at  this 
time.  It  has  been  moved  from  its  original  foundation,  but  is  on  the  same  farm 
and  close  to  the  road  on  the  journey  eastward  toward  Springdale.  The  second 
point  where  passengers  and  mail  were  delivered  was  Rochester,  then,  as  now, 
only  a  little  newer  and  perhaps  more  alive  when  the  stage  came  in  from  either 
direction.  The  river  was  forded  here  some  distance  below  Rochester,  unless  in 
seasons  of  freshet  or  ice,  when  coaches  came  from  either  direction  to  the  river 
and  passengers  alone  were  ferried  over  the  stream.  Beyond  Rochester  the  stop 
was  the  home  of  the  Albins — ^the  middle  of  the  route.  From  here  in  either  di- 
rection the  stages  were  sent  out.  Centre  Grove,  in  Scott  County,  was  tfie  next 
stop,  and  the  final  before  reaching  the  river.  Blue  Grass,  a  station  on  the  Rock 
Island,  as  all  know  who  have  traveled  the  line.  When  Mr.  Albin  began  to  help 
his  father  in  this  duty  of  stage  driver  he  was  only  thirteen  years  of  age,  and  this 
line  was  continued  until  1856  or  until  the  Rock  Island  was  built  to  Iowa  City. 
His  father  sold  his  stock,  in  part,  to  the  Western  Stage  Company,  referred  to 
elsewhere,  that  placed  a  route  from  Durant  to  Tipton  westward  for  a  short  time 
in  1855. 

The  first  postoffice  on  this  route  was  two  miles  east  of  West  Branch.    The 
nstmes  settled  upon  for  the  postoffices  here,  Springdale  and  West  Branch,  was  a 


compromise,  it  seems,  since  the  locality  took  its  name  first  from  the  meetings- 
Red  Cedar  and  Springdale.  When  the  postoffices  came  to  be  established  Spring- 
dale  secured  the  name  wanted  by  both  and  West  Branch  found  a  new  one  taken 
from  the  stream  near  by.  The  postoffices  and  postmasters  on  the  stage  route 
across  the  county  as  given  by  Mr.  Albin  are  in  this  order:  West  Brandi,  Mr. 
Henry  was  the  first  postmaster.  Springdale,  Thomas  Wynne,  who  was  sent 
with  a  petition  from  the  community  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  praying  for  a 
change  in  sentence  for  the  condemned  ones  after  Harper's  Ferry. 

At  Pedee,  now  only  the  four  comers  of  a  county  road,  Mr.  Burnett  was  post- 
master. At  Rochester  Wm.  Baker  was  in  charge  and  buildings  are  still  stand- 
ing then  that  he  had  a  hand  in  building.  Pleasant  Hill,  still  upon  the  map  under 
the  same  name,  was  under  control  of  Martin  G.  Miller,  father  of  M.  H.  Miller, 
in  postal  affairs.  The  last  office  in  the  county  then  on  this  line  was  called  Lac- 
ton,^  ^^  and  Mr.  Boydston  was  the  official.  This  point  is  not  now  on  the  map 
under  any  such  title.    It  was  in  Farmington  township  and  near  the  line.'^^ 

Among  the  earliest  that  of  "Frink  and  Walker's  Stage  Line" — their  old  four- 
horse  coach — is  on  record  as  coming  to  Tipton  for  the  first  time  in  1854.  This 
appears  to  have  been  an  uncommon  team  in  the  county  seat  at  that  period  and 
caused  some  stir  among  its  inhabitants.  No  one  in  those  days  could  be  very 
particular  about  his  choice  of  means  in  transportation  of  himsdf  or  his  baggage 
or  freight.  He  must  take  what  was  offered,  and  in  case  of  emergency  assist  in 
transporting  himself.  One  character  of  this  time,  Mr.  D.  P.  Clapp,  is  described 
in  the  first  chapter  of  this  book  by  Dr.  Parsons,  who,  as  a  boy,  knew  him  during 
the  time  he  came  and  went  on  his  overland  journeys  with  his  freight  wagon.  He 
relates  something  there  of  his  characteristics  and  from  the  old  history  the  fig- 
ures are  given  concerning  his  large  place  in  the  transporting  of  goods  in  those 
days  before  any  railroad  came  to  this  part  of  the  county,  where  Mr.  Clapp  was  a 
resident  until  recent  years.  He  formerly  lived  where  the  county  jail  is  now 
located,  and  from  this  house  in  Tipton  made  his  journeys  through  all  kinds  of 
seasons  to  Davenport  and  Muscatine,  where  the  supplies  for  this  vicinity  shaped 
by  water  before  1854,  and  then  along  the  railway  line  in  the  southern  part  of 
this  county  or  across  in  Muscatine  County,  until  the  building  of  the  Northwest- 
em  railway  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county.  When  the  Tipton-Stanwood 
branch  was  built  in  1872,  the  wagon  transfer  ceased  to  be  necessary  so  far  as 
long  hauls  were  considered.  Some  figures  are  given  for  the  estimating  of  the 
amount  of  freight  hauled  by  this  one  man  during  the  years  from  '53  to  '72. 
During  the  nineteen  years  he  traveled  to  and  fro  his  journeys  numbered  about 
two  hundred  each  year,  and  on  each  of  these  he  carried  about  one  ton  of  freight, 
and  during  this  time,  therefore,  this  one  freighter  delivered  to  the  one  point  at 
Tipton  about  thirty-eight  hundred  tons,  and  the  distance  traveled  was  about 
ninety-five  thousand  miles,  or  three  and  a  half  times  about  the  earth.^^* 

At  this  time  in  the  history  of  the  state  the  demand  for  railroads  became  very 
urgent  and  led  to  the  custom  frequently  practiced  in  most  of  the  new  states  of  a 
dangerously  loose  offer  of  public  support  in  the  form  of  bonuses  in  money 
secured  by  bond  sales,  and  the  levying  of  taxes  through  a  series  of  years  to  re- 
deem the  bonds.  Cedar  county  was  no  exception  to  this  rule,  and  judging  from 
records  both  in  the  county  proceedings  and  books  it  has  cost  something  to  buy 



V   ^v 

Fl  ..!,u    Liir.AJ^Y 

ft  L 



this  experience.  Not  that  people  were  insincere  in  their  attempts  to  secure  an 
oatlet  for  their  products  and  proper  mail  facilities,  but  the  promoters  of  these 
schemes  were  either  not  honest  or  visionary— charity  must  decide  which  at  this 
late  day.    Pertinent  to  this  particular  phase  of  transportation  is  the  fdlowing: 

So  rapidly  did  the  population  of  Iowa  Territory  increase  that  in  1846  she 
was  admitted  to  statehood.  No  bands  of  iron  or  steel  at  this  time  bound  her  east 
and  west  borders  together  or  held  her  in  touch  with  older  settlements  to  the 
eastward.  Her  methods  of  transportation  were  of  the  most  primitive.  The 
stage  coach  and  steamboat  rq>resented  rapid  transit,  and  the  faithful  ox-team 
gave  slow  but  sure  service.  Iowa's  fertile  prairies  were  even  at  this  time  yield- 
ing a  superabundance  of  food  stuffs ;  she  had  also  rich  mines  of  lead  and  coal ; 
but  without  an  easier,  cheaper  and  more  rapid  means  of  transportation  these 
were  valueless,  except  in  so  far  as  they  were  needed  for  home  consumption. 
Railroads  from  the  far  east  were  now  pushing  themselves  westward,  ever  west- 
ward, carrying  to  isolated  settlements  many  of  the  comforts  and  luxuries  of  a 
more  refined  and  less  strenuous  life.  But  as  yet  no  line  had  reached  the  Miss- 
issippi. Still  there  was  railroad  talk  and  there  were  schemes ;  but  no  actual  work 
was  done  until  1852  when  two  roads  germinated — the  "Lyons  and  Iowa  Central," 
which  put  its  men  in  the  field  locating,  and  the  ''Mississippi  and  Missouri,"  which 
organized  but  did  not  begin  operations  that  year.^^^ 

The  Lyons-Iowa  Central  was  the  first  and  pioneer  line  in  Iowa.  When  one 
rides  eastward  from  Tipton  and  on  his  left  sees  an  unusual  embankment  just 
outside  the  city  limits  it  does  not  signify  very  much  to  him  unless  he  is  intro- 
duced to  facts  concerning  its  cause.  He  does  not  realize  that  he  is  close  to  a 
scene  of  vital  interest  not  only  to  this  immediate  county  but  to  the  counties  lying 
east  and  west  for  some  distance.  In  this  chapter  there  is  an  attempt  to  incor- 
porate the  local  and.  immediate  interests  witfi  those  of  the  general  that  one  may 
see  the  relation  of  what  then  was  of  great  moment  to  this  community  and  the 
state  at  large.  The  following  is  good,  yes,  excellent,  authority  in  support  of 
such  a  plan: 

"In  the  spring  of  1853,  while  in  charge  of  the  construction  of  a  division  of 
the  Chicago  and  Rock  Island  railroad  in  Bureau  Valley,  Illinois,  I  was  instructed 
to  make  a  survey  of  a  railway  f rc«n  Davenport  to  Iowa  City  to  be  followed 
by  a  location  as  early  as  practicable.  Before  it  was  fully  completed  it  was  turned 
over  to  Mr.  B.  B.  Bra3rton  and  I  directed  to  make  a  survey  to  such  point  on  the 
Missouri  river  as  I  deemed  practicable  for  the  starting  of  a  line  of  railway  to 
be  extended  up  the  Platte  valley.  My  instructions  in  this  regard  were  liberal. 
The  haste  to  make  this  survey  was  occasioned  by  the  fact  that  a  line  was  being 
surveyed  on  practically  the  same  route  by  the  Lyons  Iowa  Central  railroad  com- 
pany. This  survey  was  being  made  by  a  Mr.  Buck,  a  land  surveyor  living  near 
Lyons.  Having  occasion  to  observe  some  of  Mr.  Buck's  work  I  saw  that  his 
object  was  evidently  to  get  as  near  as  practicable  an  air  line  from  one  county  seat 
to  the  next.  This  was  usually  followed  by  a  vote  in  every  county  in  favor  of  is- 
suing bonds  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  the  railroad.  Under  this  plan  bonds 
were  voted,  and,  as  I  remember,  issued  in  Clinton,  Cedar  and  Johnson  counties, 
and  voted  but  not  issued  in  Iowa,  Jasper,  Poweshiek  and  Polk  counties.  The 
haste  in  making  the  Chicago  and  Rock  Island  surveys  seems  to  have  been  to  pre- 


vent  if  possible  the  further  issue  of  bonds  by  any  other  counties  until  something 
was  definitely  determined.  At  that  time  it  was  thought  by  parties  interested  in 
the  Rock  Island  road  that  money  could  be  procured  from  the  securities  of  the 
road  to  build  across  the  State  of  Iowa  as  soon  as  the  conditions  warranted.  When 
I  came  into  the  state  there  was  a  strong  feeling,  particularly  in  Cedar,  Poweshiek, 
Jasper  and  Polk  counties,  in  favor  of  the  Lyons  Iowa  Central  project,  which  was 
stimulated  by  a  railway  campaign  that  put  its  orators  in  the  field.  The  head 
and  brains  of  this  project  was  H.  P.  Adams,  a  gentleman  I  believe  from  Syra- 
cuse, N.  Y."«« 

An  article  from  the  Chicago  Democrat  of  February  4,  1854,  concerning  the 
"Galena  Air  Line"  (a  road  then  under  construction  by  the  "Galena  and  Chicago 
Union  Railroad,"  "parent  of  the  railroad  system  of  Illinois")  which  was  then 
completed  to  the  village  of  Lane,  in  Ogle  county,  seventy-five  miles  west  of  Chi- 
cago, states: 

The  whole  of  the  road  is  under  contract  and  is  to  be  ccmipleted  to  the  Mis- 
sissippi by  the  first  of  August  next.  At  Dixon  it  crosses  the  main  line  of  the 
Illinois  Central  and  will  furnish  the  people  living  on  the  line  of  that  road,  for 
many  miles  north  and  south  of  that  point,  direct  railway  communication  with  our 
city.  At  Fulton  City  it  is  said  there  is  a  fine  point  for  crossing  the  Mississippi. 
The  plan  of  the  bridge  places  it  one  hundred  feet  above  high  water  mark,  and  of 
course  it  would  be  no  impediment  to  navigation.  From  Chicago  to  Fulton  City  the 
distance  is  135  miles.  There  will  be  two  daily  passenger  trsiins  and  one  freight 
train  leaving  the  city  on  the  first  of  May  next  The  extension  of  the  Galena 
Air  Line  westward  is  called  the  "Lyons,  Iowa  Central  Railroad."  Council 
'Bluffs,  on  the  Missouri,  is  the  point  to  which  several  of  the  extensions  of  the 
roads  from  this  city  are  aiming,  and  that  is  to  be  the  western  terminus  of  this 
road.  It  is  under  contract  and  the  money  is  provided  to  build  it  to  Iowa  City, 
seventy-three  miles.  The  distance  from  Lyons  to  Council  Bluffs  is  308  miles. 
It  is  to  be  completed  to  Tipton,  fifty  miles  west  of  the  Mississippi,  by  the  first  of 
October  next.  This  part  of  the  road  is  to  be  nearly  an  air  line.  Five  hundred 
men  are  now  at  work  upon  the  road.  The  cotmtry  through  which  it  passes 
is  as  fine  as  any  portion  of  the  Mississippi  valley  and  it  may  therefore  be  expected 
to  add  very  much  to  the  business  and  general  prosperity  of  the  city.  It  is  to  be 
completed  to  Iowa  City  by  the  first  of  April,  1855. 

The  "First  Annual  Report"  of  the  Lyons  Iowa  Central  railroad  company  is  a 
very  interesting  doctunent.  The  directors'  report  to  the  stockholders  states  that, 
"On  the  14th  day  of  February,  1853,  the  company  was  organized  in  accordance 
with  the  provisions  of  the  law  of  Railroads  and  the  Right  of  Way  in  the  State  of 
Iowa."  A  copy  of  this  law  is  appended  to  the  report  and  is  signed  by  George 
W.  McCleary,  Secretary  of  State.    The  Report  further  tells  us : 

Subscriptions  to  the  capital  stock  have  been  made  as  follows : 

By  individual   subscribers    $686,300 

By  Cedar  county,  in  bohds  50,000 

By  Johnson  county,  in  bonds  50,000 

By  Jasper  county,  in  bonds  42,000 

By  Polk  county,  in  bonds   150,000 

Total    $978,300 


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There  have  been  prepared  for  issue,  and  a  mortgage  has  been  executed  on  the 
first  division  of  the  road  for  the  security  of  the  payment  thereof,  800  bonds 
of  $1,000  each,  $800,000.  The  individual  and  county  subscriptions  being  a  basis 
for  the  issue  to  this  amount. 

Assurances  are  made,  and  may  be  relied  on  with  confidence,  that  six  addi- 
ticmal  counties  will  subscribe  for  stock  and  authorize  an  issue  of  their  bonds  to 
an  aggregate  amount  of  $500,000,  making  the  present  immediately  prospective 
resources  amount  to  $2,278,300. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  the  resources  already  secured,  and  the  progress 
already  made  in  constructing  the  road,  will  induce  large  indivdual  subscriptions, 
as  further  means  may  be  required. 

There  have  been  issued  to  contractors  on  account  of  grading  and  bridging, 
in  bonds  of  the  company,  $300,000.  The  residue  of  the  bonds  prepared  for  issue 
are  in  the  hands  of  the  executive  committee,  to  be  issued  for  work  on  the  First 
Division,  as  progress  shall  be  made  thereon.  The  amount  of  grading  and  bridg- 
ing done,  as  will  appear  by  the  Chief  Engineer's  report,  is  about  $200,000.  Ma- 
terials for  superstructure,  rolling  stock  and  iron  have  been  purchased  to  the 
amount  of  $176,500,  making  the  expense  for  work  done  and  materials  purchased 
on  the  first  division  amount  to  $376,500. 

The  work  is  now  steadily  progressing  with  a  winter  force  of  about  430  men 
and  a  corresponding  number  of  teams  and  implements.  As  soon  as  the  frost 
shall  be  out  of  the  ground,  to  admit  of  a  vigorous  prosecution  of  the  work,  a  suf- 
ficient force  will  be  put  on  the  line  to  bring  that  part  of  the  first  division  as  far 
west  as  Iowa  City  into  running  order  as  soon  as  possible. 

The  work  of  grading  the  second  division,  which  ^ends  westwardly  to  Fort 
Des  Moines,  will  be  commenced  and  prosecuted  as  nqiidly  as  additional  subscrip- 
tions to  the  stock  of  the  ccmipany  shall  warrant. 

The  annexed  reports  of  the  diief  and  the  consulting  engineers  are  submitted 
as  part  of  this  report. 

By  order  of  the  Board, 

Wm.  G.  Haun,  Vke-Pres.. 

Lyons,  Iowa,  Feb.  14,  1854. 

The  Board  of  Directors,  chosen  at  the  annual  meeting,  February  14,  i854» 

Thomas  A.  Walker,  Fort  Des  Moines,  Iowa. 

James  H.  Gower,  Iowa  City,  Iowa,  formerly  of  Cower  township. 

John  Culbertson,  Tipton,  Iowa. 

William  G.  Haun,  Lyons,  Iowa. 

Derick  Adams  (N.  Y;),  Lyons,  Iowa. 

Hiram  A.  Tucker,  Chicago,  111. 

Thomas  Dyer,  Chicago,  111. 

Paul  B.  Ring,  Chicago,  111. 

David  McCartney,  Fulton,  IlL 

Thomas  T.  Davis,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Henry  P.  Adams,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Abel  Chandler,  New  York. 

S.  M.  Allen,  Boston,  Mass. 


From  the  report  of  Chief  Engineer  Slack  to  the  Board  of  Directors,  February 
14,  1854,  the  following  excerpts,  are  taken  which  show  the  progress  of  the  work 
and  the  estimated  cost  of  construction  between  Lyons  and  Tipton. 

A  survey  was  made  early  last  spring  and  the  fall  previous,  from  Lyons  to 
Iowa  City,  for  the  purpose  of  getting  a  general  outline  of  the  country. 

On  the  third  of  May,  1853,  I  was  directed  to  commence  the  location  at  the 
Mississippi  river  and  to  prepare  it  for  grading.  This  was  accordingly  done,  and 
the  work  commenced  on  the  firfet  52  miles  to  Tipton. 

From  Tipton  to  Iowa  City  four  lines  have  been  run,  and  although  a  portion 
of  the  line  next  east  of  Iowa  City  has  been  located,  and  considerable  work  done, 
yet  on  account  of  the  unevenness  of  the  ground,  I  desire  to  make  a  more  careful 
examination  before  submitting  an  estimate. 

As  to  directness,  there  is  not  one-ei|^th  of  a  mile  lost  between  Lyons  and 
Iowa  City,  and  for  fifty  miles  east  of  Tipton  there  are  only  ten  degrees  of  cur- 
vature, so  that  this  part  of  your  road  can  be  safely  run  at  a  high  rate  of  speed. 

The  total  amount  of  excavation  and  embankment  between  Lyons  and  Tipton 
is  2.994,404  cubic  yards.  The  paying  amount  is  1,723,688  cubic  yards  which  are 
estimated  to  cost  $356,216.10.  The  culverts  and  bridges  are  estimated  to  cost 
$34»283.90,  making  the  cost  of  grading  $390,500.00.*" 

There  were  others  in  the  field  at  this  time  and  the  rivalry  was  somewhat  keen 
judging  from  the  article  referred  to  above  in  the  "Annals  of  Iowa."  It  is  only 
necessary  to  give  one  extract  to  illustrate: 

"While  the  Estes  locating  party  were  approaching  Fort  Des  Moines  those 
working  east  of  Iowa  City  were  racing  with  the  Rock  Island,  which  was  doing 
effective  work  between  Davenport  and  Iowa  City,  on  what  had  been  known  as  the 
Mississippi  and  Missouri  route,  and  a  great  spirit  of  rivalry  existed  between 
the  Rock  Island  men  and  those  of  the  Lyons  party.  When  the  hyons  boys  in 
their  rush  used  any  sort  of  material  at  hand  for  stakes,  the  Rock  Island  boys 
taunted  and  jeered  and  called  attention  to  the  fine  oak  stakes  they  were  using. 
The  Lyons  boys  retorted,  ^Of  course  the  Rock  Island  should  use  something 
permanent,  .for  it  would  be  years  before  its  track  was  laid  if  ever.' " 

With  jibes  and  jokes  the  opposing  companies  kept  the  attention  and  interest 
of  the  citizens,  who  were  ready  to  applaud  whichever  won  the  race. 

Thus,  with  varied  and  interesting  experiences,  during  the  years  '52,  '53  and 
'54  the  Lyons  Iowa  Central  was  located  to  Des  Moines ;  but  was  destined  never 
to  measure  its  length  with  iron  rails,  nor  span  the  navigable  streams  with  bridges 
"out  of  the  reach  of  steamboat  chimneys  1" 

That  he  who  laughs  last  laughs  best  was  fully  exemplified  in  this  contest, 
for  the  Lyons  Iowa  Central  boys,  in  June,  1854,  were  all  laid  off  indefinitely, 
many  of  them  without  recompense  for  their  months  of  weary  toil.  What  caused 
this  sudden  collapse  of  a  project  that  seemed  so  flourishing,  and  was  so  well 
boosted  financially  t^  the  communities  through  which  the  road  was  projected, 
was  not  quite  understood  then  by  the  men  in  the  field,  and  after  a  lapse  of  55 
years,  cannot  be  fully  determined  now.  The  little  evidence  obtainable  points 
to  misappropriation  of  funds  by  some  trusted  party  or  parties,  near  the  head  of 
the  company.  Mr.  Dey,  in  his  interesting  letter  on  the  subject,  says  that  one  of 
the  board  of  directors  for  the  road,  "H.  P.  Adams,  of  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  was 



PI   Mr  I  -1^  '  ^  .-^ 

t  L 


a  fugitive  from  justice  at  the  time  that  he  was  making  his  strong  campaign 
through  the  counties  of  Iowa,  encouraging  the  issue  of  railroad  bonds/'  in  proof 
of  which  he  tells  the  following  story : 

General  Ney,  a  member  of  Gmgress'  from  the  Syracuse  district,  came  to 
Chicago,  called  at  the  Rock  Island  office  and  while  there  stated  he  was  in  the 
West  for  a  requisition  to  arrest  Mr.  Adams  and  take  him  back  for  trial  in  New 
York.  This  Mr.  Adams  was  the  one  who  had,  as  I  have  before  stated,  the  ma- 
chinery at  work  for  obtaining  for  his  road  county  bonds  which  pliant  0>unty 
Judges — as  the  plan  was  popular — readily  issued.  Judge  Lee  issued  the  John- 
son county  bonds,  although  it  was  stated  that  he  had  pledged  himself  not  to 
do  so. 

It  was  generally  believed,  after  the  failure  of  Adams  and  his  railway  project, 
that  with  the  county  bonds  he  had  made  his  peace  with  General  Ney.  At  all 
events  this  gentleman  entered  heartily  into  the  railway  campaign  in  Adams' 
behalf,  and  being  a  popular  orator,  his  services  were  very  effective.  I  recall 
reading  one  of  his  reported  speeches  wherein  he  was  advocating  the  advantages 
of  a  high  bridge  over  the  Mississippi  River,  a  suspension  bridge  of  nearly  a 
mile  span,  where  he  used  the  following  figure  of  speech:  'The  trains  will 
cross  the  Father  of  Waters  without  detriment  to  the  navigation  of  that  noble 
stream.  There  will  be  no  piers  or  other  obstructions.  Its  abutments  will  be 
on  the  high  hills.  The  good  fellowship  of  the  riv^  and  the  railway  will  be 
shown  as  the  locomotive  laughs  when  the  steamboat  puffs  in  its  face."  As  an 
orator  at  Tipton,  on  another  occasion,  his  eloquence  not  exhausted,  he  uttered 
the  following  tribute  to  the  man  whom  he  had  come  in  to  the  West  to  arrest: 
"Caesar  crossed  the  Rubicon  to  crush  the  liberty  of  'Rome,  H.  P.  Adams  crossed 
the  Mississippi  to  make  the  prairies  blossom  as  the  rose."  It  was  said  that  Gen- 
eral Ney  went  homt  happy  and  his  clients  were  satisfied. 

Following  his  reminiscence  regarding  Adams,  Mr.  Dey  again  says : 

I  think  it  was  in  June,  1854,  that  Mr.  Adams,  having  used  all  of  his  re- 
sources, withdrew  his  men  from  the  fidd,  many  of  his  contractors  unpaid  and 
his  popularity  gone.  It  is  possible  that  Mr.  Adams  hoped,  by  getting  bonds 
from  all  the  counties  between  Lyons  and  the  Missouri  River,  that  he  could  form 
a  basis  that  would  enlist  enough  capitsl  to  build  the  road ;  if  so  his  plans  were 
certainly  sanguine.  It  was  generally  believed,  after  his  failure  to  accomplish 
anything,  that  it  was  a  cold-blooded  scheme  to  rob  the  counties  and,  after  get- 
ting their  IxMids,  pocket  the  proceeds  and  decamp. 

When  the  collapse  came  it  was  a  severe  stroke,  not  only  to  the  locating 
engineers  but  to  the  construction  men  as  well.  Between  Lyons  and  Iowa  City 
much  if  not  all  the  road-bed  had  been  completed.  This  grading  work  had  been 
done  by  a  large  gang  of  Irish  immigrants  who  had  been  brought  f rcmi  New 
York  and  Canada  for  the  purpose.  These  men,  with  their  families,  some  1^,000 
persons  in  all,  were  now  stranded  at  Lyons  and  vicinity,  practically  helpless  and 
enduring  great  hardships.  The  railway  company  had  supply  stores  at  Lyons 
from  which  were  issued  to  the  graders — ^in  lieu  of  their  wages — groceries,  dry 
goods  and  miscellaneous  articles ;  but  these  supplies  were  exhausted  long  before 
the  indebtedness  was  cancelled.  It  was  from  these  stores  that  the  enterprise  was 
derisively  called,  and  is  still  known  as,  "The  Calico  Road."     Many  of  those 


"immigrants"  referred  to  as  being  stranded  near  the  river  after  the  collapse  of 
the  proposed  railway  found  ^homes  in  this  county  and  those  adjacent  becoming 
in  later  years  the  prosperous  farmers  of  the  rich  prairie  lands  they  had  helped 
to  dig  up  for  a  mythical  company  that  could  not  pay  them  for  their  labor.  Local 
help  was  also  employed.  A  resident  at  that  time  of  Springfield  Tovmship**^ 
states  that  he  was  employed  with  both  oxen  and  horses.  His  pay  was  four  dol- 
lars per  day  for  oxen  and  plow  and  three  dollars  for  horses. 

Oxen  were  more  economical  because  they  could  be  fed  from  the  prairie 
nearby.  Those  who  quit  work  in  November,  '54,  received  their  pay,  others  work- 
ing longer  did  not.  This  company  secured  its  supplies  in  its  several  camps  from 
local  sources,  and  in  the  attempt  to  get  paid  for  his  products  die  farmer  some- 
times had  difficulty.  Mr.  McQelland,  to  whom  the  contractor  was  indebted,  was 
forced  to  cross  the  Wapsie  and  remain  over  night  to  make  sure  of  his  pay. 
He  had  continued  to  deliver  su{q)lies  without  receiving  any  return,  and  to  make 
sure  this  time  ran  the  risk  of  losing  his  way  on  the  return  to  his  home.  As 
feared,  he  became  bewildered  in  the  stormy  night,  his  horse  floundered  in  die 
snow,  and  after  leaving  his  animal  in  an  effort  to  find  his  way  he  was  forced  to 
return.  This  was  probably  fortunate  since  he  discovered  the  bed  of  die  creek 
and  finally  saw  a  light  at  some  distance  in  a  grove.  He  had  crossed  the  stream 
several  times,  not  knowing  it.  This  was  the  last  of  his  dealings  with  the  first 
railroad  projected  in  Iowa. 

The  bond  issues  were  not  so  easily  disposed  of  and  the  explanation  fdlows 
from  the  legal  records  and  the  authority  below : 

The  counties  had  resisted  the  payment  of  bonds,  and  were  sustained  by  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  state;  but  an  appeal  being  taken  to  the  United  States 
Supreme  Court,  it  was  held  that  although  the  law  authorizing  their  issue  might 
be  questionable,  the  counties  having  sold  them,  and  having  received  in  pay 
thereof  the  consideration  named  in  die  bonds,  could  not  be  released  from  the 
obligation  voluntarily  incurred. 

The  final  climax  of  the  bond  issue  is  told  as  follows  by  Mr.  Gilbert  Irish  in 
his  "History  of  Johnson  County" : 

"After  years  of  discussion  and  litigation  a  convention  of  counties  was  called 
December  15,  1868.  Delegates  from  Washington,  Muscatine,  Johnson,  Jeffer- 
son, Lee,  Cedar,  and  Poweshiek  Counties  met  in  the  city  of  Muscatine.  After 
a  lengthy  discussion  the  following  preamble  was  adopted : 

"'Whereas,  the  recent  decision  of  the  Federal  court,  involving  corporation 
railroad  bonds  in  this  State  seems  to  us  stfbversive  of  our  audiority  and  the  dignity 
of  our  State  courts,  and  dangerous  to  the  rights  and  privileges  of  citizens  of  the 
State,  if  not  a  positive  and  unwonted  encroachment  upon  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
State  courts,  therefore,  Resolved,  that  this  convention  recommends  to  the  citizens 
of  the  several  counties,  and  citizens  interested  in  this  railroad  bond  question,  to 
pay  all  their  taxes  except  the  railroad  tax,  and  refuse  to  pay  that  until  all  1^ 
and  practical  remedies  are  exhausted.' 

"Several  other  default  resolutions  were  adopted,  speeches  were  made  by 
Hon.  Rush  Clark  of  Johnson  County,  Charles  Negus  of  Jefferson,  Robert 
Gower  of  Cedar  and  by  ex-Governor  Kirkwood,  who  said :    'All  will  admit  that 



'  .  1 1  '. ' 

I .-. 


we  have  a  right  to  make  our  state  constitution  and  laws  just  as  we  please,  pro- 
vided we  do  not  trench  upon  the  constitution  of  the  United  States.  What  value 
is  this  right  if  our  courts  cannot  interpret  the  meaning  of  our  constitution  and 
laws/  " 

Cedar  County  subscribed  twenty  thousand  dollars  worth  of  bonds  and  grad- 
ing commenced  near  Tipton  in  June,  1853.  A  demand  was  made  for  the  bonds, 
but  nmiors  of  bad  management  having  been  heard  there  was  some  objection  to 
the  issue  of  any  bond  until  some  assurance  should  be  given  that  the  road  would 
be  built  through  the  county.  Judge  Tuthill  advised  against  their  issue,  but 
Judge  Bissdl  made  the  order. 

It  was  in  July,  1854,  that  the  Supreme  Court  of  Iowa  (Judge  Green  dissent- 
ing) held  that  the  county  judge  of  Cedar  County  acted  according  to  law  in  sub- 
mitting the  proposition  of  making  a  county  subscription  of  fifty  thousand  dollars 
to  the  Lyons-Iowa  Central  railroad.  This  court  reversed  the  lower  court  in  the 
case.    The  tax  levied  was  held  valid. 

Suit  was  brought  against  Cedar  County  by  one  Qapp,  holder  of  the  bonds. 
Cook  and  Dillon  argued  the  case  for  the  county.  The  latter  was  afterward 
chief  justice  of  our  state  supreme  court  and  became  a  noted  writer  on  jurispru- 

In  proceedings  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  for  1865  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  find  out  who  the  holders  of  these  bonds  were  and  to  arrange  if  pos- 
sible to  purchase  them  at  the  best  rate  that  could  be  secured.  Some  of  the  holders 
then  were  Sheller  and  Ryan  and  H.  Sill  Howell.*^®  This  committee  never  re- 
ported so  far  as  the  record  goes  and  another  was  appointed  at  a  later  meeting. 
Nothing  seems  to  have  been  accomplished  by  this  plan,  for  we  read  elsewhere 
that  a  meeting  of  all  the  counties  concerned  was  held  to  fight  the  payment.  The 
record  shows  that  the  interest  on  the  bonds  was  paid  at  stated  times,  but  not  for 
many  years.  What  the  final  outcome  was  is  not  clear  at  this  date  and  it  will 
require  search  of  other  records  to  determine. 

In  the  face  of  this  trouble  concerning  the  bonds  voted  more  than  ten  years 
before,  the  board  appropriated  a  sum  of  seven  hundred  dollars  to  aid  in  the  pre- 
Ikmnary  survey  of  the  Iowa  and  Southwestern  Railway.  This  was  voted  upon. 
How  much  of  it  was  used  is  difficult  to  determine.^  ^* 

The  difficulties  of  the  Lyons  road  began  to  be  aired  very  soon  in  1854. 
Papers  along  the  line  began  to  set  rumors  afloat  and  the  end  was  foreseen. 

Tht  CKnion  Mirror,  published  at  Lyons;  the  Investigator,  at  Fulton,  gave 
warning  of  the  future  of  the  line.  The  contractor,  H.  P.  Adams,  ^ideavored  to 
set  matters  at  rest  by  a  letter  to  the  Clinton  Mirror,  which  reads  as  below : 

"Syracuse,  June  11,  1854. 

"Dear  Sir:  I  have  just  returned  from  New  York,  and  business  matters 
there  will  soon  be  in  good  shape  again,  and  the  Lyons  road  will  be  built.  I 
regret  very  much  the  difficulty  we  have  fallen  into.  The  trouble  in  New  York 
was  caused  by  the  failure  of  the  Cochituate  bank.  We  have  a  loan  in  diat  bank, 
and  with  Bryant  and  AUeo  of  that  bank,  of  $100,000  made  for  two  years  from 
last  fall.  When  they  and  the  bank  failed  the  paper  and  the  bonds  were  put  into 
market.    This  amount  was  too  large  to  pay  in  a  day  or  a  week,  therefore  it 


troubled  me  to  get  it  arranged ;  and  with  the  tight  money  market  and  all  things 
put  together  I  could  not  carry  it. 

"I  regret  much  the  course  some  have  taken  in  passing  off  goods  and  in  leav- 
ing the  work  as  they  did ;  this  was  all  unknown  to  me,  and  a  thii^  that  would 
not  have  happened  if  I  had  known  their  feelings  or  true  situatimi.  Every  man 
within  five  hundred  miles  of  the  Mississippi  will  get  his  pay  within  a  short  time, 
no  matter  what  stories  or  lies  may  be  put  into  circulation  about  me  or  my  road. 
Men  who  went  there  to  work  for  me  by  the  month  are  the  first  to  cry  'Mad 
dog*  and  grab  all  they  can  and  leave;  this  is  all  wrong  and  will  be  shown  so 
within  a  few  months.  I  shall  spend  twenty  to  forty  days  in  New  York,  then  go 
west  and  see  what  can  be  dcxie.    I  remain  yours, 

"H.  P.  Adams." 

When  the  g^ade  stakes  Were  located  to  Tipton  a  big  feast  was  spread  on 
land  just  east  of  the  present  school  grounds,  which  then  was,  covered  with  a 
growth  of  brush.  A  great  part  of  the  county  was  at  this  "barbecue"  and 
speeches  were  made  in  relation  to  the  road.  Judge  Bissell,  ^o  had  ordered  the 
bonds  issued,  spoke,  saying  among  other  things :  "That  any  man  who  did  not 
believe  these  movements  sincere  and  that  the  road  was  to  be  built  as  planned  was 
the  biggest  fool  that  had  ever  crossed  the  Mississippi  rivah."  History  keeps 
repeating  itself,  according  to  this. 

An  interesting  relic  was  found  by  J.  C.  Arthur,  an  employee  of  the  Mil- 
waukee R.  R.,  that  contains  more  than  ordinary  interest.  The  relic  is  a  quaintly 
printed  invitation  to  attend  a  ball  at  Tipton  on  Tuesday  evening,  June  7,  1853, 
and  reads  as  follows: 

"Railroad  Ball. 

"Yourself  and  lady  are  respectfully  invited  to  attend  a  ball  to  be  given  in 
honor  of  the  LYONS-IOWA  CENTRAL  RAIROAD  at  the  court  house  m 
Tipton,  on  Tuesday  evening,  the  seventh  day  of  June,  A.  D.  1853. 

"Qinton— Wm.  E.  Leffington,  A.  R.  Cotton,  D.  P.  McDonald.    Cedar- 
John  Culbertson,  Robt.  M.  Long,  Wells  Spicer.    Johnson — Jas.  H.  Gower,  W. 
Penn  Qark,  F.  M.  Irish.    Linn — Geo.  Green,  I.  M.  Prestcwi,  D.  Dorwart    Mus- 
catine— ^Jas.  Weed,  Thos.  Isett,  Adam  Ogilvie. 

"Tipton,  Iowa,  May  26,  1853. 
"Music  by  Milo  White's  band." 

When  asked  if  he  could  remeinber  the  ball,  Judge  Preston  said:  "I  don't 
remember  just  what  the  project  was,  except  diat  the  people  of  Tipton  confidently 
expected  for  a  long  time  that  they  were  going  to  get  a  great  line  of  road  from 
the  Mississippi  west"  Doubtless  this  invitation  will  remind  some  of  die  {mo- 
neers  of  Qinton,  Cedar,  and  Johnson  Counties  of  many  rich  stories.**^ 

The  first  railroad  in  the  county  to  carry  freight  and  passengers  was  the  main 
line  of  the  Rock  Island.  It  entered  the  county  at  the  very  southeast  corner, 
where  Durant  now  is  located,  and  was  completed  to  that  pcMUt  in  1855  so  that 
its  traffic  began.  Under  the  history  of  Durant  the  first  shipments  are  described. 
This  arrival  of  the  steam  cars  made  the  teaming  from  the  river  no  longer  neces- 
sary.   This  main  line  strikes  this  county  at  the  two  comers  only,  the  other  town 





■    . 


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on  the  line  in  this  county  being  I>owney  in  the  southwest  corner.    It  has  a 
double  track  system  with  the  automatic  signal  service. 

In  the  beginning  the  line  north  and  south  now  known  as  the  Rock  Island 
was  known  as  the  Burlington,  Cedar  Rapids  and  Northern.  It  was  built  by 
that  company  in  the  later  sixties  and  a  few  years  ago  was  acquired  by  the  present 
ownership.  This  is  constructed  diagonally  through  Springdale  township,  giv- 
ing service  to  the  towns  of  Centerdale  and  West  Branch. 

The  Milwaukee  controls  a  line  that  touches  the  northeastern  comer  of  the 
county  near  the  Wapsie.  This  was  formerly  called  the  Davenport  and  North- 
western, but  like  all  the  little  roads  has  been  swallowed  up  by  the  big  ones.  The 
only  village  on  the  line  in  this  county  is  Massillon.  This  road  was  built  in  1871 
just  before  the  line  to  Stanwood. 

In  1857  ^wo  railroad  propositions  were  before  the  people  of  this  county — the 
"Great  Western,"  as  it  was  called,  to  run  from  Comanche  to  Iowa  City,  run- 
ning almost  parallel  with  the  present  line  of  the  C.  &  N.  W.,  and  the  Chicago, 
Iowa  and  Nebraska,  or  as  it  is  called  in  the  references  to  it,  the  Qinton  road.  A 
meeting  of  citizens  was  called  on  January  14,  1857,  to  consider  the  proposition  of 
the  Qinton  road.  This  line  at  that  time  had  sixteen  miles  of  road  in  operation, 
and  when  this  meeting  was  called  was  about  ready  to  run  trains  to  Dewitt.  The 
proposal  of  the  Qinton  line  was  as  follows:  "If  the  people  of  Tipton  will  sub- 
scribe the  stock  sufficient  to  insure  the  grading  and  ties  for  about  fifteen  miles 
of  road  (from  Tipton  to  the  point  of  intersection),  they  will  run  a  line  tfirough 
Tipton  en  route  to  Iowa  City  and  complete  it  as  fast  as  the  money  is  paid  in  on 
subscription.  As  soon  as  the  grading  is  completed  the  company  will  lay  the  iron, 
put  on  the  rolling  stock  and  run  the  trains  to  Tipton.^'  This,  in  substance,  is  the 
proposition  made  by  Charles  Walker,  president  of  the  company. 

The  above  proposition  was  after  the  main  line  of  this  road  had  been  fixed 
eight  miles  north  of  the  county  seat,  but  the  letter  of  the  president  stated  that 
this  should  be  no  tn-anch  line.    To  quote  from  his  letter : 

"We  do  not  pretend  to  say  what  is  wisest,  safest,  and  best  for  Tipton  to  'do, 
but  we  do  say  in  a  kind  and  friendly  spirit  that  the  Chicago,  Iowa  and  Nebraska 
company  intends  to  build  a  road  through  Cedar  County  to  Iowa  City  and  that 
Tipton  may  or  may  not  be  on  the  line  of  that  road  as  she  chooses,  but  we  very 
much  desire  to  accommodate  Tipton  and  to  have  her  co-operation. 

''We  furthermore  say  that  the  road  to  Iowa  City  will  be  no  branch  road,  but 
as  mam  a  road  as  the  line  to  Cedar  Rapids,  and  that  all  the  trains  run  on  the 
Iowa  City  road  will  be  through  trains  to  Qinton  and  not  trains  to  a  junction. 

''And  finally  we  say  that  if  Tipton  chooses  to  regard  this  friendly  overture 
from  a  company  that  has  shown  its  energy  and  ability  by  work  more  than  by 
talk ;  and  has  to  some  extent  redeemed  this  part  of  Iowa  from  the  reproach  of 
its  manifold  failures,  there  exists  no  reason  why  your  pe(^le  should  hot  have 
trains  arriving  and  departing  daily,  long  before  the  falling  leaves  of  the  present 

"If  your  people  choose  to  consider  the  contents  of  this  communication,  you 
will  please  let  us  know,  and  act  promptly  in  what  you  propose  to  do. 

"Signed  for  president  and  acting  directors. 


"To  Wells  Spicer,  John  Culbcrtson  and  others."  «<> 

On  the  map  which  accompanies  this  section  the  reader  may  notice  the  plan 
of  this  road,  the  proposed  to  Tipton.  It  made  connection  with  the  main  line 
near  the  east  line  of  the  county,  and  judging  from  the  ev^its  that  have  fcdlowed 
this  was  the  time  for  the  county  seat  to  get  a  railroad  if  ever  in  its  history  up  to 
that  time. 

The  Wisconsin,  Iowa  and  Nebraska  Railway  was  projected  in  1854  from  the 
MississipfM  to  the  Missouri  and  the  first  twenty  miles  was  constructed  and  put 
into  operation  that  year;  In  1848  the  road  was  extended  sixty  miles  and  put  into 
operation  from  De  Witt  to  Lisbon  passing  then  along  the  line  now  the  right  of 
way  of  the  C.  &  N.  W.  The  history  of  the  towns  along  this  line  is  fotmd  under 
its  proper  heading.  The  increased  traffic  on  this  line  led  in  1890  to  plans  for 
doubling  its  tracks  and  removing  the  abrupt  curves  and  heavy  grades.  In  1891 
this  double  track  had  been  completed  through  Cedar  County.  No  expense  has 
been  spared  by  this  company  to  provide  all  modem  equipment  and  safety  appli- 
ances for  the  security  and  comfort  of  the  traveling  public.  In  1908  the  automatic 
safety  block  system  was  installed  across  this  county.  This  road  has  about  twenty- 
five  miles  of  double  track  line  subject  to  taxation  by  this  taxing  district.  The 
~~taxing  value  of  all  lines  being  sutMnitted  to  the  Board  of  Supervisors  by  the 
Executive  Council  of  the  state.*** 


Time  Table  No.  2. 
To  go  into  effect  Sunday,  April  15,  i860.    Government  and  information  of 

employees  only. 

Trains  West  Stations  Trains  East 

21  12 

Passenger    Freight  Passenger    Freight 

P.M.  A.M.  A.M.        P.M. 

4-05  8.30 Qinton  1045  4-0^ 

4.20  8.50 Comanche   10.32  340 

4.35  9.10 Low  Moor   10.20  3.25 

445  9-25 Ramessa    10.10  3.10 

S05  950 De  Witt   9.50  245 

5.20  10.10 Grand  Mound 9.30  2.20 

5.40  10.30 V Calamus    9.13  1.55 

5.50  1045 Yankee   Run    9.04  140 

6.05  11.05 Lowden    8.52  1.25 

6.25  11.35 Onion  Grove    8.31  1.00 

6.55  12.20 Mechanicsville    8.03        12.20 

715  1-05 Lisbon    742         11.55 

7.23  1,20 Mount  Vernon    7.36        10.50 

745  145 Bertram    7,15        10.50 

8.15  2.25 Cedar  Rapids  645        laio 

P.M.  P.M.  A.M.        A.M. 

Note. — Trains  will  meet  and  pass  at  stations  indicated  by  full  face  figures. 

Train  No.  2  West,  No.  i  East,  have  right  of  road  against  all  other  trains  for  one 

hour  after  their  own  time  at  any  station  as  per  table.    After  that  time  the  right 






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of  the  road  belcmgs  to  the  other  tndns.  Train  No.  2  East  has  right  of  road 
against  No.  i  West,  for  one  hour  aJter  their  (its)  own  time,  at  any  station  as 
per  table.    After  that  time  the  righi.of  the  road  belongs  to  No.  i  West.^*^* 

M.  Smith. 

The  Tipton-Stanwood  line  as  organized  is  now  a  part  of  the  Northwestern 
system,  having  been  taken  over  from  the  Tipton  Railroad  Company  in  1872. 
The  latter  company  was  organized  in  1858,  about  the  time  the  C.  &  N.  W.  main 
line  was  built,  with  officers  in  the  county  seat  and  a  capital  of  two  hundred 
thousand  dollars.  The  grading  to  Stanwood  was  begun  in  1859  and  completed 
in  1867.  This  was  the  end  of  the  proceedings  until  '72  ^  mentioned  above. 
Meantime  a  move  was  made  to  construct  a  line  from  Wilton  to  Tipton  to  be 
known  as  the  Muscatine  branch  of  the  Tipton  line.  The  line  was  finally  to  run 
to  Muscatine  and  in  due  time  the  road  was  graded  from  WiltcMi  to  the  North- 
western, which  was  in  the  future  to  extend  to  Anamosa  in  Jones  County. 

Mr.  Geo.  Dutton,  who  now  lives  in  Tipton  and  goes  and  comes  at  will  over 
the  C  &  N.  W.  as  a  pensioner  of  that  road,  ran  the  first  tnun  into  Tipton  aa 
engineer.  He  also  ran  the  first  work  train  into  Boone  on  the  main  line.  During 
his  active  service,  while  gcMng  up  the  State  Centre  hill,  a  heavy  grade  before 
douUe  track  was  laid,  his  engine  blew  up  and  he  will  carry  the  scars  of  the  acci- 
dent so  long  as  he  lives.  His  fireman  was  killed  outright.  Only  one  man  in 
Iowa  has  been  longer  on  the  pension  rolls  than  he  has. 

When  one  rides  from  Tipton  to  the  stone  mill  he  passes  the  Tipton-Wilton 
grade  of  this  road.  It  is  anotlier  vision  of  the.  past  when  men  had  almost  se- 
cured the  lines  of  transportation  that  are  still  under  discussion.  Over  almost  this 
same  route,  at  least  in  the  same  general  direction,  the  interurbans  of  the  future 
are  surveyed.  Surely  there  isn't  much  that  is  "new  under  the  sun."  It  was 
Thanksgiving  day,  1872,  that  the  first  train  of  cars  came  to  Tipton,  almost  twenty 
full  years  after  the  first  suggestion  of  a  road  had  come  before  the  people.  Tipton 
is  now  on  a  branch  line  and  regrets  the  past  events  that  made  the  main  line  of 
the  C.  &  N.  W.  run  nine  miles  to  the  north.  An  old  atlas  of  1872  locates  the 
proposed  line  to  Wilton  and  suggests  the  alternative  of  a  line  to  Muscatine. 

It  was  in  1871  that  the  line  from  Clinton  to  Elmira  as  it  now  runs  was  begun 
and  grade  completed  and  was  then  known  as  the  Clinton  and  Southwestern. 
Track  was  laid  that  same  year  for  some  distance  out  of  Qinton.  Simply  a  be- 
ginning was  made,  for  thirteen  years  elapsed  before  this  present  line  was  com- 
pleted to  Elmira,  the  present  junction  of  the  main  line  of  the  Rock  Island  and 
the  Davenport-Clinton  line.  The  story  of  the  branches,  piecemeal  construction, 
and  final  disposition  is  all  found  carefully  preserved  in  the  memory  of  Mr.  A. 
Russell,  the  worthy  and  efficient  roadmaster  of  this  division.  He  states  that  the 
track  was  laid  in  sections,  commencing  in  1871  as  mentioned  by  the  company 
known  as  Qinton  and  Southwestern,  being  laid  then  to  McCausland  and  con- 
tinued afterward  to  Noels,  another  station  on  the  line.  Not  until  1884,  when  the 
old  B.  C.  R.  &  N.  obtained  it,  did  it  reach  the  county  seat.  September  of  '%  it 
reached  Tiptcm  and  in  November  of  that  same  year  reached  Elmira,  making  an 
outlet  to  the  west  by  rail.  The  branch  running  from  Bennett  to  Davenport  was 
first  constructed  under  the  name  of  the  D.  I.  &  D.,  which  translated  means  Dav- 
enport, Iowa  and  Dakota.    This  was  graded  in  1888  to  some  point  north  of  the 


Clinton  line  and  crossed  that  line  at  some  distance  east  of  Bennett  abont  north 
from  Sunbury,  as  one  may  observe  in  passing  that  way  an  old  abandoned  grade 
branching  off  near  the  latter  town.  This  line  lay  unused  for  the  two  years  1888 
to  1890,  no  rolling  stock  being  availaUe  and  none  was  needed  since  the  road  went 
nowhere  and  had  no  reason  to  use  cars.  When  the  road  was  finally  obtained  by 
the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.  in  December,  1890,  the  track  running  from  Sunbury  north 
was  taken  up  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Russell,  who  is  still  in  the  employ  of 
Rock  Island,  a  grade  made  to  Bennett  and  connection  was  now  made  to  Daven- 
port In  1891,  January  19,  the  first  train  ran  to  Davenport.  The  first  man  to 
purchase  a  ticket  for  Davenport  at  the  ticket  c^ce  in  Tipton  was  Reuben  Swartz- 
lender.  This  was  six  years  after  the  trains  had  been  running  to  Clinton  from 
Elmira  Junction.*** 

A  few  fiat  cars  and  one  caboose  composed  the  rolling  stock  of  the  D.  I.  &  D. 
when  it  was  transferred  to  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N. 

When  the  B.  C.  R.  &  N.  railway  was  laid  through  the  county  in  1884  the 
business  men  of  Iowa  City  made  use  of  the  first  days  to  come  to  Tipton  on  an 
excursion,  and  about  sixty,  including  ex-governor  Kirkwood  were  received  by 
the  business  men.  There  was  no  depot  yet  built,  and  a  delay  of  three  hours  due 
to  the  incompleted  bridge  over  the  Cedar  River  caused  the  most  annoying  wait 
to  the  band  and  citizens  lined  up  to  meet  the  guests. 

This  was  the  outlet  to  the  west  so  long  under  discussion  and  known  on  the 
map  when  first  projected  as  the  Southwestern.  Frequent  mention  is  made  of  this 
line  for  years  but  not  until  the  track  layers  came  into  view  did  any  one  become 

The  visitors  from  the  University  City,  through  Editor  Fairall  of  the  Republican 
offered  the  following  resolutions  which  met  with  approval  of  course: 

Resolved,  that  we  feel  greatly  rejoiced  over  the  completion  of  this  long  de- 
sired railway,  connecting  Iowa  City  and  her  sister  city,  Tipton,  and  we  trust  the 
acquaintance  thus  begim  by  its  aid  will  result  in  closer  and  long  continued  busi- 
ness and  social  relations  between  the  two  cities,  and  further  be  it 

Resolved,  that  we  tender  to  the  people  of  Tipton  and  to  the  proprietors  of 
the  Fleming  House  our  heartfelt  thanks  for  their  cordial  reception  and  kind  en- 
tertainment and  hope  that  they  give  us  an  early  opportunity  to  reciprocate. 

In  1854  the  mails  and  stage  lines  are  advertised  to  arrive  and  depart  from 
Tipton  on  a  schedule  as  below:  From  Davenport,  every  Tuesday,  Thursday 
and  Saturday.  From  Muscatine,  Monday  and  Thursday.  From  Iowa  City, 
Wednesday  and  Saturday.  From  Marion,  Monday,  Wednesday  and  Friday. 
Dubuque  every  Friday,  also  from  Fulton  Qty  on  Friday.  From  Prairie  du 
Chien,  Tuesday. 

The  departures  occurred  on  alternate  days  with  the  arrivals  generally. 

N.  J.  Hawley,  stage  proprietor,  and  R.  M.  Long,  Esq.,  postmaster. 

Mail  lettings  are  listed  at  such  figures  as  are  supposed  to  correspond  to  dis- 
tance and  times  of  carrying. 

From  Marion  to  Tipton,  let  to  Wm.  McLeand  at  $590. 

From  Tipton  to  Fulton,  let  to  H.  C.  Pierce  at  $300. 

From  Tipton  to  to  Gamavillo,  let  to  Levi  Ellis  at  $604, 


•    I 


Notwithstanding  the  numberless  mail  routes  complaints  were  loud  about 
delay.  The  people  complained  that  more  than  a  week  elapsed  between  mails  from 
the  east  It  seems  that  the  stage  line  from  Davenport  to  Cedar  Rapids  run  by 
Frink  and  Walker  generally  carried  the  mail  daily  and  received  no  pay  for  so 
doing.  They  sold  out  to  the  Ohio  stage  company  and  the  people  lost  this  ac- 
commodation. Stages  passed  through  the  town  daily  but  no  mails  came.  The 
authorities  at  the  capital^  who  were  responsible  for  the  mail  service  got  their 
share  of  blame.**' 

Alonzo  Shaw  gives  some  interesting  reminiscences  of  the  early  day  of  trans- 
porting the  mails  when  he  was  engaged  in  that  service.  He  tells  it  in  his  own 
way  in  a  recent  interview:  "In  December,  1846,  I  was  a  successful  bidder  for 
the  government  mail  ccmtract  covering  the  territory  from  Galena,  Ill.\  to  lowai: 
City,  Iowa,  a  distance  of  one  hundred  miles.  The  stops  along  the  line  were  Belle- 
vue,  Jackson,  Maquoketa,  Tipton,  Woodbridge,  and  Gower's  Ferry,  the  only 
postoffices  on  the  route.  The 'contract  called  for  one  trip  each  week.  I  was 
awarded  the  route  the  following  year  and  made  the  two  hundred  miles  from 
point  to  point  during  the  six  days.  For  two  years  I  followed  this  trail  and 
drew  in  pay  for  the  service  $750  per  year.  The  net  returns  after  paying  ex- 
penses being  about  one  and  a  half  dollars  per  day.  I  averaged  the  thirty-three 
and  one-third  miles  each  day  and  always  spent  Sunday  in  Galena,  although  my 
home  was  in  Tipton.    In  the  home  town  I  kept  two  good  saddle  horses. 

That  seems  meagre  pay  for  the  woric  but  was  on  a  par  with  other  salaries 
at  that  period  in  our  history.  There  were  many  pleasant  features  connected  with 
the  rides  over  the  prairies,  plenty  of  time  for  reflection  and  meditation.  Often 
I  rode  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  without  passing  a  habitation.  There  was  no  house 
between  Maquoketa  and  Denson's  Ferry  on  the  Wapsipinicon,  neither  was  there 
a  building  between  the  latter  place  and  Tipton,  except  at  Bunker's  Grove,  where 
Captain  Higginson  lived. 

There  was  the  same  lonesome  stretch  between  Gower's  Ferry  and  the  present 
town  pf  Morse,  and  not  even  a  strawstack  between  Morse  and  Iowa  City,  then 
the  capital  of  Iowa. 

Of  course  the  pleasant  summer  weather  was  to  be  expected  and  enjoyed, 
but  during  the  winter  I  had  to  experience  the  severest  kind  of  storms,  those  that 
are  not  conunon  now  where  there  are  trees  and  improvements  to  destroy  the  ef- 
fects of  the  wild  winds  sweep  across  the  prairie.  I  well  recall  riding  one  day  from 
Galena  to  Maquoketa  with  the  thermcmieter  thirty-five  degrees  below  zero.  But 
I  was  prepared  for  just  such  emergencies,  being  dressed  for  the  weather  in  buf- 
falo skin  overshoes  with  the  hair  on  the  inside,  a  pair  of  Indian-tanned  buckskin 
overalls,  fur  cap  and  coat. 

In  1848  I  sold  the  contract  to  William  and  Robert  Hanna,  who  were  at  that 
time  conducting  a  saddle  and  harness  shop  in  Tipton.  This  was  the  shop  for- 
meriy  run  by  Austin  Parsons  and  now  by  his  son."  *** 

When  the  boat  "Cedar  Rapids"  reached  that  dty  from  Pittsburg  its  log 
contained  the  following,  which  is  of  interest  to  this  county.  In  these  times  when 
so  much  is  said  about  improving  our  rivers  it  does  seem  probable  that  it  is 
practical  in  high  water  as  on  this  occasion. 


We  read :  Left  Pittsburg  July  5,  at  daric ;  *  *  *  arrived  at  Saint  Louis  on 
the  twelfth ;  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Iowa  River  Sunday  morning  at  eleven 
o'clock ;  to<*  large  flat  of  lumber  in  tow — ^sixty  thousand  feet ;  lay  four  miles  be- 
low the  mouth  of  the  Cedar  all  night;  five  feet  of  water  in  the  channel  of  Ae 
Iowa  up  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cedar;  from  there  up,  water  rising  very  fast;  ar- 
rived at  Moscow  on  Monday;  found  river  too  high  to  go  under  bridge;  took 
the  lumber  on  board  boat  and  then  had  to  take  out  of  hog  chain  braces  and  haul 
through  by  steam  capstan ;  left  Moscow  Tuesday  evening  at  five  o'dodc ;  lay  all 
night  at  Rochester ;  arrived  at  Cedar  Rapids  Wednesday  night.  The  boat  carried 
two  hundred  fifty  tons  and  is  described  as  being  155  feet  long,  26  feet  wide,  and 
3  feet  hold.  She  had  but  one  deck  or,  as  steamboat  men  call  it,  is  a  lower  cabin 
boat  She  has  a  stem  whed  14  feet  in  diameter,  18  feet  long  with  buckets  1$ 
inches  wide. 



In  the  proceedings  of  the  county  commissioners  several  references  are  made 
to  the  securing  of  a  room  in  the  house  of  Stephen  Toney  to  use  for  the  District 
Court.  This  dd  house  stands  now  on  the  river  bank  almost  ready  to  fall  in  when 
a  fkxxl  comes,  and  there  must  have  been  a  room  as  the  commissioners  requested, 
since  they  paid  Toney  for  the  use  of  it  The  only  authority  for  the  courts  when 
the  History  of  '78  was  written  is  that  statement  quoted  from  Judge  Tuthill  in 
which  be  says  ''that  he  saw  and  examined  the  old  bo<^  of  records  of  the  district 
court  in  1842  and  that  he  made  a  memorandum  of  its  contents/'  from  whidi  it 
appears  that  the  first  session  of  the  Court  was  held  at  Rochester,  and  we  may 
suppose  at  the  house  of  the  said  Toney,  on  Monday,  May  28,  1838.  Present, 
Hon.  David  Irwin,  Judge,  Wm.  W.  Chapman,  District  Attomqr  for  the  United 
States,  and  the  name  of  the  Marshall  was  not  given,  although  he  was  allowed  his 
mileage.  Robert  G.  Roberts  was  appcunted  the  cleric  of  the  court  and  bond  was 
given  in  the  sum  of  $2,000  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duty.  His  sure* 
ties  were  Martin  Baker,  James  W.  Tallman,  Richard  Knott,  Geo.  McCoy,  also 
sheriff  later,  and  Stephen  Toney,  who,  Charley  Crawford  says,  was  a  little  man. 
The  <dd  hook  says  I.  C.  Hastings  was  appointed  district  attorney  pro  tem,  but 
his  initials  are  given  in  all  the  records  as  S.  C.  Hastings.  Tallman  was  sheriff. 
The  grand  jury  for  the  U.  S.  on  that  occasion  are  given  among  others  in  the 
section  dealing  with  the  cotmty  commissioners  in  their  first  session.  Some  of 
them  came  from  as  far  north  as  Pioneer  Grove.  Alanson  Pope  came  from  there 
and  W.  A.  Rigby  fron  Red  Oak.  At  this  first  session  of  the  grand  jury  they  had 
no  business  and  were  at  <Hice  discharged. 

The  territorial  grand  jury  had  Charles  Whittlesey  for  foreman.  This  Whit- 
tlesey was  the  first  member  of  the  Territorial  Council.  Three  men  of  this  name 
are  found  in  office  in  the  pioneer  days,  William,  Charles,  and  John,  a  Justice  of 
the  Peace,  whose  name  is  attached  to  some  documents  in  the  files  of  the  first  cases. 
No  business  came  before  the  grand  or  petit  jury  and  after  ordering  the  warrants 
to  issue  for  the  day's  pay  and  mileage  the  court  adjourned  until  the  first  day  of 
the  next  term.  The  pay  was  probably  given  in  warrants  that  could  be  collected 
when  the  money  came  into  the  treasury  to  meet  the  bills.  This  was  a  very  in* 
definite  date  then. 



The  district  court  consisted  of  a  single  judge  who  heard  both  criminal  and 
civil  cases  in  the  district  over  which  he  presided.  The  Hon.  David  Irwin  was 
the  presiding  judge  in  the  first  sessicms  recorded.  His  name  appears  on  page 
one,  book  one  of  the  courts. 

The  first  case  recorded  according  to  the  history  of  1878  is  the  one  on  an  action 
of  debt  brought  up  on  change  of  venue  from  Muscatine  County,  but  there  is  a 
case  on  record  which  says  filed  May  28,  1838.  This  is  Scott  vs.  Fought  &  Hare, 
for  trespass.  Woods  and  Starr  for  the  plaintiff.  The  case  referred  to  above 
by  the  editor  of  the  old  book  chronicles  the  fact  of  Book  A,  or  one,  as  it  is  now 
labeled,  was  missing  and  the  first  case  that  was  to  be  found  came  up  in  July, 
1840.  But  it  happens  that  this  old  hook  was  found  by  Mr.  Van  Ness  when  derk 
of  the  district  court  and  the  time  of  his  service  was  from  1873  ^  1876,  according 
to  the  dlicial  record,  his  term  expiring  two  years  before  the  old  book  was  pub- 
lished, hence  this  record  must  have  been  in  the  county  clerk's  office  at  that  time. 

The  time  of  holding  the  court,  as  given  by  Judge  Tuthill,  is  as  the  book 
gives  it  and  the  names  of  the  bondsmen  of  Robert  G.  Roberts  are  found  on  the 
first  page  of  the  record  as  rebound  since  it  was  found.  David  Irwin,  the  pre- 
siding judge,  signed  the  proceedings  on  page  five.*^ 

The  next  session  of  the  court  was  held  at  Rochester  on  the  first  day  of  Octo- 
ber, 1838.  The  presiding  judge  not  appearing  the  court  was  adjourned  by 
Harvey  B.  Bumap,  the  coroner,  the  very  first  coroner  of  the  county  and  perhaps 
his  first  official  act.  The  grand  and  petit  jurors  appeared  and  claimed  their  at- 
tendance and  the  record  says  ^'their  travel"  (mileage).  The  Judge  did  not  appeu 
the  next  morning  and  the  coroner  adjourned  again.  Only  part  of  the  grand  juiy 
appeared  and  not  a  full  attendance  of  the  trial  jury.  The  coroner  returned  the 
venire  facias  ishued  (issued)  by  the  clerk  of  the  county  commissioners  for  a 
grand  jury  and  a  petit  jury,  endorsed,  served  as  ccmimanded,  and  for  serving 
ten  dollars  each.  This  writing  is  evidently  in  the  hand  of  Robert  G.  Roberts, 
the  clerk  of  the  court.  It  docs  not  quite  come  up  to  the  standard  set  by  Wra.  K. 
Whittlesey.  The  court  kept  adjourning  until  Friday  of  the  week  in  which  they 
began  on  Monday,  when  court  was  adjourned  until  the  next  r^^lar  term.  The 
judge  did  not  appear.    The  cleric's  fees  for  the  month  of  May  amounted  to 


The  official  oath  of  Elisha  E.  Edwards  as  sheriff  of  the  county  appears  00 

page  13,  dated  the  first  day  of  October,  1838.    His  commission  is  copied  on  the 

opposite  page  as  issued  by  Gov.  Lucas.    A  note  at  the  bottom  of  the  page  says 

that  "the  public  seal  is  not  yet  forwarded." 

The  bond  of  the  sheriff  is  signed  by  Elisha  Edwards,  Richard  Knott,  and 
Geo.  McCoy.  The  commission  of  Henry  Hardman  as  Justice  of  the  Peace,  issued 
by  Gov.  Dodge,  is  recorded  on  page  seventeen.  This  must  have  been  delayed  in 
the  matter  of  recording,  for  it  appears  after  the  commission  of  Edwards  issued 
by  Gov.  Lucas.  It  is  dated  the  26th  of  June,  1838,  before  lowai  was  independent 
of  Wisconsin  territory.  The  same  commission  in  character  is  issued  to  Gea 
McCoy  the  same  date  and  recorded  on  page  19. 

The  session  of  the  court  commencing  in  May,  1839,  was  presided  over  by 

*  Judge  Joseph  Williams.    T.  S.  Parvin  was  appointed  District  Attorney  for  fte 

Territory.     The  record  says:     "A  disturbance  having  occurred  by  noise  and 


profanity  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  court  and  to  the  disturbance  of  the 
same,  His  Honor,  the  Judge,  ordered  the  sheriff  to  bring  the  offender  into  court, 
who  thereupon  reappeared,  having  in  custody  John  S.  Miller.  Ordered  that  John 
S.  Miller  be  fined  three  dollars  and  remain  in  custody  until  the  same  be  paid 
with  costs." 

The  oath  of  allegiance  of  Charles  Dallas  appears  at  the  session  of  May  21, 
1839,  page  29.  It  was  on  account  of  a  request  for  this  particular  record  that  the 
book  from  which  this  record  is  taken  was  found  by  the  clerk  at  that  time. 

The  grand  jury  returned  one  indictment  at  this  session  of  the  court  against 
three  persons  for  gaming,  Wm.  and  James  Stockton  and  Philip  Wilkinson.  This 
is  the  first  indictment  recorded.  The  first  case  to  come  up  for  trial  was  that  of 
Allen  Scott  vs.  Jacob  Fought  and  Daniel  Hare.  The  case  was  continued.  Thomas 
Lingle  sued  Qemon  Squires  for  slander  and  this  was  also  continued.  The  latter 
character  will  be  heard  frcmi  under  another  title. 

The  gaming  case  came  up  for  trial  on  the  22nd  and  the  parties  were  allowed 
to  go  "without  day"  after  the  counsel  had  been  heard. 

The  last  case  in  this  May  term  was  an  amicable  suit  between  O.  Bowling  and 
Moses  B.  Church.  The  court  took  the  case  under  advisement  and  it  was  con- 
tinued.   Court  then  adjourned  to  the  September  term,  1839. 

At  the  session  in  September  Francis  Springer  was  appointed  as  attorney 
for  the  territory.  The  amicable  suit  was  settled  in  favor  of  the  defendant  and 
that  the  said  defendant  recover  his  cost,  $2.31^4. 

This  man  Squires  begins  to  feel  the  arm  of  the  law  at  this  time  and  the  grand 
jury  indicted  him  for  selling  liquor  contrary  to  law.  They  also  at  this  time 
brought  the  indictment  against  H.  E.  Switzer  for  assault  upon  an  officer.  He 
was  tried  and  acquitted.  Henry  Nicholson  was  indicted  for  betting  on  a  horse 
race.  On  page  54  of  this  first  book  of  court  records  appears  the  long  lost  report 
of  the  locating  commissioners  of  the  county  seat.  Since  it  could  not  be  found 
for  so  long  it  is  placed  in  the  proper  connection  in  the  chapter  on  county  organi- 
zation and  governments^* 

The  history  of  '78  quotes  Judge  Tuthill  as  sa)ring  that  in  the  court  of 
Judge  Williams  there  were  as  high  as  twelve  cases  of  contempt.  It  is  not  stated 
what  session,  but  presimiably  the  September  term,  1839.  However,  the  nimiber 
is  wrong  for  there  are  fifteen  cases  by  actual  count. 

Beginning  on  page  fifty-two  of  this  first  book  (i)  the  remainder,  with  the 
exception  of  four  pages  for  marriage  licenses,  is  given  to  the  recording  of  com- 
missions issued  to  the  county  crfficers  by  the  governor  of  the  territory.  Wm. 
K.  Whittlesey  was  appointed  clerk  of  the  courts  pro  tem  since  the  permanent  ap- 
pointment could  not  be  made  until  the  next  session  of  the  legislature.  This  is 
dated  Nov.  24,  1838.  He  must  have  succeeded  Robert  G.  Roberts  contrary  to  the 
statement  made  by  the  compiler  in  the  auditor's  office  who  made  up  the  list  of 
the  clerks  of  the  court.  Twenty  commissions  issued  by  Robert  Lucas  are  copied 
here  verbatim.  For  Cedar  County  the  commissions  were  issued  to  John  Whit- 
tlesey, E.  E.  Edwards,  William  Green,  Washington  Rigby,  David  Bums,  Henry 
Hardman,  Jehu  Kenworthy,  William  Mason,  Joseph  Crane,  as  Justices  of  the 
Peace  for  Cedar  County.  Israel  Mitchell  was  appointed  Probate  Judge  for  the 
coimty  of  Lynn  (Linn),  James  Tallman  Probate  Judge  for  the  county  of  Cedar, 


George  McCoy,  Sheriff  of  Cedar  County;  William  Abbe,  John  McAfferty,  Jus- 
tices of  the  Peace  for  the  county  of  Lynn  (Linn)  ;  Calvin  C.  Read,  John  G.  Josslin, 
Moses  Garrison,  Orvil  Cronkhite,  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  the  county  of  Jones 
also  Thomas  S.  Denson  for  the  same  office  in  Jones  county.  The  last  one  on 
the  list  after  all  these  are  searched  through  is  the  appointment  of  Hugh  Bowan  as 
Sheriff  of  Jones  County. 

On  January  5,  1839,  a  marriage  license  was  issued  to  Charies  M.  Swetland 
and  Eliza  Moiigan,  daughter  of  Jonathan  Morgan,  returned  by  the  Rev.  Martin 
Baker.  Jonathan  Moiigan  was  married  himself  the  eighth  of  the  same  month. 
Feb.  23  a  marriage  license  was  issued  to  William  Walton  and  Thyrza  Davis, 
returned  by  John  Whittlesey,  Justice  of  the  Peace,  ^lay  4,  1839,  Allison  L 
Willets  was  an  applicant  for  a  permit  to  marry  Miss  Lucy  Abbe.  This  took 
place  in  Lynn  Coimty  before  John  McAfferty,  J.  P.  Here  is  the  date  of  the  issue 
of  the  license  to  Samuel  Gilliland  and  Martha  Comstock,  July  13,  1839,  re- 
turned by  William  Mason.  Martin  Baker  and  Isaac  Gray  filed  copies  of  cer- 
tificates that  they  were  ministers  of  the  Gospel  in  January,  1841. 

There  were  only  three  judicial  districts  in  Iowa  when  it  first  became  a  terri- 
^  tory,  and  Judge  Williams  was  appointed  to  this  district  the  second.    He  will  be 
mentioned  in  the  discussion  of  the  legal  profession  in  the  proper  place. 

He  heard  all  the  early  cases  in  this  county  up  to  the  time  of  his  appoint- 
ment to  a  higher  position.  The  temptation  is  very  great  to  enlarge  here  upon  his 
^characteristics.  In  a  single  case  three  men  who  afterwards  became  prominent  in 
the  territory  and  state  were  concerned.  These  were  the  Judge,  and  S.  C.  Hastings 
for  the  defendant  and  Francis  Springer  for  the  plaintiff.  The  case  that  of  Scott 
vs.  Fought  and  Hare.  It  involved  $150  dollars  on  a  section  of  land,  and  the  claim 
was  contested  on  the  point  of  the  land  being  of  insufficient  value  and  want  of 
consideration.  This  was  the  section  where  the  town  of  Centreville  was  after- 
wards located. 

The  territorial  laws  were  evidently  enforced  in  the  case  of  prairies  set  on 
fire  without  authority.  Harvey  G.  Whitlock  was  indicted  for  this  as  well  as  that 
good  man,  Moses  B.  Church. 

Selling  liquor  to  the  Indians  was  a  cause  of  indictment  in  several  instances. 
In  the  case  of  U.  S.  vs.  Howard  for  larceny  he  got  one  year  in  the  penitentiary. 
That  is  the  first  criminal  sentence  recorded,  in  which  the  penalty  was  imprison- 

In  the  matter  of  recording  instruments  Stq>hen  Toney  had  the  honor  to  give 
the  first  mortgage  on  record.  It  was  for  $262  and  given  to  C24>t.  Higginson. 
Toney  got  two  hundred  dollars  in  cash  for  the  consideration,  and  the  time  was 
twelve  months  only.  It  is  signed  by  S.  Toney  and  Evelina  Toney.  It  was  satis- 
fied on  page  155,  book  O,  of  mortgage  record.  The  description  is  S.  E.  one-fourth, 
section  seven  and  it  is  in  township  seventy-nine,  range  two,  hence  in  Rochester 
Township.    Several  people  own  fractions  of  that  quarter  now. 

In  the  administrator's  report  concerning  the  estate  of  Robert  G.  Roberts,  the 
items  amount  to  $13,79,  ^™*  Hoch,  Administrator. 

The  county  judge  administered  affairs  under  the  law  of  the  state  in  place  of 
the  commissioners  from  the  latter  part  of  1851  imtil  1861.  The  first  of  these 
in  the  report  was  S.  A.  Bissell,  1851-55;  Wells  Spicer  followed  him  for  a  little 

OLD  JAIL  OP  1857 


Pi  .    :*     J ' 

t    I 



more  than  one  year,  and  then  Geo.  S.  Smith  served  for  the  same  time,  W.  P. 
Cowan  closing  the  "period  of  the  judges"  in  1861. 

In  book  B  of  the  court  records  of  the  county  an  illustration  of  the  method 
of  ''binding  out"  is  of  interest,  since  the  present  has  no  cust(»n  that  will  exactly 
compare  with  it.  The  language  explains  the  purpose  of  the  indenture  and  it  is 
only  one  of  many,  found  in  running  over  these  books. 

"And  now  on  the  seventh  day  of  August  in  vacation  comes  Isaac  Stonebnm- 
ner,  a  minor  over  the  age  of  twelve  years  and  having  no  father  or  mother  or  legal 
guardian,  makes  application  to  be  bound  by  letters  of  apprenticeship  to  Thos. 
Dawson,  which,  being  considered,  it  is  ordered  to  be  done."  Articles  of  indenture 
follow:  This  indenture  made  this  seventh  day  of  August,  A.  D.  1856,  between 
the  said  Isaac  Stonebrunner,  a  minor,  of  the  cotmty  of  Cedar,  State  of  Iowa, 
son  of  Isaac  Stonebrunner,  deceased,  late  of  Muscatine  County,  said  minor  hav- 
ing no  father  nor  mother  or  legal  guardian,  does  of  his  own  free  will  and  with 
the  consent  of  Wells  Spicer,  judge  of  Cedar  County,  signifies  by  his  signature  and 
seal  who  does  place  and  bind  him,  the  said  Isaac  Stonebrunner,  as  a  servant 
or  apprentice  to  the  said  Thomas  Dawson  from  date  hereof  until  said  minor  shall 
have  attained  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  which  will  be  on  the  fifteenth  day  of 
May,  in  the  year  1863,  during  all  of  which  time  the  said  Isaac  Stonebrunner  will 
well  and  truly  serve  and  obey  the  said  Thos.  Dawson  as  a  good  and  faithful 
servant  in  all  such  lawful  business  as  the  said  Isaac  shall  be  put  to  concerning 
and  pertaining  to  the  art  of  farming  and  the  other  matters  concerning  said 
Dawson  and  honestly  and  decently  behave  himself  towards  the  same  Dawson  and 
toward  the  remainder  of  the  family.  The  said  Dawson  agrees  on  his  part  to 
furnish  meat,  drink,  washing,  lodging,  and  apparel  for  summer  and  winter  and 
to  instruct  in  reading,  writing,  arithmetic  or  accounts  and  in  morality,  and  in  all 
respects  treat  the  said  minor  the  same  as  his  own  children.  At  the  expiration 
of  said  time  the  said  Dawson  is  to  give  the  minor  a  suit  of  clothes,  one  hundred 
dollars  in  money  or  enter  eighty  acres  of  land  for  him,  as  he  chooses."  The 
agreement  is  signed  by  the  parties  and  approved  by  the  judge. 


Isaac  X  Stonebrunner 

Thos.  Dawson.  19-B 

The  region  that  includes  Cedar  County  was  not  exempt  from  those  experi- 
ences of  outlawry  due  to  a  new  and  in  some  respects  "lawless"  country.  Law- 
less in  the  sense  of  not  ^et  being  provided  with  police  protection  sufficiently 
strong  to  make  thievery  (ktngerous  enough  to  deter  the  unprincipled  from  com- 
mitting crimes  against  the  law  abiding.  To  find  cases  of  marked  character  in 
the  earliest  days  of  settlement  it  is  necessary  to  draw  largely  from  a  few  sources. 
Detaik  are  wanting  in  the  very  early  times  but  scmie  things  illustrating  the  period 
are  used  to  begin  this  chapter.  The  history  of  the  "regulators"  and  their  doings 
of  fifty  or  more  years  ago  are  fairly  set  forth  in  the  papers  of  the  time — much 
more  fully  there  than  in  any  other  place — and  this  source  has  been  freely  drawn 
upon.  Not  in  remote,  but  in  recent  times,  the  unprincipled  man  has  always  found 
his  way  into  the  first  settlements  of  a  productive  country.  He  is  forced  to  go 
on  from  his  old  haunts  when  he  becomes  known  and  when  "law"  is  able  to  en- 


force  its  penalties.  The  pioneer  of  honest  puq)ose  had  more  to  contend  with 
than  the  elements  and  his  want  of  food  and  shelter  ior  thieves  of  various  kinds 
and  of  apparent  honest  countenance,  besides  defrauders  met  him  frequently 
where  he  might  expect  fair  treatment. 

It  is  not  fair  treatment  for  the  lone  settlers  to  be  held  in  contempt  by  the 
desperado  who  can  for  the  time  muster  more  weapons  or  allies  of  his  kind  than 
the  honest  man  he  opposes.  It  is  farther  than  this,  as  one  sees  it  at  this  distant 
day,  a  most  discouraging  thing  to  be  in  possession  of  what  one  calls  money,  only 
to  find  at  last  that  it  is  the  counterfeit  article — ^a  common  occurrence  for  twenty 
years  of  the  early  history  of  this  county  and  its  neighboring  territory. 

It  was  about  1837,  ^^  ^  y^r  ^^ter  the  settlement  of  the  county,  that  counterfeit 
money  became  so  frequent  that  it  is  said  to  have  been  as  common  or  more  com- 
mon than  the  genuine  article.  To  find  the  source  of  such  manufacture  became 
well  nigh  impossible,  since  settlers  were  far  apart  and  government  dficers  not 
numerous.  It  may  have  been  sent  into  the  county  from  some  distance  and  the 
ones  who  furnished  the  distributing  point  were  but  agents  working  on  commis- 
sion. A  few  men  were  powerless  to  trace  the  matter  to  a  conclusicm.  It  was 
fortunate  that  the  people  of  that  time  had  little  use  for  money  or  it  would  have 
been  worse  for  the  trader  than  in  later  days  when  he  must  carry  a  book  to  learn 
his  discounts  on  the  wildcat  bank  currency. 

Certain  signs  and  carriage  of  person  often  indicated  to  the  skillful  observer 
the  occupation,  or  lack  of  occupation,  of  the  professional  thief  or  counterfdter. 
If  he  showed  plenty  of  cash  in  a  country  usually  a  little  short  or  if  his  apparel 
indicated  prosperity  it  was  well  to  be  suspicious  or  at  least  careful  in  all  business 
transactions.  A  common  method  of  dealing  in  an  apparently  honest  way  was  to 
buy  a  horse  and  pay  some  cash,  probably  in  good  money,  but  getting  possessi(Hi 
to  ride  the  animal  away  to  some  safe  place  of  concealment  or  some  market, 
never  to  return  with  the  remainder  of  the  purchase  money. 

It  was  not  always  easy  to  tell  who  might  be  the  confederates  or  who  might 
harbor  the  real  thief  after  his  booty  was  secured.  Some  settler,  from  outward 
appearances,  strictly  up  to  standard  of  honesty,  frequently  was  found  as  blade 
as  any  known  outlaw,  and  worse  from  a  social  point  of  view,  since  he  did  his 
deeds  under  the  garb  of  respectability.  To  illustrate  this  point  it  is  only  neces- 
sary to  study  the  cases  of  robbery  referred  to  in  1856  to  '60. 

"One-thumbed  Thompson"  was  an  individual  that  was  well  known  to  the 
early  settlers  of  Jackson,  Jcmes,  Linn  and  Cedar  Counties.  He  was  a  man  about 
twenty-eight  years  of  age,  rather  above  medium  size,  well  formed,  good  looking, 
and  of  pleasing  address.  So  different  in  ai^>earance  and  manner  from  those  of 
his  associates  was  he  that  one  could  hardly  believe  that  he  was  one  of  the  leaders 
of  the  banditti  that  infected  these  counties. 

His  first  a^>earance  in  Bellevue  was  in  the  spring  of  1837  under  the  assumed 
name  Burton.  I  (Capt.  Warren)  was  introduced  to  him  by  Lyman  Wells,  a  man 
of  suspicious  character  and  who  in  fact  was  known  as  "one  of  the  gang.''  Bur- 
ton left  for  the  West  after  some  days,  leaving  his  wife  at  the  house  of  Wells. 

Some  two  weeks  later  I  received  a  letter  from  Linn  County  signed  by  Israel 
Mitchell,  Mr.  Scott  and  others,  requesting  me  to  come  and  to  bring  some  of  the 
citizens  with  me  and  to  meet  at  Mitchell's,  who  lived  on  the  Cedar  some  distance 


below  where  Cedar  Rapids  is  now  located.  They  said  that  the  country  was  in- 
fested by  a  band  of  outlaws  and  that  their  depredations  had  become  so  frequent 
and  of  so  serious  a  nature  that  something  must  be  done  at  once.  I  was  then 
sheriflf  of  the  three  counties. 

Accompanied  by  three  other  citizens  I  set  out  in  January  for  the  appointed 
place  of  meeting.  A  winter's  day  or  more  brought  us  to  the  Wapsie  river,  and 
after  a  night  spent  here  we  proceeded  to  the  end  of  our  journey.  The  delegates 
from  Cedar  County  were  Messrs.  Whittlesey,  Culbertson,  Roberts  and  others. 
Mr.  Roberts  will  be  remembered  as  our  member  of  the  territorial  legislature, 
who  is  always  recalled  by  the  expression,  "Is  Cedar  in  that  ar  bill  ?"  But  he  was 
true  to  his  constituents.  The  object  for  which  we  met  was  to  devise  ways  and 
means  for  concerted  action  against  the  thieves  and  desperadoes  that  were  preying 
upon  honest  settlers.  As  one  said,  "You  cannot  reach  them  with  the  law,  for 
when  one  of  the  band  is  arrested  there  is  always  one  of  their  number  ready  to 
prove  an  alibi  for  him."  ^^ 

These  few  lines  in  the  beginning  indicated  the  first  steps  taken  to  control  the 
lawless  element  and  also  the  territory  included  in  the  organization.  No  one  county 
as  now  understood  by  county  lines  was  able  to  make  any  progress  in  the  matter 
of  matching  the  cunning  of  the  thief  or  worse  than  thief. 

Severe  measures  were  applied  by  the  outraged  settlers  when  a  man  was 
caught  in  the  game  of  robbery.  Mercy  was  not  common,  judging  from  what  can 
be  learned,  because  the  time  for  mercy  had  passed.  It  is  related  that  about  1839 
the  citizens  first  organized  for  protection  and  forced  the  crowd  known  as  the 
"Brodie  brood"  to  leave  the  coimty.  This  family,  consisting  of  father  and  four 
sons,  came  to  Linn  County  from  Illinois,  and  their  career  is  traced  as  far  as  Ohio, 
always  of  the  same  nature.  This  family  and  their  associates  are  connected  with 
the  story  of  outlawry  in  this  entire  region.  Their  record  is  in  Linn  County,  but 
from  this  side  of  the  line  they  drew  some  of  their  associates.  Horse  stealing 
was  their  favorite  form  of  obtaining  property  unlawfully.  Among  the  early 
settlers  at  Gower's  Ferry,  at  one  time  called  Washington's  Ferry,  now  Cedar 
Bluffs,  there  were  several  who  proved  themselves  renegades  of  the  baser  type. 
There  were  Squires  and  Gove,  Conlogue  and  Stoutenburg,  who  lived  either  in 
this  county  or  near  its  borders  (^rating  in  several  directions  either  as  counter- 
feiters or  burglars.  Under  the  strain  of  so  many  outrages  the  people  became 
insecure,  feeling  perhaps  an  unnecessary  uneasiness  because  of  these,  and  one 
must  be  charitable  in  judging  if  they  seemed  cruel  in  administering  punishment 
when  opportunity  offered. 

During  the  time  of  the  county  seat  contest  and  for  some  time,  when  caucuses 
or  conventions  were  called  for  political  or  other  purposes,  they  met  at  some  set- 
tler's home,  prestmiably  for  want  of  any  public  place.  We  read  of  these  meetings 
being  held  at  Goudy's  or  Gilbert's  in  Linn  County  because  that  county  was  in  a 
district  which  included  Cedar. 

This  man  Goudy  was  reported  to  have  some  means  and,  as  was  customary 
in  those  days  of  no  banks,  the.  only  place  for  money  or  securities  was  in  some 
concealment  about  the  premises  of  the  owner.  While  this  was  unsafe  so  far  as 
the  property  was  concerned,  it  was  still  more  unsafe  for  the  possessor  if  any 


would-be  thief  found  it  out,  since  in  emergencies  such  a  character  does  not  hesi- 
tate to  shoot. 

There  is  a  character  in  Cedar  County  history  whose  name  appears  among 
the  first  on  record  in  the  office  of  the  county  clerk  of  the  courts.  His  name  is 
Switzer  and  his  case  as  recorded  refers  to  an  assault  upon  an  officer  of  the  law. 
This  was  in  territorial  days  and  the  United  States  was  the  prosecutcH-  in  those 
days.  But  this  man  was  not  silenced  then,  for  his  name  became  a  synonym  for 
boldness  in  thievery.  He  was  concerned  in  the  attempt  to  steal  nine  thousand 
dollars  which  the  elder  Goudy  possessed  or  at  least  was  supposed  to  possess. 
This  was  a  deal  of  money  in  those  days  and  one  doubts  the  possibility  of  any 
man  tempting  the  loose  citizenship  by  such  a  quantity  of  wealth.  At  any  rate 
Switzer,  whose  place  of  residence  was  in  the  opposite  direction  from  the  present 
county  seat,  made  an  excuse  of  a  loan  to  find  out  the  truth  concerning  the  Goudy 
money.  It  is  inferred  from  this  that  loans  were  made  under  somewhat  free  con- 
ditions and,  if  we  may  judge  by  the  later  habits  of  men  who  did  business  un(kr 
the  name  of  banks,  more  depended  upon  the  man  personally  than  upon  any  secur- 
ity he  might  furnish. 

Switzer's  loan  being  refused  he  failed  to  find  out  the  true  situation,  but  the 
gang  did  not  hesitate,  and  on  the  chosen  nig^t  after  all  had  become  quiet  the  raid 
was  made  upon  the  househcdd.  The  demand  for  the  money  being  made  all  the 
money  was  turned  over  that  was  likely  to  be  discovered.  No  nine  thousand  dol- 
lars could  be  found  and  some  was  overlooked  that  even  passed  through  the  hands 
of  the  searchers. 

A  daughter  of  Mr.  Goudy,  Mrs.  Shane,  wife  of  Judge  Shane,  has  related  the 
events  as  they  occurred  and  states  that  strict!  search  was  made  for  the  large 
amount,  during  which  search  some  hundred  twenty  dcdlars  was  found,  besides 
the  small  amount  surrendered  by  Mr.  Goudy.  While  searching  the  premises  one 
member  of  the  family  recognized  Switzer  as  the  one  who  had  been  there  to 
borrow  the  money  before. 

Frcmi  this  attempt  they  left  for  the  house  of  William  Gilbert,  referred  to 
as  the  popular  place  on  the  border  of  the  two  counties,  and  made  a  second  at- 
tempt at  robbery  in  the  same  night.  Disguised,  as  they  were^  reoognitioa  was 
not  supposed  to  be  possible,  but  here  an  incident  occurred  that  revealed  the 
character  of  one  neighbor  of  the  Gilberts.  The  drawer  of  a  secretary  was 
opened  by  a  secret  spring  and  was  supposed  to  be  known  only  to  members  of  the 
family,  but  a  member  of  the  gang  of  three  concerned  in  this  attack  seemed  fa- 
miliar with  the  surroundings  and  was  able  to  find  the  supposed  secret  opening. 
He  was  afterwards  fotmd  to  be  a  neighbor  who  heretofore  had  not  been  sus- 
pected. Sheep's  clothing  had  up  to  this  time  concealed  ttie  wolf,  who  only 
waited  an  opportunity  to  reveal  himself.  This  suggests  the  statement  made  in 
the  beginning  that  apparently  faultless  people  were  often  the  most  untrust- 
worthy and  it  was  not  easy  to  select  one's  confidential  friends. 

When  news  of  these  events  became  known  the  cotmty  at  once  became  alarmed 
for  the  future  and  took  steps  to  find  the  guilty  ones. 

Capt.  Thomas  Goudy,  who  lived  near  his  father,  and  had  some  experience 
in  military  affairs  headed  a  group  who  endeavored  to  apprdiend  a  man  by  the 
name  of  Wallace,  one  of  the  suspected  parties.    Col.  Prior  Scott,  of  Pioneer 


Grove,  who  came  to  that  place  in  1837,  as  related  by  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Albaugh, 
now  of  Mechanicsville,  was  asked  for  his  counsel  in  this  case,  as  was  Mr.  J.  W. 
Tallman,  of  Antwerp,  a  town  then  an  aspirant  for  the  county  seat  but  no  longer 
on  the  map.  CoL  Scott  went  about  organizing  a  protection  assodaticm,  and 
this,  so  far  as  records  go,  is  the  first  mention  of  any  organized  movement  for 
mutual  assistance  against  repeated  outrages. 

The  man  Wallace  was  finally  captured  over  in  Illinois,  above  Muscatine.  One 
is  reminded  here  of  the  freedom  of  arrest  in  any  place  outside  the  county  or 
state  or  this  territory  without  any  preliminary  arrangements  or  formality.  Per- 
haps the  pursuers  felt  that  the  pursued  were  very  informal  in  their  thieving 
and  they  had  some  right  to  be  informal  in  the  pursuit  and  even  arrest  if  nothing 
further  was  anticipated. 

Switzer  was  arrested  and  after  preliminary  examination  both  were  held  under 
bonds  to  the  district  court  to  be  held  in  Tipton  in  October,  1841.  Some  appre- 
hensions were  felt  by  tfie  auttiorities  in  the  attempt  to  arrest  Switzer  and  James 
Talhnan,  mentioned  before,  and  secured  assistance  in  making  this  capture  as  the 
suspected  party  was  known  as  a  desperate  and  powerful  man.  During  the 
night  the  house  of  Switzer  was  surroundeo  and  a  demand  made  for  his  sur- 
render, when,  as  expected,  it  was  refused.  The  posse  waited  until  morning,  when 
he  gave  up  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  he  was  prepared  to  resist  if  the  inside  of  his 
cabin  indicated  the  true  state  of  affairs.  Many  suspicious  circumstances  sur- 
round the  cases  of  summary  arrest  and  floggings  mentioned  by  those  who  have 
now  passed  from  the  scenes  of  these  occurrences.  It  is  probably  impossible  to 
establish  the  facts  in  such  cases,  and  while  they  may  not  be  of  any  value  as  facts, 
in  a  narrative  they  serve  only  to  show  the  tendency  of  the  times  to  come  to 
some  law-abiding  standard  that  should  be  lived  up  to  by  all  persons  no  matter 
what  their  former  training  or  experience. 

The  Conlogue  and  Stoutenburg  mentioned  in  the  beginning  were  punished 
severely  and  made  to  confess  their  accomplices  and  then  to  leave  the  country. 
The  particulars  are  not  entertaining  if  true  and  it  only  serves  to  illustrate  the 
earnestness  or  determination  of  the  prosecutors  or  persecutors  to  say  they  were 
flogged  almost  to  death  if  not  quite. 

Other  characters,  including  the  Goodrich,  who  was  among  the  robbers  at 
Gilberts,  were  driven  from  the  country  and  Conlogue  is  said  to  have  served  his 
time  in  the  penitentiary  from  Johnson  County.  As  to  the  facts  in  the  case  we  are 
unable  to  say  for  the  county  clerk  of  Johnson  County  says — ^"The  court  index 
says  the  case  was  docketed  here  but  we  are  unable  to  find  the  record.  There- 
fore we  cannot  give  you  any  further  information."  So  far  as  the  Brodies  in 
Linn  Coimty  were  concerned  the  same  thing  is  true.  The  coimty  clerk  reports 
no  record  that  he  can  find.  If  statements  that  they  were  in  Linn  County  courts 
"almost  every  session"  is  true,  some  record  should  show  it. 

In  the  case  under  discussion,  the  United  States  vs.  H.  E.  Switzer,  charged 
with  burglary,  it  is  quite  remarkable,  when  one  considers  the  nature  of  a  jury, 
that  oat  of  this  jury  lives  now  (July,  1910)  and  tells  of  the  incidents,  as  he 
says,  "as  though  they  happened  yesterday."  To  a  man  ninety-seven  years  of  age 
events  of  diat  time  may  still  be  recalled.  Mr.  Samuel  Gilliland  served  on  the 
Switzer  jury  along  with  eleven  other  men,  all  of  whom  are  gone  from  their 


former  scenes,  and  he  states  the  facts  of  the  trial  substantially  as  they  have  been 
published  but  gives  the  evidence  on  which  the  jury  divided  at  first. 

At  the  preliminary  trial  before  the  justice,  Mrs.  McElheny,  \rfio  was  in  the 
house  the  night  of  the  Goudy  robbery,  recognized  Switzer  and  identified  him 
as  the  man  before  the  justice.  Before  the  case  came  to  trial  this  witness  died 
and  the  justice  gave  her  evidence.  The  trial  judge,  Joseph  Williams,  in  his 
charge  to  the  jury  gave  instructions  to  accept  the  evidence  of  the  justice  as  it 
had  been  given  by  Mrs.  McElheny.  This  was  misunderstood  by  the  jury— or  by 
at  least  three  of  them — and  on  the  first  ballot  it  stood  nine  to  three  for  conviction* 
Afterward  the  judge  and  an  attorney  for  each  side  appeared  before  the  jury  and 
repeated  this  part  of  the  instructions.  On  this  two  members — ^Lewis  and  Bolton — 
voted  with  the  nine.  The  jury  had  gone  out  Thursday  noon,  been  partly  fed 
on  Friday  and  were  not  discharged  until  Saturday  noon.  Qine  held  out  against 
the  eleven,  and  it  is  said  this  was  due  to  Switzer's  intimidation.  He  came  to  a 
window  within  sound  of  the  jury  and  said  with  an  oath :  ''Qine,  hang  till  you 
die,"  meaning,  of  course,  never  to  agree  to  a  verdict.  Mr.  Gilliland  knew  Switzer 
in  the  State  of  Indiana  before  he  came  to  the  territory  of  Iowa  at  alL 

The  jury  sat  at  this  time  in  the  office  of  Jdin  P.  Cook  for  the  forty-eight 
hours  and  had  no  regular  meals  during  die  time.  Wm.  Knott  was  the  bailiff  and 
had  known  Switzer,  having  been  his  friend  to  such  an  extent  that  the  prisoner 
asked  him  for  special  consideration  in  case  the  jury  agreed,  that  he  m^ht  know 
by  a  given  signal  the  truth,  supposed  to  be  desired  diat  he  might  escape  throi^;h 
the  assistance  of  Bums,  a  bully  imported  for  this  purpose.  During  all  tbe 
time  of  the  trial  a  horse  was  kept  in  readiness  by  friends  of  Switzer,  ii^cfa 
he  finally  rode  away  under  the  impression  that  the  jury  had  found  him  guilty. 
Many  things  must  be  supposed  in  cases  so  far  in  the  past,  but  the  izicts  of  the 
trial  are  well  established.*** 

Switzer  was  never  rearrested  although  warrant  was  issued,  and  his  last  record 
was  left  in  California,  where  men  who  knew  him  learned  from  his  own  account 
that  he  was  still  lawless  even  in  his  days  of  prosperity. 

Mr.  Gilliland  remembers  very  well  the  ruffian  Bums  who  was  on  hand  to 
assist  Switzer  in  case  of  need.  One  man  from  Missouri,  Ridgway,  said  to  Bums 
— ^"If  you  do  that  way  in  Missouri  they  will  kill  you,"  and  sure  enough  that  was 
what  happened,  since  he  got  his  deserts  in  that  state  a  short  time  after  these 

It  may  have  been  fortunate  for  all  concerned  that  matters  ended  as  they  did, 
as  more  blood  would  have  been  spilled  in  case  any  attempt  had  been  made  to 
interfere  with  the  court  Committees  for  mutual  protection  were  in  existence 
as  early  as  1837  and  outlaws  knew  well  enough  of  these  organizations.  Switzer 
seemed  to  have  some  dreadful  effect  upon  those  who  undertook  to  arrest  him 
and  the  county  records  prove  it. 

A  part  of  the  court  record  that  should  accompany  the  noted  Switzer  case 
gives  a  suggestion  of  the  large  territory  covered  by  the  offiicers  of  the  judiciary 
in  endeavoring  to  arrive  at  a  just  conclusion  in  reference  to  him.  It  would  ap- 
pear from  the  papers  that  this  man  Switzer  had  plenty  of  friends  to  care  for  bis 
interests.    It  is  certain  that  the  counties  concerned  were  put  to  much  trouble  and 


expense  in  endeavoring  to  convict  him.  In  the  quotations  given  an  attempt  has 
been  made  to  show  with  what  and  in  what  way  the  neighboring  counties  of 
Cedar  were  concerned  in  this  case.  To  begin  with  the  first  appearance  was  in 
Linn  County  or  before  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  that  jurisdiction  which  led  to  the 
qq>earance  of  the  justice  later  in  the  trial  to  furnish  the  evidence  of  one  of  the 
witnesses  who  died  before  the  case  came  to  the  final  settlement.  The  original 
indictment  is  now  on  file  in  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  the  courts  in  Cedar  County, 
number  eighty-seven  of  the  files.  It  contains  some  interesting  details  and  is 
drawn  and  signed  by  the  prosecuting  attorney,  R.  P.  Lowe,  the  governor  of  Iowa 
from  1858  to  i860.    It  reads  in  substance  as  follows : 

Territory  of  Iowa.  District  Court  for  said  Counties. 

Jdinson  and  linn  Counties.  May  Term,  A.  D.  1840. 

The  grand  jurors  for  the  body  of  Johnson  and  Linn  Counties  which  has  been 
by  an  act  of  the  legislature  of  said  territory  attached  to  Johnson  County  for 
judicial  purposes,  duly  elected,  empaneled,  and  sworn,  upon  their  oaths  present 
that  Henry  Switzer  and  Lester  Wallace,  late  of  the  county  of  Linn,  and  William 
Long,  late  of  the  county  of  Cedar,  and  one  other  wicked  and  evil-disposed  person 
as  yet  to  the  grand  jurors  unknown,  on  or  about  the  fourteenth  day  of  April  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  himdred  forty,  about  the  hour  of  eleven 
(Ml  the  night  of  the  same  day  with  force  and  arms,  in  the  county  of  Linn  afore- 
said, the  dwelling  house  of  one  John  Goudy  there  situated,  wilfully,  forcibly 
and  burglariously,  did  break  open  and  enter  with  intent,  the  goods  and  chattels 
of  the  said  John  Goudy,  and  one  Thomas  McElheny  and  E.  Homan  being  then 
and  there  in  said  dwelling  house,  then  and  there  to  wilfully,  forcibly  and  burgla- 
riously to  steal,  take  and  carry  away  from  the  said  dwelling  house  forty  dcdlars 
in  bank  papers  upon  the  state  bank  of  Indiana  of  the  value  of  forty  dollars,  one 
hundred  twenty  dollars  in  silver  coin,  of  the  value  of  one  hundred  twenty  dol- 
lars, seven  pounds  of  sugar  of  the  value  of  eighty-seven  and  a  half  cents,  the 
money  and  property  of  the  said  John  Goudy,  one  silk  handkerchief  of  the  value  of 
one  dollar,  the  property  of  said  Homan,  one  silver  watch  of  the  value  of  fifteen 
dollars,  one  bag  of  the  value  of  fifty  cents,  and  two  handkerchiefs  of  the  valtte 
of  two  dollars,  the  goods  and  chattels  of  the  said  Thomas  Mcllheny  in  the  said 
dwelling  house  being  then  and  there  found,  then  and  there  wilfully,  forcibly  and 
burglariously,  did  steal,  take,  and  carry  away  against  the  peace  and  dignity  of  the 
government  of  the  United  States  and  the  statute  in  such  cases  provided. 

And  the  grand  jurors  empaneled  and  sworn  as  aforesaid  upon  their  oaths 
afcMresaid  further  present  that  Henry  Switzer  and  Lester  Wallace  of  Linn 
CouQty  and  William  Long  of  Cedar  County  and  one  other  widced  person  to  the 
grand  jurors  unknown,  on  or  about  the  fourteenth  day  of  April  in  the  year  afore- 
said, about  the  hour  aforesaid,  with  force  and  arms  in  the  county  of  linn,  enter 
with  intent  the  goods  and  chattels  of  said  John  Goudy  to  steal  and  carry  away, 
and  did  threaten  with  dangerous  weapons  and  committed  personal  abuse  upon  the 
said  Goudy,  against  the  peace  and  dignity  of  the  United  States  and  the  statute 
in  such  cases  made  and  provided. 

Signed,  R.  P.  Lowe, 

Prosecuting  Attorney. 


This  day  Henry  Switzer  being  arraigned  and  hearing  the  indictment  read 
plead  not  guilty  and  puts  himself  upon  the  county  and  the  district  attorney  did 
the  like. 

On  this  same  sheet  of  foolscap  paper  at  the  bottom  of  the  last  page,  as  it  is 
a  half  sheet  written  on  both  sides,  appears  the  affidavit  of  the  county  clerk  of 
Washington  County  which  explains  itself. 
Territory  of  Iowa, 
Washington  County. 

I,  Thomas  Baker,  clerk  of  the  district  court  in  and  for  the  said  county,  do 
certify  the  foregoing  to  be  the  original  indictments  as  they  came  to  my  hands, 
and  afterwards  ordered  by  the  courts  to  be  sent  back  to  Johns (t)on  County.  In 
testimony  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  affixed  the  temporary  seal  of 
said  court. 

At  Washington,  Iowa,  this  22d  day  of  October,  A.  D.  1840. 
Seal  Attached.  Thomas  Baker. 

On  a  folder  enclosing  the  formal  indictment  and  probably  at  the  time  a  part 
of  the  same  sheet,  the  following  statement  is  written : 
Now  to  wit.  May  14,  1840, 

This  case  came  on  for  trial  whereupon  the  defendant  in  this  case,  Lester  Wal- 
lace, being  arraigned  and  hearing  the  indictment  read  plead  not  guilty  to  the  sev- 
eral counts. in  said  indictment  and  puts  himself  upon  the  county  for  trial  and  the 
district  attorney  did  the  like  and  the  issue  was  joined." 

Another  affidavit  appears  here  from  the  county  of  Johnson : 
"Territory  of  Iowa, 
Johnson  County,  ss. 

I,  Stephen  B.  Gardner,  Qerk  of  the  District  Court  in  and  for  said  county, 
do  hereby  certify  the  annexed  to  be  the  true  and  original  indictment  against  the 
parties  therein  named  as  cmginally  filed  in  my  office.  In  testimony  whereof  I 
have  caused  hereunto  to  be  set  my  hand  and  affixed  the  seal  of  said  court  at  Iowa 
City,  this  the  14th  day  of  November,  1840." 

Signed,  Stephen  B.  Gardner, 

Qerk  District  Court,  Johnson  County. 
Seal  attached. 

This  seal  is  a  piece  of  paper  cut  in  the  form  of  a  diamcmd  and  attached  by 
the  impression  of  some  plain  instrument  upon  the  sealing  wax. 

The  name  of  the  foreman  of  the  grand  jury  that  made  this  indictment  is 
found  under  the  item  on  the  folded  sheet  and  signed,  "J^sse  B.  McGrew,  Fore- 
man." The  names  of  three  of  the  witnesses  in  the  case  are  on  the  same  part  of 
the  sheet,  John  Goudy,  Thomas  Goudy  and  Mrs.  Mcllheny.  It  was  presented 
and  filed  in  open  court  on  the  13th  day  of  May,  1840,  which  is  certified  to  by 
Luke  Douglass,  Qerk  of  the  Courts  then  for  Johnson  County.  It  was  filed  in 
Washington  Coimty  June  15,  1840,  and  in  Linn  County  October  20,  1840.  Re- 
turned as  stated  to  Johnson  County  in  November  of  the  same  year. 

Here  is  the  warrant  for  the  arrest  of  the  three  men  indicted : 
Territory  of  Iowa, 
County  of  Johnson,  ss. 

May  Term,  District  Court,  184a 


To  the  Shcriflf  of  Johnson  County,  greeting : 

You  are  hereby  c<xnmanded  to  take  the  bodies  of  Lester  Wallace,  Henry 
Sweitzer  and  William  Long,  and  keep  them  safely  so  that  you  have  them  forth- 
with before  the  district  court  now  in  session  at  Iowa  City  in  and  for  Johnson 
County  aforesaid  to  answer  to  the  United  States  of  America  in  an  indictment  for 
burglary,  whereof  fail  not  under  the  penalty  of  the  law  and  have  you  then  and 
there  this  writ  with  your  doings  herein. 

Witness  the  Hon.  Joseph  Williams,  Judge  of  the  second 
judicial  district  and  presiding  judge  of  this  court,  with  the 
seal  hereunto  affixed,  this  the  13th  day  of  May,  1840. 

It  is  evident  that  the  paper  was  not  served,  as  there  is  no  return  upon  it,  and 
the  next  record  is  that  of  the  justice  of  the  peace,  John  G.  Cole,  before  whom 
Switzer  ^ppesirtd  with  his  bondsman,  James  Leverich,  and  gave  bonds  for  his 
appearance  in  the  district  court  in  Linn  County  and  to  keep  the  peace  toward 
John  Goudy  in  the  meantime.  The  court  in  Marion  met  in  May,  1841,  when  the 
attorneys  for  the  defendant  made  a  motion  for  his  discharge,  these  attorneys 
being  Hastings  and  Richman.  Judge  Williams  overruled  the  motion.  On  being 
arraigned  a  plea  was  made  for  a  change  of  venue  to  Cedar  County.  The  reasons 
given  in  the  plea  are  as  recorded  in  the  papers  accompanying  the  transcript  of 
the  proceedings  of  the  court  in  Linn  County.  Defendant  plead  that  grezt  feel- 
ing and  excitement  in  relation  to  the  matters  named  in  the  indictment  in  the 
county  of  Linn,  and  that  prejudice  against  him  made  the  securing  of  justice 
impossible  asking  for  the  change  as  mentioned.  The  plea  was  sworn  to  before 
the  clerk  of  the  courts  in  Marion,  S.  H.  Tryon,  on  the  25th  day  of  May,  1841. 

To  this  trial  in  Marion  witnesses  were  stmimoned  from  Linn,  Cedar,  Mus- 
catine Counties,  who  will  probably  appear  at  the  trial  in  Cedar.  John  Huber 
was  the  assistant  prosecuting  attorney  in  this  trial. 

In  October,  1841,  the  court  assembled  in  Cedar  County  when  tfie  attorney  for 
the  defendant,  Stephen  Whicher,  moved  to  discharge  the  prisoner  because  he  had 
not  been  duly  tried  at  the  term  of  court  next  succeeding  his  arrest,  and  because 
the  certificate  of  Johnson  County  regarding  the  indictment  was  not  such  as  the 
law  required  and  because  the  clerk  of  the  courts  of  Linn  County  had  not  made 
out  the  record  according  to  the  order  of  the  court  and  affilxed  his  hand  and  seal. 
The  result  is  given  elsewhere  at  the  end  of  the  trial  in  the  court  of  Cedar  County 
and  a  warrant  is  on  file  for  the  arrest  of  Sweitzer  dated  October  25,  1841,  which 
states  that  he  could  not  be  found.  This  must  have  been  after  he  left  the  court 
so  suddenly  on  ttie  swift  horse  placed  at  his  disposal  after  the  jury  had  disagreed. 
In  the  matter  of  final  settlement  there  is  some  interesting  history. 
The  United  States  of  America  to  the  clerk  of  the  district  court  in  the  county  of 


Whereas  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Territory  of  Iowa  being  lately  notified  of 
the  record  of  the  proceedings  in  a  certain  cause  which  was  in  the  district  court 
for  the  county  of  Cedar  and  Territory  aforesaid,  wherein  the  United  States  was 
plaintiff  and  H.  E.  Sweitzer  defendant ;  in  which  cause  judgment  was  rendered 
against  Linn  County  for  costs,  from  which  judgment  the  said  Linn  County  sued 
out  a  writ  of  error  from  the  said  Supreme  Court  and  the  said  court  having  ex- 
amined the  record  and  proceedings  aforesaid  in  the  premises  at  Iowa  City  on  the 


6th  day  of  January,  1844,  did  affirm  the  judgment  aforesaid  as  tendered  in  the 
court  below. 

Wherefore,  you  are  commanded  that,  with  that  speed  which  of  right  and  ac- 
cording to  law  you  may,  you  proceed  in  the  same  manner  as  if  no  writ  of  error 
had  been  sued  out  and  presented  in  this  court;  anything  in  the  record  and  pro- 
ceedings of  the  aforesaid,  heretofore  certified,  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

Witness,  the  Hon.  Charles  Mason,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  with 
the  seal  of  the  said  court  hereunto  affixed  at  Iowa  City  this  2d  day  of  Fd>ruary, 


Signed,  Geo.  S.  Hampton, 
Qerk  of  the  Supreme  Court,  Territory  of  Iowa. 

The  last  record  of  the  matter  was  the  presentation  of  a  Icmg  itemized  bill  of 
expenses  to  Linn  County  for  the  trial  of  the  case  in  Cedar.    It  runs  officially  as 
follows  as  between  the  two  counties: 
Territory  of  Iowa, 
Cedar  County,  ss. 
The  United  States  of  America,  to  the  Sheriff  of  linn  County,  Greeting: 

You  are  hereby  commanded  that  of  the  goods  and  chattels,  lands  and  tene- 
ments of  Linn  County  you  cause  to  be  made  the  sum  of  Two  Hundred  Ninety-six 
dollars  and  thirty-seven  and  a  half  cents  costs  which  was  adjudged  at  the  May 
term  of  court,  A.  D.  1842,  for  Cedar  County,  against  the  said  Linn  County  in  a 
certain  cause  wherein  the  United  States  was  plaintiff  and  Henry  £.  Sweitzer  was 
the  defendant,  together  with  all  legal  costs  ttiat  may  accrue  by  virtue  of  this 
execution  and  that  you  make  due  return  of  the  same  of  the  above  mentioned  sum 
within  seventy  days  from  the  date  hereof  and  have  you  then  and  there  this  writ 

Witness,  the  Hon.  Joseph  Williams,  Judge  of  the  second  judicial  district  with- 
in and  for  said  territory  and  the  seal  of  said  court  hereunto  affixed  at  Tipton, 
this  13th  day  of  February,  1844. 

Signed,  Patterson  Fleming, 

Qerk  District  Court,  Cedar  County. 

This  is  returned  with  the  following  indorsement : 
J  return  this  writ  not  served  by  direction  of  the  clerk  who  issued  the  same. 

March  20,  1844.  Signed,  H.  W.  Geay,  Sheriff.^* 

Jime,  1857,  the  county  became  aroused  over  the  tendency  of  the  people  to  take 
the  law  into  their  own  hands  so  far  as  certain  groups  of  men  were  concerned 
This  perhaps  not  without  reason.  The  constant  attempts  of  oiiganized  gangs  to 
possess  the  property  of  honest  citizens  made  patience  no  longer  a  virtue  and 
"mob  law"  seemed  the  only  remedy.  According  to  the  story  of  the  time  this 
movement  was  initiated  from  Jackson  County.  As  the  account  of  that  day  puts 
it  this  infected  region  of  outlaws  lay  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the  county  and 
near  to  the  east  line,  although  thieving  was  common  in  all  parts  this  was  a  centre. 

One  Alonzo  Page  lived  in  Springfield  Township  near  Yankee  Run,  For 
a  ntunber  of  years  his  house  had  been  the  headquarters  of  horsethieves,  burglars, 
counterfeiters  and  perhaps  worse  characters  who  did  not  hesitate  to  kill  This 
is  said  to  have  been  an  admirable  place  to  secrete  horses  and  other  stolen  prc^rty. 
The  neighborhood  had  known  for  s<xne  time  that  this  was  a  den  of  villains,  chat 
for  a  long  time  stolen  horses  were  tracked  directly  to  this  place.     Sometime 


during  the  year  of  1856  counterfeit  money  came  from  this  quarter  on  which 
occasion  a  body  of  neighbors  sot^t  the  vendors  only  to  find  that  they  had 
fled  on  the  approach  of  the  mob.  On  this  occasion  Page  was  notified  to  leave  the 
cotmtry  or  to  cease  his  harboring  of  the  gang.  He  paid  no  attention  to  this 
warning  and  the  place  became  more  and  more  dangerous  for  law-abiding  citizens. 
The  people  were  threatened  in  case  they  attempted  to  interfere  with  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  gang. 

After  nearly  a  year  of  endurance  until  the  time  menticmed,  Jime,  1857,  the 
people,  meaning  by  the  people  the  able-bodied  and  suffering  also,  for  the  imposi- 
tion had  been  cm  all  alike,  lost  patience  and  forming  a  mob  made  a  raid  on  Page 
and  his  followers.  He  was  at  home  and  on  the  approach  fired  several  shots  from 
his  window.  This  did  not  stop  the  mob  but  rushing  on  when  Page  attempted  to 
escape  he  was  shot  and  wounded  before  he  could  reach  the  timber. 

On  the  following  night  the  horsethieves  made  another  expedition  into  the 
vicinity  taking  a  span  of  horses  from  Mr.  Chase,  but  the  ccMimiunity  being 
aroused  they  were  pursued  and  compelled  to  abandon  their  booty.  An  attempt 
was  made  by  a  mob  of  one  hundred  fifty  men  to  find  these  thieves  but  no  one  was 

The  opinion  was  then  current  that  a  'Vigilance  committee"  was  a  beneficial  or- 
ganization when  it  could  clear  the  county  of  desperadoes  that  courts  had  failed 
to  convict.  When  this  was  the  only  remedy  it  must  be  used,  but  it  was  liable  to 
great  abuse. 

One  of  the  Page  gang  mentioned  above  later  passed  west  on  his  way  going 
through  Tipton  and  escaped  the  penalty  that  afterwards  befell  his  companions. 
It  appears  that  the  mob  which  assembled  at  Page's  had  warrants  legally  issued 
for  Wm.  T.  Denney,  who  had  gone  west,  before  further  action,  for  Page,  Gleason, 
Conklin,  Sergeant,  Qute,  Johnson  and  Baird.  Later  in  June  of  1857,  a 
large  number  of  men  assembled  at  the  home  of  a  Mr.  Hoyte.  The  warrants 
were  placed  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Hammond  as  deputy-sheriff.  The 
number  assembled  here  was  two  hundred  fifty-eight  but  as  many  as  five  hundred 
it  is  estimated  would  have  been  present  had  the  night  not  been  dark  and  rainy. 
This  body  proceeded  once  more  to  the  home  of  Page  but  found  no  one  but  his 

On  their  departure  from  this  point  they  arrested  a  young  man  on  suspicion 
who  protested  his  innocence  since  he  had  been  in  the  state  but  a  short  time. 
He,  however,  gave  the  names  of  the  gang  of  counterfeiters  saying  he  had  been 
offered  a  commission  on  all  the  money  of  that  kind  he  could  pass,  and  he  had 
also  been  invited  to  engage  in  the  business  of  horse  stealing.  The  young  man 
was  "advised"  and  set  free. 

They  went  next  to  the  home  of  the  widow  Denson's  who  afterwards  was 
known  as  Mrs.  Warn.  Mr.  Warn  it  appears  was  present  and  being  quite  in- 
dependent in  his  attitude  was  handled  somewhat  roughly,  after  which  he  be- 
came quite  peaceable.  Mrs.  Denson  was  notified  to  leave  in  ninety  days  which 
she  promised  to  do.  She  and  her  children  had  a  fine  farm.  C.  W.  Qute  one  of 
the  gang  was  her  son-in-law.  An  indictment  was  found  against  him  for  horse 
stealing  before  these  events. 


The  mob  now  dispersed  agreeing  to  meet  the  same  week  on  Friday  night  at 
the  courthouse  to  form  what  was  called  a  "protecticm  society."  *^ 

Reports  are  made  to  the  effect  that  in  the  attempt  to  capture  Page  two  M 
citizens,  Reason  and  Harvey  Parr  were  seriously  injured. 

The  posse  sent  to  capture  these  men  was  not  composed  of  the  rough  and  law- 
less element,  but  of  the  most  respected  and  eldest  citizens  of  the  time.  They  had 
borne  the  outrages  too  long  to  be  blamed  for  taking  summary  action  in  extreme 

During  the  same  period,  probably  the  same  wedc,  the  vigilance  committee  of 
Clinton  County  were  doing  the  same  service  for  that  community.  It  is  stated 
that  four  hundred  men  assembled  at  Qamshellford  on  the  Wapsipinicon,  and 
going  to  the  house  of  an  old  man  by  the  name  of  Warren  arrested  him  and  thrtt 
others.  Evidence  being  found  against  him  he  was  hanged,  the  three  others  being 
held  in  custody.  The  excitement  did  not  cease  for  it  is  related  that  five  hundred 
men  could  be  brought  together  on  short  notice.  Qeason  was  tracked  from  his 
hiding  place  to  a  point  three  miles  south  of  Tipton,  but  the  crowd  failed  to  get 
him.  There  were  rumors  of  all  sorts  due  to  the  excitement  and  one  must  have 
had  difficulty  in  finding  what  was  true  until  after  the  nobe  had  disappeared. 
Qute  was  f^lowed  nearly  to  Davenport  and  was  once  in  the  hands  of  the  mob, 
but  was  released  for  want  of  evidence  against  him.  It  was  later  found  that  he 
was  deeply  concerned  in  the  affairs  of  the  gang  and  a  second  capture  meant  one 
of  two  things  in  the  language  of  the  day — ^"planting''  or  ''suspending"  him.  It  is 
very  conclusive  from  records  made  during  that  period  that  no  one  county  was 
concerned.  Jackson,  Qinton,  Scott  and  Muscatine  Counties  were  aroused  at  the 
same  time.  A  big  meeting  was  held  at  Big  Rock  over  the  county  line  and  it  was 
addressed  by  Judge  Bissell,  Wells  Spicer  and  others. 

About  this  time  a  horse  was  taken  from  the  farm  of  David  Wright,  three 
miles  south  of  Tipton,  and  one  also  from  the  stable  of  Mr.  Ford.  Both  of  these 
are  supposed  to  have  been  run  off  by  Gleason  and  his  confederates.  A  man 
caught  with  horses  in  his  possession  for  which  he  could  give  no  good  account  was 
in  a  very  dangerous  situation. 

At  the  Big  Rock  meeting  the  best  of  spirit  prevailed,  the  only  object  being  a 
determination  to  rid  theentire  portion  of  the  state  of  these  renegades. 

On  July  3,  1857,  word  was  brought  to  Tipton  that  Gleason  and  others  were 
in  the  woods  south  of  town  and  at  once  large  numbers  of  men  went  in  pursuit, 
returning  at  noon  with  the  three — Alonzo  Gleason,  Ed.  Soper  and  Van  Ausdd. 
They  were  in  charge  of  the  sheriff  who  headed  the  posse.  When  they  entered 
town  they  were  led  by  a  martial  band  of  music,  some  two  hundred  men  all  armed 
to  the  teeth.  The  prisoners  were  in  the  centre  of  a  hollow  square  of  footmen 
who  acted  as  a  guard.  Behind  them  came  a  long  train,  composed  of  both  horses 
and  wagons.  Great  excitement  prevailed  over  the  entire  community,  the  town 
being  filled  with  hundreds  of  men  all  carrying  arms.  An  eye  witness  of  the  cap- 
ture of  Gleason  put  it  in  the  following  words :  **I  was  a  boy  then  and  remember 
distinctly  the  occasion  of  Qeason's  capture  in  the  brush  near  my  father's  farm. 
He  was  concealed  in  the  underbrush  and  not  easily  located.  When  the  mob  came 
close  upon  him  instead  of  resisting  he  rose  straight  up,  threw  up  his  hands  and 
surrendered.    No  one  seemed  to  realize  that  he  was  the  man  wanted  and  it  took 



some  time  to  call  the  men  off  the  hunt.  Gleason  was  shaking  from  head  to  foot, 
for  well  he  knew  the  consequences  of  capture  by  an  uncontrolled  mob.  Seeing 
my  father  he  approached  him  and  said,  'Howdy  do,  Mr.  B.'  Once  in  charge  <^ 
the  sheriff  his  bravado  returned  to  him  and  the  cringing  fear  was  not  notice- 
aWe.''  aai 

In  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  Thursday,  the  last  posse  returned,  having  in 
custody  Walter  Cassiday,  who  was  taken  with  the  Wright  horse  in  his  possession. 
He  said  he  went  in  search  of  the  horse  for  Mr.  Wright  and  found  it.  Called 
before  Justice  Long  his  wife  made  complaint  against  him  to  keep  the  peace  since 
he  had  treatened  her  life,  and  she  also  swore  that  he  did  steal  the  horse  and  was 
returning  it  to  obtain  the  fifty  dollars  reward  offered  for  its  recovery. 

The  three  men  were  in  the  hands  of  Sheriff  Bireley  at  the  end  of  the  day, 
Thursday,  July  2.  On  the  next  morning  at  one  o'clock,  when  plans  were  matured 
two  of  these  men  were  removed  from  the  custody  of  the  sheriff  who  made  an 
attempt  to  protect  them.  On  the  afternoon  before  it  was  a  foregone  conclusion 
as  to  what  would  happen  before  morning.  A  rider  was  seen  to  leave  the  county 
seat  and  head  for  the  northeast  where  the  vigilance  committee  had  its  headquar- 
ters. Fathers  who  had  sons  in  the  town  urged  them  to  come  home.  None  knew 
better  than  these  the  tragedy  about  to  occur. 

Gleason  and  Soper  were  taken  in  the  manner  best  described  by  the  local  news 
of  the  day : 

"Friday  morning. 
"Last  night  about  one  o'clock  a  mob  numbering  several  hundred  went  to  the^ 
court  house,  where  the  prisoners  were  placed  under  a  strong  guard,  took  Gleason 
and  Soper  and  then  left  for  the  country.    Sheriff  Bireley  and  the  guards  made 
a  desperate  resistance,  but  it  was  useless  ag^nst  such  numbers.     Gleason  and 
S(^r  are  probably  hung.    We  have  just  taken  a  view  of  the  court  house  where 
the  prisoners  were  placed.    The  door  is  broken,  the  stove,  table  and  other  furni- 
ture smashed  and  thrown  around,  giving  evidence  of  a  hard  struggle." 
"P.  S. — ^Word  has  just  reached  us  that  Gleason  and  Soper  are  hung."  *** 
To  give  a  full  description  of  what  occurred  in  the  attack  on  the  court  house 
at  this  time  one  would  need  the  story  from  several  sources.    It  has  been  summed 
up  in  a  vivid  way  from  which  certain  facts  are  drawn  bearing  on  the  general 
history  of  the  case  and  showing  the  spirit  of  the  county  which  was  only  one 
among  a  group  determined  to  rid  their  respective  environments  of  the  menace 
of  the  lawless  element. 

In  the  attack  on  the  guards  the  mob  were  well  organized  and  made  three  at- 
tempts, so  it  is  said,  before  succeeding  in  overpowering  the  protecting  force. 
Many  were  injured  and  had  to  be  carried  away.  All  were  disguised.  The  signal 
for  assembly  was  a  pistol  shot  when  two  hundred  men  came  from  everywhere  to 
break  in  the  door  witfi  a  "battering  ram."  As  soon  as  Gleason  and  Soper  v/ere 
taken  they  gathered  in  their  wagcMis  previously  removed  outside,  leaving  Cassidy 
in  the  hands  of  the  sheriff,  Van  Ausdel  having  been  already  released  supposedly 
as  innocent.  All  was  quiet  the  next  morning  and  the  day  passed  off  without 
bringing  any  news  of  the  "regulators."  Such  a  condition  today  would  of  course 
be  impossible.  The  rural  phone  allows  no  such  condition,  but  then  it  was  neces- 
sary to  send  a  messenger  in  case  news  came  at  all. 

822       •  HISTORY  OF  CEDAR  COUNTY 

An  eye  witness  makes  a  statement  of  what  actually  occurred  at  the  execu- 
tion. The  summary  of  his  statement  is  as  follows :  The  two  men  were  taken  in 
(he  wagons  to  Yankee  Run.  As  many  as  three  hundred  men  assembled  and  a 
jury  of  twelve  men  was  empaneled,  giving  the  prisoners  the  privil^e  of  object- 
ing if  they  chose.  They  expressed  themselves  as  satisfied.  An  examination  was 
held  lasting  two  or  three  hours,  the  persons  being  separated  during  this  exam- 
ination. The  jury  deliberated  but  a  short  time  when  a  verdict  of  guilty  was  ren- 
dered, after  which  the  prisoners  publicly  confessed  the  same.  They  gave  the  r^- 
olators  the  names  of  thirty  or  more  who  belonged  to  the  gang  of  horsethieves 
and  counterfeiters.  The  execution  f (flowed.  At  this  time  those  implicated  by 
the  confessicm  suddenly  left,  never  to  return.  It  is  said  that  several  left  as  soon 
as  they  heard  of  the  arrest  and  before  any  confession.  Many  men  of  good  cir- 
cumstances were  implicated. 

Word  was  sent  to  the  friends  of  the  victims  to  come  for  the  bodies  in  accord- 
ance with  which  notice  the  mother  and  brothers  of  Soper  took  his  body  to  Tipton 
and  deposited  it  in  the  burying  ground.  What  became  of  Gleason's  body  is  not 
stated,  but  it  is  probably  buried  where  it  was  cut  down,  if  rtunors  are  to  be  relied 
upon  to  any  extent.  The  morning  after  the  prisoners  were  removed  from  the 
court  rocmi  was  one  of  curious  interest  as  to  what  had  occurred,  although  one 
would  suppose  that  it  did  not  require  a  very  fertile  imaginaticm  to  picture  the 
events  that  really  transpired.  Every  one  coming  in  from  the  north  or  east  was* 
questioned  about  the  news  of  the  day.  Everybody  had  gone  to  the  hanging. 
Travellers  wishing  to  cross  the  Wapsie  had  to  be  ferried  over  by  women  as  "all 
the  men  had  gone  to  the  hanging."  No  one  was  at  home  but  the  'Vomen  folks'* 
as  "all  the  men  had  gone,  etc." 

The  confessions  of  these  two  men  led  to  a  stir  in  Jones  County.  A  committee 
of  several  htmdred  citizens  assembled  above  Rome  in  Jones  County  and  arrested 
two  men  who  confessed  to  many  things,  but  promising  to  reform  were  pardoned 
or  set  free  for  some  good  reason.  The  mob  then  went  to  Rcmie  to  wait  upon  a 
merchant  and  a  landlord  to  effect  some  change  in  their  future  actions  it  is  said. 

Countless  rumors  arose  in  near-by  counties  of  what  was  transpiring  in  Cedar 
and  doubtless  some  false  stories  were  set  afloat.  It  may  be  that  many  are  not  to 
be  depended  upon  for  a  grain  of  truth  and  it  was  a  long  time  before  quiet  was 

A  mob  assembled  in  Mechanicsville  to  punish  two  men  implicated  by  the  con- 
fession of  those  executed  and  the  sheriff  was  called  upon  to  take  a  hand.  These 
men  had  left  the  county  for  safety  but  after  the  excitement  had  passed  returned, 
when  a  mob  took  them  into  custody.  A  jury  was  selected  to  try  them.  On  prom- 
ise of  good  behavior  they  were  discharged  although  it  was  stated  they  confessed 
to  passing  counterfeit  money. 

The  "Muscatine  Journal"  reported  some  good  service  by  the  Cedar  County  reg- 
ulators in  warning  two  citizens  of  that  county,  suspected  of  horse  stealing  and 
counterfeiting,  to  leave  the  country  in  ten  days.  It  hoped  that  such  extreme 
measures  as  hanging  would  not  be  resorted  to  but  the  persons  whose  names  were 
mentioned  ought  to  be  arrested  and  the  charges  against  them  investigated  ac- 
cording to  law,  for  they  have  long  been  suspected  of  such  nefarious  operatknis. 


In  Atignst  1857,  seven  men  were  arrested  by  Sheriff  Huber  in  Massillon 
Township  upon  the  charge  of  being  concerned  in  the  lynching  of  the  two  men  at 
Yankee  Run,  They  were  brought  before  Judge  Tuthill  and  admitted  to  bail  in 
the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars  each  to  appear  at  the  next  term  of  court  for 
trial.  Most  of  these  men  were  old  settlers  and  with  the  exception  of  this  affair 
had  always  been  peaceable  and  law-abiding  citizens.  Further  record  of  public 
nature  is  not  mentioned.^* 

Men  now  living  know  who  were  concerned  in  s<xne  of  the  activities  of  the 
watchful  conmiittees  for  mutual  protection,  but  they  are  silent  on  these  subjects 
although  the  case  is  so  far  past  it  would  matter  little  now  if  the  particulars  were 
put  on  record.  Correspondence  fails  to  bring  any  answers  to  questions  on  the 
subject.    Though  facts  may  do  no  harm  they  cannot  be  had. 

The  lynching  of  Roberts  was  late  enough  in  county  history  for  a  complete 
record  to  be  obtained  if  those  who  know  could  be  induced  to  tell  about  it.  His 
case  is  not  different  from  others  beyond  the  fact  that  he  was  taken  over  the 
county  line  into  Jones  and  that  brought  the  indictments  from  Jones  upon  the  sup- 
posedly guilty  ones  here. 

Roberts  was  said  to  have  confessed  to  any  number  of  crimes,  especially  to 
counterfeiting,  but  he  was  a  victim  of  his  associates  in  the  beginning,  for  had 
he  not  kept  constant  company  with  the  suspicious  element  he  might  have  avoided 
such  serious  consequences.  He  made  his  headquarters  in  this  county  at  the  home 
of  Jim  Hanlin,  whose  name  appears  on  a  document  under  a  patriotic  title  during 
the  Civil  war,  but  the  purpose  of  which  was  evident  from  the  form  of  agree- 
ment— ^namely,  to  resist  the  government  in  case  of  draft.  Here  Roberts  was  taken 
and  carried,  or  hustled  we  would  say,  to  the  farm  bam  of  George  Saum,  whose 
biography  one  may  find  in  a  recent  Jones  County  history,  and  here  after  summary 
trial  somewhat  confusing  as  to  exact  details  Roberts  was  hung  to  a  beam. 

Subsequently  a  number  of  Cedar  County  men  were  placed  under  bonds  to 
appear  for  trial  and  a  hundred  or  more  citizens  signed  for  their  due  appearance. 
The  grand  jury  of  Jones  County  never  brought  any  indictments  and  when  one 
considers  the  close  relation  of  the  counties  in  their  eflforts  to  rid  the  territory  of 
loose  characters  it  is  not  strange  that  the  people  took  care  that  their  servants  in 
executing  the  guilty  in  such  a  summary  manner  did  not  in  the  end  suffer  much 
inconvenience.  This  was  almost  the  last  of  the  active  service  of  the  vigilants  and 
they  ceased  to  be  needed.  Yet  one  finds  them  with  annual  meetings  and  new  men- 
bers  as  the  following  pages  show.  While  the  immediate  need  for  mutual  pro- 
tection societies  passed  away  after  the  "reign  of  terror"  in  the  fifties,  and  the 
horse  thieves  disappeared  for  a  time  the  organization  was  kept  up  to  a  much 
later  date.  An  account  of  a  meeting  of  one  of  these  is  given  by  a  member:  ''In 
the  year  1857,  twenty  years  ago  (1877),  the  citizens  of  Red  Oak  and  vicinity 
organized  themselves  into  a  mutual  protective  association  and  after  administering 
several  doses  of  their  kind  of  justice,  horse  stealing  and  destruction  of  property 
have  become  rare  occurrences.  On  the  eleventh  inst.  (June,  ^Tj)  this  mutual 
protective  association,  alias  Regulators,  met  at  the  Safley  school  house  for  their 
annual  session.  It  was  called  to  order  by  the  president,  new  members  were  ad- 
mitted and  the  usual  form  of  business  conducted.  The  reports  of  the  officers 
were  read  and  found  correct.    Committee  on  finance  reported  funds  enough  in 


the  treasury  for  any  common  emergency.  There  used  to  be  an  idea  afloat  that  all 
they  wanted  was  an  excuse  to  act  but  it  is  only  stem  necessity  that  compds  the 
R^jttlators  to  act.  The  election  of  officers  in  1877  resulted  in  the  following: 
President,  Wm.  M.  Knott;  Secretary,  Henry  Walters;  Treasurer,  Samuel  Yule; 
Trustees,  Moses  Bunker,  William  Dallas,  James  Davidson  and  John  Graham.*** 

Between  three  and  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  twenty-third  of  April, 
1873*  what  has  been  pronounced  the  most  daring  robbery  ever  committed  in  the 
town  of  Tipton  occurred,  by  one  Crawford,  who  was  supposed  to  have  entered 
the  town  from  far  distant  territory  for  the  express  purpose  of  robbing  the  office 
of  the  county  treasurer.  In  this  undertaking  he  was  baffled,  for  it  happened  that 
some  one  remained  too  long  on  the  grounds  for  him  to  act.  Being  of  a  disposi- 
tion to  improve  his  opportunities  he  turned  his  attention  to  the  jewelry  store  of  Mr. 
Rowell  which  he  entered  through  a  broken  front  window.  The  noise  had  aroused 
the  residents  of  the  vicinity  but  before  the  alarm  was  given  the  safe  was  blown 
and  its  contents  carried  away.  Geo.  S.  Hicks  had  ro<Hns  directly  across  the  street 
and  gave  the  alarm  later  and  then  the  pursuit  began.  Crawford  had  his  team 
ready  and  took  a  direct  line  for  the  river.  The  booty  he  carried  amounted  to 
less  than  five  hundred  dollars  but  such  is  the  fo(dishness  of  men  who  prefer 
thievery  to  honest  work  that  he  risked  his  neck  to  get  it. 

By  the  time  the  sheriff  and  deputy,  the  detectives  and  the  marshal,  and  the 
owner  of  the  property  were  sufficiently  aroused  the  culprit  was  several  miles  on 
his  way  of  escape.  There  was  no  way  of  heading  the  man  off  as  now,  not  even 
a  telegraph  line  nearer  than  nine  miles,  so  the  only  way  to  make  chase  which 
immediately  began.  Across  the  country  to  Lowden  two  men  came  upon  the  trail 
first.  These  were  O.  W.  Porter  and  Eugene  Holtslander.  Here  they  summcmed 
aid  in  the  person  of  Barney  McCabe,  and  continued  the  lively  chase  to  Bdlevtie, 
Jackson  County,  where  they  arrived  at  one  in  the  morning.  The  fugitive  had 
crossed  only  a  few  hours  before  and  the  ferryman  set  them  over  the  river  on 
their  way  toward  Galena  whither  they  supposed  the  law  breaker  had  hurried. 
In  this  they  were  compelled  to  go  over  several  miles  of  overflowed  territory 
through  which  the  generous  ferryman  had  shown  them  the  way. 

Arriving  at  Galena  they  made  search  of  the  livery  bams  and  found  the  Craw- 
ford team  the  worse  for  wear  after  the  long  drive  of  seventy  miles  over  the  coun- 
try roads.  Calling  the  city  marshal  they  searched  the  'town,  when  in  a  short  time 
they  found  the  burglar  fast  asleep  as  if  innocent  of  any  misdemeanor.  His  con- 
science appeared  to  have  no  sense  of  guilt  and  one  wonders  in  what  particular 
his  brain  structure  was  different  from  that  of  the  ordinary  mortal.  Why  should 
he  be  made  a  matter  of  history  because  he  happened  to  steal  some  bauble  of 
decoration?  The  result  to  a  citizen  of  the  town  made  the  case  one  of  unusual 

It  is  sufficient  to  say  that  the  arrest  was  not  resisted  and  the  prisoner  re- 
turned without  requisition  papers.  His  kit  of  tools  was  found  in  his  possession 
which  indicated  his  professional  training. 

He  was  returned  to  the  place  of  the  crime  and  arraigned  before  the  justice, 
J.  S.  Tuthill,  who  sent  him  to  jail  in  default  of  the  bail  fixed. 

Indictment  followed,  of  course,  in  due  time  and  he  came  to  trial  in  November 
of  the  same  year,  six  months  after  arrest,  such  is  the  speed  of  the  courts  of  jus- 


tice,  and  the  sentence  upon  conviction  was  nine  years  in  the  penitentiary.  He 
served  six  months  in  jail  and  six  months  in  the  penitentiary  when  a  gracious 
pardon  was  extended  to  him  on  account  of  some  secrets  he  possessed  that  were 
said  to  be  useful  to  the  future  prosecution  of  some  other  burglars. 

But  the  incident  that  resulted  in  the  narrow  escape  from  instant  death  of  the 
jailer,  Simons,  is  the  only  thing  that  makes  this  narrative  at  all  necessary  or  of 
great  interest. 

One  Thompson  had  been  sent  to  jail  for  some  minor  offense  and  had  during 
the  time  engaged  with  the  man  Crawford  to  help  him  to  make  his  "get  away" 
after  the  former  had  served  his  time  in  the  county  reformatory.  This  he  under- 
took to  do,  like  any  inexperienced  hand,  and  in  so  doing  came  to  battle  with  the 
jailer  at  close  range.  Securing  the  duplicate  keys  from  the  office  of  the  sheriflE 
he  went  to  the  jail  where  the  confusion  awoke  the  jailer,  who  came  down  stairs 
with  a  loaded  shotgun.  At  this  presentation  Thompson  fired  at  him  striking  him 
in  the  breast  and  inflicting  a  dangerous  wound.  The  fire  was  returned  by  Jailer 
Simons  and  the  left  arm  of  the  would-be  rescuer  was  shattered  to  pieces.  The 
noise  of  the  two  shots  aroused  the  entire  town.  On  the  arrival  of  assistance  the 
wounded  officer  of  the  law  threw  his  gun  to  John  Kiser  who  had  instructions  to 
shoot  the  first  man  attempting  to  make  his  escape.  Crawford  who  had  now  suc- 
ceeded in  unlocking  the  cell  door  with  the  keys  furnished  him  understood  that 
all  escape  was  impossible  and  returned  to  his  cell  in  despair  and  with  signs  of 
childishness,  because  he  could  not  restrain  the  tears. 

Meanwhile  the  injured  Thompson  escaped  to  the  country  and  stopped  west  of 
town  at  the  home  of  William  Kettell  for  assistance.  At  two  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing when  honest  folks  are  sound  asleep  he  aroused  the  quiet  family  and  de- 
manded aid  for  a  wounded  man,  shot  in  the  arm,  and  suffering  intensely  from 
pain  and  weak  from  loss  of  blood.  Think  of  it !  Aroused  at  the  midnight  hour 
by  such  a  request,  in  a  country  farmhouse,  with  no  surgeon  near  and  to  care  for 
a  man  with  an  arm  shot  to  pieces ! 

Neighbors  were  summoned  through  the  aid  of  two  small  boys  of  the  Kettell 
household  and  the  suffering  man  was  returned  to  the  authorities  where  the  arm 
had  to  be  cut  from  his  body  to  save  his  life,  all  that  was  worth  saving.  This 
operation  was  performed  by  men  from  the  county  and  two  of  them  are 
dead,  the  other  being  in  the  far  west. 

There  is  usually  a  woman  in  the  case  and  this  was  no  exception  for  one  came 
to  the  assistance  of  the  prisoner,  Crawford,  early  in  the  period  of  his  assignment 
to  the  county  jail.  She  claimed  to  be  his  wife,  which  was  easy,  and  secured  quar- 
ters with  the  deputy  sheriff,  which  was  c(mvenient  for  her  purpose  of  finding  a 
way  of  escape  for  the  unwilling  boarder  in  the  jail.  Her  first  quarters  were  at 
the  Fleming  house  but  that  did  not  quite  meet  her  tastes  when  the  purpose  was 
explained,  and  a  convenient  reason  was  found.  On  the  night  mentioned  when 
the  attempted  delivery  took  place  she  was  arrested  as  an  acccmiplice  and  com- 
mitted to  jail  along  with  her  spouse.  Habeas  corpus  proceedings  secured  her 
release  and  after  another  short  stay  in  the  vicinity  of  the  near-tragedy  she  left 
for  parts  unknown.  This  is  the  end  of  her  story  so  far  as  we  are  concerned. 
As  mentioned  Crawford  was  tried  in  November  and  sent  to  Anamosa.    Thomp- 


son  was  indicted  cm  the  charge  of  attempting  to  kill  and  sentenced  to  four  years. 
He  too  was  pardoned  after  half  his  term. 

Crawford  sued  the  sheriflE  while  in  confinement  in  the  county  jail  on  the 
charge  of  cruelty  to  prisoners.  Just  as  if  any  one  could  be  more  cruel  than  him- 
self who  had  brought  the  man  Thompson  to  the  penitentiary  for  four  years  and 
left  him  with  one  arm  for  life.  The  jail  was  under  guard  all  the  time  after  this 
event  until  the  trial  and  the  removal  to  the  stronger  place  of  confinement*** 

A  case  of  more  than  ordinary  interest  in  the  state,  as  well  as  in  the 
county  and  criminal  record  because  of  the  recent  law  governing  such  cases,  is 
the  ont  known  by  the  title  of  the  Kidnapping  Case  in  which  the  offender 
was  one  August  Leuth  and  the  injured  an  aged  couple,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John 

Through  some  wild  scheme  of  quick  riches  this  individual  sought  to  extort 
money  to  a  large  amount,  some  say  fifty  thousand  dollars,  but  it  makes  little 
difference  in  the  case  of  penalty,  from  the  wealthy  man  by  taking  possession 
of  the  person  of  his  aged  wife  and  holding  her  a  prisoner  for  a  ransom.*'* 

The  particulars  are  about  as  follows:  Sometihie  in  August,  of  the  year 
1903,  the  yputh,  Leuth,  rode  up  to  the  door  of  the  old  couple  and  stated  that 
he  had  come  in  for  them  to  go  at  once  to  the  bedside  of  a  sick  son  near  Walcott 
This  was  at  the  dead  of  night  and  the  old  gentleman  at  once  planned  to  hitch 
his  own  team  to  go  at  once.  Through  the  urgency  of  the  case  the  kidnapper 
persuaded  the  parents  to  hurry  away  with  him  to  the  scene  of  the  dying  relative. 
To  make  this  scheme  more  plausible  the  son  had  been  ill  and  the  doubt,  if 
any  at  all  in  the  minds  of  the  parents,  was  whether  he  would  live  until  their 

When  they  arrived  at  a  certain  pcrtnt  in  the  journey  the  driver,  Leuth, 
pulled  a  gun  and  demanded  of  the  old  gentleman  the  fifty  thousand  dcdlars 
sajring  he  would  keep  Mrs.  Telsrow  a  prisoner  until  the  money  was  forth- 
coming. He  ordered  the  husband  to  return  to  the  home  and  to  make  no  at- 
tempt to  give  an  alarm  as  other  men  were  watching  him  and  he  would  be  in 
great  danger  if  he  attempted  to  do  so.  The  poor  old  man  obeyed  and  returned 
directly  to  his  home  making  no  outcry  until  morning  fearing  that  all  the  things 
that  had  been  threatened  would  happen  if  he  did,  his  houses  and  bams  burned, 
his  poor  old  wife  hidden  away  and  never  recovered  if  he  did  not  forthwith  get 
the  fifty  thousand  dollars  and  return  to  that  very  spot  the  next  night  as  the  rob- 
ber had  said. 

Meantime  the  woman  in  the  case  was  taken  to  the  Unity  school  house  where 
the  kidnapper  locked  the  kidnapped  in  the  coal  house  for  sometime  while  he 
went  away  probably  to  find  a  more  secure  retreat  to  conceal  his  hostage.  Re- 
turning some  time  later  in  the  early  morning,  it  must  have  been  about  two  a. 
m.,  he  took  the  prisoner  to  the  cellar  of  an  old  deserted  house  on  a  vacated  farm 
and  told  her  stay  there  on  penalty  of  death. 

Under  the  conditions  the  fright  left  her  little  inclination  to  run  away  and  she 
remained  here,  more  dead  than  alive  one  should  suppose,  until  the  light  of 
morning  came  to  show  her  the  way  out,  when  she  escaped  without  mishap, 
to  the  house  of  Mr.  Agnew.  Then  the  news  spread  and  the  whole  county  was 
notified  of  the  deed.»^ 


The  sheriff  and  deputy  were  summoned  and  made  haste  to  find  the  accused 
which  happened  in  due  time,  after  some  search  on  tracks  that  anyone  skilled 
in  crime  could  never  have  left. 

It  is  sufficient  to  say  here  that  the  culprit  was  supposed  at  <xice  to  be  some 
person  familiar  with  the  entire  vicinity  and  he  was  found  asleep  in  an  oat  bin 
like  any  tired  individual  after  a  night  lost.  He  was  lodged  in  jail  to  await  fur- 
ther developments.  The  thousand  dollars  reward  offered  by  the  husband  of 
the  lost  woman  was  fruitful  in  an  early  capture.  At  that  time  the  case  attracted 
wide  attention  and  it  occupied  the  attention  also  of  the  courts  for  more  than 
one  session  as  will  be  seen  from  the  record.*^ 

While  confined  in  jail  in  June,  1904,  Leuth  endeavored  to  make  good  his 
escape  and  broke  away  frcmi  the  jailer  under  circumstances  that  showed  his 
ability  to  plan  well  under  emergencies.  He  was  captured  soon  after,  having  been 
traced  through  Durant  to  his  brother's  house  near  Sunbury. 

After  trial  he  was  sentenced  to  the  penitentiary  for  ten  years,  the  maximum, 
and  was  sent  there  awaiting  appeal  to  the  supreme  court. 

In  reviewing  the  case  the  Supreme  Court  covered  the  ground  substantially 
as  mentioned  heretofore  and  in  addition  made  the  comment  on  certain  parts  of 
the  evidence  to  show  what  kidnapping  was  under  the  law. 

At  the  time  of  this  occurrence  the  defendant  was  but  eighteen  years  of  age 
and  had  been  in  this  country  but  two  years  or  less.  He  was  shown>  to  have 
been  an  industrious  person,  but  to  have  been  out  of  work  the  two  weeks  previous 
to  this  event  He  could  not  speak  the  English  language  but  during  the  time  he 
was  confined  in  the  county  jail  he  learned  to  read  the  daily  papers  in  that  Ian- 
guage.^'^  All  the  witnesses  agreed  that  he  could,  and  did  speak  nothing  but 
German  at  the  time  of  the  arrest.  The  court  affirmed  the  decision  and  sentence 
of  the  lower  court. 

After  four  years  of  confinement  in  the  penitentiary  Leuth  was  paroled  by 
the  governor  upon  recommendation  and  he  is  now  somewhere  in  Oklahoma,  hav- 
ing been  finally  pardoned  by  the  reccmimendation  of  the  board  governing  such 
cases.  One  member  saying  that  this  was  the  first  case  of  pardon  by  this  board 
where  the  applicant  was  not  making  the  plea  on  account  of  sickness. 

These  are  the  circitmstances  of  the  case  and  its  merits  must  be  left  to  the 
future  to  determine. 

It  is  worthy  of  mention  that  the  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  before  whom 
the  argument  was  finally  made  was  willing  to  recommend  a  parole  on  presenta- 
tion of  the  plea  of  attorney  for  defense.^^ 



When  the  news  came  to  Cedar  County  that  Fort  Sumter  had  been  fired 
upon,  Captain  Hammond  of  the  Tipton  Guards  ran  out  the  stars  and  stripes 
from  his  window.  The  national  colors  were  placed  at  the  top  of  the  flag  pole 
in  the  courthouse  square,  the  brass  band  saluted  the  flag  and  patriotic  feeling 
was  displayed  on  all  sides.  One  wonders  how  those  concerned  really  fdt,  and 
whether  any  conception  of  the  magnitude  of  the  event  entered  the  minds  of 
men  in  those  days. 

The  rumor  came  on  the  very  day  the  attack  occurred,  but  few  could  be- 
lieve such  a  thing  possible.  It  is  evident  from  all  discussions  up  to  this  time 
that  the  community  lying  away  from  the  center  of  population  and  off  from  any 
telegraph  line  had  not  yet  f dt  any  sense  of  the  gravity  of  the  situation.  True 
there  were  letters  and  messages  f  rcmi  the  seat  of  government,  and  these  were 
full  of  meaning  sentences,  yet  these  could  not  arouse  as  the  one  startling  line 
about  Fort  Sumter. 

Then  Iowa  was  called  upon  to  furnish  one  r^[iment,  such  was  the  ofHnion 
in  the  public  councils  of  the  nation,  and  we  knew  how  easily  it  was  thought 
the  Rebellion  could  be  put  down.  Reading  the  names  of  those  who  went  from 
Cedar  County  and  of  those  left  upon  the  battlefield  one  cannot  be  forgetful 
of  what  war  meant  to  the  whole  country. 

The  Tipton  Guards  had  been  under  discipline  for  several  years,  and  mudi 
favorable  ccmunent  had  been  passed  on  them  during  these  years  of  training. 
Both  at  home  and  abroad  they  stirred  the  patriotic  spirit  and  now  they  were  con- 
f  rcMited  with  a  new  obligation.  They  had  been  honored  by  receptions  and  en- 
tertainments in  neighboring  cities  and  at  the  state  meetings  of  various  organiza- 
tions, and  by  competent  authority  pronounced  the  very  best  of  their  kind.  Their 
appearance  was  the  signal  for  enthusiasm. 

The  very  first  "war  note  sounded  in  this  vicinity,"  to  use  the  language  of 
one  who  was  active  then,  was  in  the  form  of  a  poster  and  appeared  immediately 
after  the  news  from  Fort  Sumter.    The  call  reads  as  follows: 



"To  the  Lovers  of  our  Country : 

The  Star-Spangled  Banner  has  been  attacked  by  the  Rattlesnake  and  the 
Rebels  of  the  so-called  New  Dahomey;  our  Forts,  Arsenals,  Mints  and  Custom 
houses  have  been  seized,  and  for  the  first  time  in  our  history  our  National 
Government  has  been  publicly  defied  and  attacked  by  internal  enemies. 

We  therefore  invite  all  citizens  of  Cedar  County  who  are  in  favor  of  uphold- 
ing the  Constitution  and  the  Union,  and  who  hate  treason  and  rebellion,  rob- 
bery and  anarchy,  to  assemble  at  the  Courthouse  in  Tipton,  on  Wednesday, 
April  24,  at  I  o'clock  p.  m.,  to  consider  what  shall  be  dcme  for  the  maintenance  of 
our  government,  and  for  our  own  safety. 

A  military  company  is  being  organized  and  it  is  earnestly  desired  that  the 
ranks  should  be  filled  promptly. 

Signed  by  Jas.  H.  Rothrock,  S.  S.  Daniels,  S.  A.  Bissell,  Casad  &  Gilmore, 
C.  Swetland,  H.  D.  Brown,  S.  W.  Young,  John  Swineford,  J.  S.  Tuthill,  D.  H. 
Roush,  W.  Hammond,  Wm.  Moore,  G.  P.  Ingman,  J.  Ctdbertson,  Wm.  Mc- 
Namara,  E.  &  M.  Childs,  F.  P.  &  W.  Dean,  Geo.  Schmucker,  C  H.  Millhouse, 
W.  H.  Bums,  J.  K.  Snyder,  G.  W.  Logan,  and  J.  G.  Schmucker. 

Tipton,  Iowa,  April  22,  1861." 

A  communication  signed  "G*  in  the  issue  of  the  Advertiser  for  April  25, 
1861,  reads  as  follows:  "Our  town  was  visited  last  Sunday  (April  21)  by'Capt. 
Brewster  and  Lieut  Smith  of  the  Davenport  Light  Artillery,  who  came  to  urge 
upon  our  citizens  the  necessity  of  organizing  a  company  to  represent  Cedar  in 
the  Iowa  rtprntai  now  forming.  The  sound  of  martial  music  breaking  the  quiet 
of  the  Sabbath  afternoon  drew  a  large  crowd  together  at  the  old  postoffice 
building,  where  the  recruiting  sergeant  of  the  Guards  was  drumming  up  re- 
cruits. A  number  of  names  were  added  when  a  procession  was  formed  and 
marched  through  the  streets  bearing  the  Star-Spangled  Banner. 

Shortly  after  their  return  to  the  armory  Col.  Swineford  took  his  stand  in 
frcmt  of  Reigart  and  McNamara's  store  and  made  a  ^>eech  to  the  effect  that 
the  Guards  had  disbanded  and  surrendered  up  their  arms  to  the  Adjutant 
General,  and  that  he  prc^>osed  to  raise  another  company  of  which  he  wanted  to 
be  the  captain.  The  colonel  was  rather  boisterous  and  his  manner  of  speaking 
so  aroused  the  Guards  that  there  was  proq>ect  of  war  at  home.  Better  counsd 
prevailed  and  the  company  assembled  at  their  headquarters  where  speeches 
were  made  by  Capt.  Brewster  and  Capt.  Hammond,  after  which  the  members 
took  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  general  government  and  obedience  to  the  gov- 
ernor of  the  state  and  the  officers  of  the  company.  A  subscription  paper  was 
circulated  and,  during  the  afternoon,  upwards  of  three  hundre4  dollars  was 
raised  to  equip  the  men. 

The  members  of  the  company  are  mostly  young  men,  and  among  our  best 
citizens.  Though  they  will  be  sadly  missed  every  true  patriot  will  say  'God 
speed  the  men  who  thus  promptly  and  nobly  respond  to  their  Country's  call  and 
go  forth  with  strong  hands  and  brave  hearts  to  battle  for  the  right.' " 

The  subscription  paper  set  going  on  Sunday  was  continued,  and  more  than 
seven  hundred  dollars  was  pledged  in  the  county  during  the  week,  very  few 
refusing  to  offer  something  to  equip  the  men.  This  movement  was  not  confined 
to  any  one  locality  for  the  whole  country  responded. 


On  Wednesday,  in  response  to  the  call  given  above,  a  war  meeting  of  citi- 
zens from  all  parts  of  the  county  was  held  in  Tipton,  and  some  emphatic  resolu- 
tions adopted  pledging  support  to  the  Union,  without  regard  to  party  ties  or 
restrictions,  urging  all  to  fall  into  line  in  supporting  the  company  about  to 
depart,  offering  security  to  their  families  by  pledges  of  private  or  county  sup- 
port, and  recommending  a  change  in  the  name  of  the  company  to  ''Cedar  County 
Guards."  Little  did  they  think  then  of  how  often  they  must  repeat  the  event 
of  sending  out  companies  of  their  best  men,  and  what  the  country  was  to  un- 
dertake afterwards  in  caring  for  the  families  in  their  absence. 

On  April  25,  1861,  a  Union  meeting  was  held  in  the  courthouse  when  ad- 
dresses were  made  by  several,  the  chief  one  by  J.  H.  Rothrock,  and  the  resolu- 
tions previously  mentioned  were  in  substance  adopted.  Capt.  Hammond  an- 
nounced that  the  ranks  of  the  Guards  were  now  full. 

When  the  time  came  to  move  it  was  learned,  much  to  the  chagrin  of  the 
company,  that  they  were  the  twenty-sixth  to  offer  themselves  when  only  ten  had 
been  called  for  by  the  president.  Drilling  continued  in  prq>aration  for  the  sec- 
ond call  that  all  seemed  to  feel  was  soon  to  follow.  About  this  time  meetings 
became  general  over  the  county.  A  time  of  preparation  and  uncertainty  every- 
where, for  not  until  the  first  general  battle  occurred  did  the  public  know  what 
to  expect. 

Strange  to  say,  the  Cedar  County  Guards  were  called  upon  to  conduct  a 
military  funeral  of  <xie  of  their  number  before  leaving  their  own  homes,  or  be- 
fore their  uniforms  were  scaled  by  any  attempt  at  warfare.  One  of  their 
number  indulged  in  habits  that  led  to  his  undoing,  and  throu^  deliberate  suicide, 
as  some  put  it,  John  L.  Fyan  was  dead.  This  was  not  unexpected  by  those 
who  knew  him. 

Gov.  Kirkwood  came  in  for  his  share  of  blame  when  the  third  rq^iment 
went  out  from  the  state  and  the  Cedar  County  Guards  were  not  of  it  They 
had  been  promised  a  place  in  this  regiment,  and  now  under  the  disappointment 
and  delay,  after  all  was  in  readiness,  th^  threatened  to  disband.  The  Gov- 
ernor, in  the  opinion  of  many,  had  failed  to  keep  faith.  But  as  the  oldest  com- 
pany in  the  state,  they  were  urged  not  to  take  offense  even  if  the  Governor  had 
apparently  treated  them  unfairly.  The  Hons.  J.  M.  Kent  and  Ed  Wright,  then 
in  Des  Moines  on  attendance  at  a  special  session  of  the  Assembly,  used  all 
means  in  their  power  to  persuade  the  acceptance  of  the  home  company.*^^ 

The  AssemUy  of  Iowa,  having*  authorized  the  raising  of  infantry,  the  com- 
pany from  Cedar  County  was  offered  first  place,  which  they  prompdy  accepted. 
This  required  a  new  enrollment,  and  such  notice  was  issued  by  J.  W.  Casad,  their 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  Sugar  Creek  Cavalry  was  organized  under 
Capt  Munn.  They  numbered  about  sixty  men,  and  were  not,  as  they  said,  simply 
home  guards,  but  prq>ared  to  go  at  any  time. 

Finally,  after  so  many  orders  and  counter  orders,  the  Guards  were  off  for 
the  war  as  Company  A,  Fifth  Regiment,  Iowa  Volunteers.  The  company  was 
paraded  at  8  o'dock  on  Friday  morning,  July  12,  just  three  months  to  the  day 
after  the  firing  on  Fort  Sumter.  That  it  was  so  long  was  no  fault  of  theirs. 



On  this  morning,  long  before  their  departure  for  the  camp  at  Burlington, 
from  the  surrounding  country  citizens  came  to  town  to  see  them  off.  They  num- 
bered ninety  men,  all  told,  and  their  names  appear  in  the  roster  which 
closes  this  section  of  the  history.  They  could  not  return  as  they  departed,  for 
they  left  many  behind.  A  few  remain  today,  loyal  members  of  the  Grand  Army, 
passing  rapidly  now  in  review. 

A  company  of  infantry  organized  in  Springfield  and  Inland  Townships  came 
to  be  called  the  "Union  Greys."  They  were  ordered  to  be  prepared  to  go  into 
camp  about  August  i8,  1861.  This  required  a  filling  up  of  their  company  to  one 
hundred  one  men,  and  in  order  to  do  this  a  roll  was  kept  ready  for  signatures  at 
the  store  of  one  Young  in  Inland.  When  completed  the  company  was  to  go  into 
camp  at  Davenport  or  Dubuque.  This  company  seems  to  have  been  reorganized, 
since  those  who  were  reported  as  its  crfficers  are  the  organizers  of  the  "Cedar 
Rifles"  later  in  the  year. 

Capt.  McLoney  was  in  command  of  about  forty  members,  and  this  company 
was  preparing  to  join  the  Eleventh  Regiment  as  soon  as  its  ranks  were  full. 
The  company  had  gone  into  quarters  in  September,  1861,  and  were  drilling  under 
Lieut.  Compton,  who  had  some  experience  in  the  British  army. 

This  company  with  the  officers  mentioned  was  mustered  in  at  Davenport,  ac- 
cording to  the  Gazette,  <mi  Oct.  7,  1861.  The  company  became  from  this  time  on 
Company  E,  of  the  Eleventh  Infantry. 

They  left  Tipton  for  Camp  McQellan  on  Monday,  Sept.  30.  Much  interest 
was  manifested  in  this  con^>any,  as  by  their  orderly  conduct  while  recruiting 
they  had  won  the  admiration  of  the  community.  On  Sunday  evening  before 
their  departure  they  assembled  at  the  Lutheran  Church  where  they  were  addressed 
by  Rev.  Schaeffer,  and  immediately  on  adjournment  went  to  the  Methodist 
Church  to  listen  to  an  address  by  Mr.  Mead  of  New  York.  On  Monday  a  large 
gathering  assembled  at  the  court  house  to  bid  them  an  affectionate  farewell. 
Prayer  was  offered  and  appropriate  remarks  made  by  Rev.  Mr.  Mead.  After 
numerous  hearty  cheers  by  the  company  and  by  the  citizens,  the  march  began, 
halting  for  a  few  minutes  at  the  school  house,  now  the  old,  forsaken  building 
south  of  the  library  square,  where  the  pupils  were  lined  up  under  the  direction 
of  the  Principal,  C.  C.  Nestlerode,  and  his  assistant  teachers.  What  occurred 
here  is  best  described  twenty-six  years  after  by  Mr.  Nestlerode  himself  at  the 
second  reunion  of  the  Tipton  Union  School. 

''I  fed  that  I  can  not  permit  this  opportunity  to  pass  without  adding  a  word 
and  dropping  a  tear  to  the  memory  of  our  schocrf  boys  who  gave  their  lives  to 
their  country  in  its  hour  of  need,  many  of  whose  names  are  inscribed  upon  this 
beautiful  monument.  Twenty-six  years  ago  upon  the  very  spot  where  we  now 
stand.  Company  E,  Eleventh  Iowa  Volunteer  Infantry,  made  up  in  part  of  some 
of  those  same  boys,  was  drawn  up  in  line.  And  well  do  I  remember  marching 
out  the  infant  department  of  the  Tipton  Union  School,  with  its  teacher.  Miss 
Rumsey,  at  the  head,  and  placing  the  members  of  that  school  directly  in  front 
of  the  soldier  boys— those  innocent  children  forming  the  first  line.  Then  I  had 
Miss  Woriine,  the  teacher,  march  out  the  members  of  the  Primary  Department 
and  form  in  line  directly  behind  the  Infant  Department,  constituting  our  second 
line.    Then  I  had  Miss  Gillespie,  the  teacher,  march  out  the  members  of  the  Sec- 


ondary  Department  and  form  in  the  rear  of  the  Primary  Department,  consti- 
tuting our  third  line.    Next  came  Mr.  Wolf,  at  the  head  of  the  Grammar  De- 
partment and  formed  his  scholars  at  the  rear  of  the  Secondary  Department,  con- 
stituting our  fourth  line.    Then  lastly  came  Miss  King,  my  assistant  teacher, 
at  the  head  of  what  was  left  of  the  Tipton  High  School — the  girls  and   a 
few  scattering  boys  too  young  and  too  small  to  pass  muster — formed  in  the  rear 
of  the  Grammar  School,  constituting  our  fifth  and  last  line.    A  wag(Mi  was  placed 
between  the  line  of  soldiers  and  the  five  lines  of  scholars,  on  the  right  flank  of 
the  former  and  the  left  flank  of  the  latter.    I  was  designated  to  take  a  position  in 
that  wagon  and  to  make  farewell  requests  of,  and  to  deliver  parting  words  for 
the  four  hundred  scholars  in  line,  to  the  soldier  boys  who  had  been  formed  in 
martial  array  for  the  occasion.     The  fathers,  mothers,  sisters,  brothers  and 
friends  had  come  to  contribute  to  the  sad  occasion.    A  mass  of  people  such  as 
Tipton  had  rarely  if  ever  witnessed  before,  surrounded  the  lines  on  all  sides.     I 
arose  and  gazed  at  the  large  assemblage  and  as  I  beheld  their  mingled  tears  and 
heard  their  piteous  cries  my  heart  bled  within  me  and  I  stood  for  some  moments 
dumb  and  speechless.    At  length  I  was  enabled  to  say :  ''Members  of  Company 
E,  nth  R^.  I.  V.  I.,  I  come  in  behalf  of  these  defenseless  children,  your  scms 
and  daughters,  your  brothers  and  sisters,  to  entreat  you  to  stand  firm  between 
them  and  their  country's  enemies.    Let  no  evil  befall  them  or  harm  come  to  them 
unless  it  comes  over  your  mangled  forms.    Turn  not  your  backs  to  the  enemy 
on  the  field  of  conflict.  Remember  the  defenseless,  helpless  children.    I  commit 
them  to  you  for  protection,  and  may  the  God  of  Battles  go  with  you,  and  lead 
you,  and  make  you  the  fearless  defenders  of  the  free  schools  of  Iowa.     And 
when  this  cruel  war  is  over  may  you  be  permitted  to  return  safe  home  again  to 
receive  the  gratitude  and  to  enjoy  the  love  of  a  free  and  happy  people."    Capt. 
McLoney  responded  in  these  words:    "I  am  no  speech  maker,  but  on  behalf  of 
the  members  of  my  company  will  pledge  you  that  the  Tipton  Union  School  shall 
be  safe  in  our  keeping."  *** 

Company  E  soon  earned  a  reputation  for  thrift,  for  twenty  of  them  were  re- 
ported to  have  sent  home  to  their  families  three  hundred  dc^rs  as  early  as 
December  of  '6i. 

In  April,  1862,  Capt.  Childs  was  compelled  to  resign  on  account  of  ill  health, 
and  Company  A  was  at  that  time  at  New  Madrid  waiting  for  an  opportunity  to 
join  in  the  attack  on  Island  No.  10.  The  company  lost  its  place  in  the  r^^ent 
and  instead  of  occupying  the  post  of  honor  on  the  right  flank  became,  by  their 
captain's  resignation,  the  junior  company  in  the  regiment. 

Later  in  the  same  month  came  the  news  from  Shiloh,  where  the  Eleventh 
Iowa  was  in  the  front  of  battle.  Company  D,  from  near  Wilton,  contained  a 
number  from  this  county,  and  Company  E  was  Capt.  McLoney's  company.  The 
killed  and  wounded  in  that  battle  were,  from  D,  five  killed  and  sixteen  wounded, 
from  E,  six  killed,  twelve  wounded,  among  the  killed  being  Lieut.  Compton,  who 
had  drilled  the  men  before  leaving  home.  The  funeral  services  for  two  of  Com- 
pany E,  E.  McLoney  and  T.  M.  Haines,  were  held  in  the  M.  E.  Church  the  fol- 
lowing Sunday,  a  form  of  memorial  service.  Rev.  S.  N.  Fellows,  afterward  and 
for  many  years  a  well-known  minister,  educator  and  lecturer,  spoke  of  the  cause 
of  the  war  in  which  these  two  young  men  gave  up  their  lives.     He  spoke  of  it  as 


it  really  was  and  some  of  his  hearers  became  angry  or  were  very  much  fright- 
ened. Some  gave  vent  to  their  fedings  and  spoke  out  their  disagreement  with 
the  opinions  expressed  in  very  emphatic  language.  The  two  young  men  in 
whose  memory  this  funeral  was  held  were  said  to  have  been  of  exemplary 

July,  1862,  S.  W.  Rathbun,  then  deputy  sheriff  of  this  county,  now  the 
esteemed  editor  of  the  Marion  Register,  was  commissi(med  to  raise  a  company 
under  the  new  call  of  the  President.  This  congressional  district,  then  the  seccMid, 
was  to  furnish  a  r^ment,  and  this  meant  one  hundred  men  as  the  share  of 
Cedar  County. 

About  this  time  a  general  alarm  was  sounded  for  a  g^eat  mass  meeting  of 
the  supporters  of  the  war.  Not  until  this  time  does  it  seem  the  people  really 
felt  the  importance  of  the  ccmtest.  The  call  was  signed  by  Tuthill,  Rothrock, 
Culbertson,  Platner,  Maynard,  Hammond,  Elliott,  and  Swineford.  It  was  to 
be  addressed  by  such  men  as  Edward  Thayer,  Wm.  Smith,  Hiram  Price  and 
Henry  O'Connor.*** 

An  illustration  of  the  spirit  of  the  times  is  shown  by  the  father  who  had 
three  sons  in  the  army  and  brought  the  fourth  to  join  the  company  of  Cs^t.  Rath- 
bun.  Mr.  Long  in  doing  so  said,  if  this  son  fell  he  himself  would  enlist.  The 
opposite  spirit  prevailed  in  the  case  of  some  who  suddenly  found  they  were 
afflicted  with  rheumatism. 

The  great  war  meeting  held  in  the  county  on  August  8,  1862,  led  to  the  secur- 
ing of  about  three  hundred  volunteers  in  the  few  weeks  from  the  time  Capt. 
Rathbun  began  to  recruit  his  company.  His  number  was  completed  by  August 
20,  and  others  were  organized  and  filled  by  that  date.  S.  D.  Johnson  became 
captain  of  one,  Wm.  Dugan  of  Lowden  and  Mr.  Flannagan  of  Mechanicsville 
engaged  in  raising  other  companies.  Capt.  Rathbun's  became  Conq>any  A  of  the 
Twenty-fourth  Iowa.    This  was  known  as  the  Temperance  Regiment 

On  Wednesday,  August  20,  the  two  new  companies — Captains  Johnson  and 
Rathbun— departed  to  Wilton  by  wagons  furnished  by  the  farmers  of  the  sur- 
rounding country.  After  the  companies  were  formed  they  marched  in  front  of 
R.  M.  Long's  office,  when  three  rousing  cheers  were  given  for  him  and  three  for 
the  patriotic  women  of  the  county.  Partings  of  families  were  sad  enough,  for 
they  knew  well  that  many  men  would  never  return.  Most  of  the  men  had  been 
sworn  in  by  Mr.  Long. 

The  orders  to  report  at  Camp  Strong  at  Muscatine  were  received  on  Tuesday 
afternoon,  and  the  forces  were  on  the  road  at  nine  the  next  morning.  It  would 
seem  very  strange  now  to  see  two  conq>anies  of  infantry  on  the  road  to  Wilton 
by  lumber  wagon  to  assist  in  putting  down  a  war  like  the  great  Rebellion. 
Eighty-five  teams  were  used  to  convey  this  small  army  across  the  country.  The 
Wilton  pec^le  gave  dinners  to  the  entire  number.  Besides  these  companies  it  is 
estimated  that  forty  more  men  enlisted  from  the  western  part  of  the  county  in 
companies  forming  at  Iowa  City  during  these  three  weeks. 

September  2,  1862,  Capt.  Flannagan's  company  irom  Mechanicsville,  "H" 
of  the  Thirty-fifth  Iowa,  set  out  for  Camp  Strong  to  join  the  regiment  to  which 
it  was  assigned.    The  people  of  Tipton  had  dinner  all  ready  and  after  the  noon 


hour  they  were  sent  on  their  way  accompanied  by  the  band  from  their  home 
town  and  one  from  Tipton. 

A  scene  from  the  camp  of  the  Twenty*fourth  Iowa  has  been  painted  by  one 
of  its  members  at  that  time.  It  was  the  first  Sabbath  in  camp,  the  first  away 
from  the  accustomed  surroundings,  and  he  describes  it  in  a  way  sad,  yet  full  of 
hope.  'Things  passed  off  quietly  during  the  morning  hour,  much  like  a  Sabbath 
at  home,  except  the  necessary  routine  of  camp  duty.  Some  read,  some  talked, 
and  some  wrote  letters  to  the  dear  ones  at  home.  At  the  appointed  hour  the  men 
were  formed  into  a  hollow  square  at  the  parade  ground.  The  Sunday  service 
commenced  by  the  singing  of  a  h)rmn,  in  which  nearly  every  man  joined.  Strong, 
sweet  music  that — ^those  nine  hundred  voices  rising  up  from  the  camp  of  men 
gathered  from  so  many  places  and  for  such  a  purpose.  A  strange  inspiration 
filled  the  soul  with  a  power  at  other  times  unknown. 

"The  discourse  was  well  timed,  though  not  what  one  would  call  a  sermon. 
We  assembled  again  in  the  evening  after  dress  parade  for  another  discourse, 
and,  as  my  eyes  wandered  over  the  faces  of  those  nine  hundred  men  turned 
toward  the  speaker,  all  full  of  intelligence  and  indicating  determination,  and 
then  to  the  blue  sky  above,  with  only  here  and  there  a  gray  cloud  trimmed  with 
gold  and  amber  by  the  setting  sun,  now  just  disappearing  in  the  western  horizon, 
in  the  coming  twilight,  I  thought  of  the  varying  emotions  that  must  have  come 
and  gone  in  the  minds  of  these  nine  hundred  soldiers.  How  many  thinking  of 
home,  of  the  uncertain  future,  of  death  or  imprisonment,  of  honor  and  promotion ; 
how  many  of  the  high  and  holy  One  in  whom  we  live  and  move  and  have  our 
being.    But  now  farewell."    (Letter,  W.  C.  Russell.)  *** 

Up  to  September,  1862,  probably  one-third  of  the  able-bodied  men  in  the 
county  had  enlisted.  Offiicers  of  the  draft  gave  the  figures  at  that  time  as  over 
three  thousand  subject  to  duty.  Almost,  if  not  quite  a  thousand,  had  enlisted, 
and  yet  there  were  calls  for  more. 

After  the  battle  of  luka  Company  A  of  the  "Fighting  Fifth"  was  sadly  cut 
up.  Capt.  Wm.  Dean  led  the  company  in  that  battle  and  wrote  home  soon  after 
giving  the  news  from  the  company.  When  he  went  up<m  the  field  he  had  forty 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  all  told ;  when  the  company  came  out  cmly 
ten  responded  to  roll  call.  Lieutenant  Schawl  fell  mortally  wounded  in  this 
battle.  Lieutenant  Casad  was  severely  wounded  while  exhorting  his  men.  Cap- 
tain Dean  is  mentioned  as  having  almost  miraculously  escaped  since  he  was 

A  most  pathetic  account  is  given  of  the  death  of  one  of  the  youngest,  if  not 
the  youngest,  of  the  company.  Only  seventeen  years  of  age,  James  Edgar  was 
determined  to  do  a  soldier's  deed.  He  was  advised  by  many  friends  not  to 
tmdertake  the  life  of  a  soldier,  since  he  was  too  young.  His  captain  told  the 
particulars  of  his  death.  "Some  fifteen  minutes  after  the  battle  began  a  ball 
carried  away  the  lock  of  his  g^n.  He  got  another  and  then  was  soon  wounded 
in  the  hand  and  I  ordered  him  to  the  rear.  In  going  he  got  a  ball  in  his  cartridge 
box  which  exploded  all  his  cartridges,  and  another  in  the  back  which  passed 
through  his  body  and  must  have  killed  him  instantly.  He  was  not  found  until 
the  next  morning.  We  were  forced  back  a  short  time  after  he  was  killed,  and 
the  rebels  rifled  his  person  and  pockets  of  everything.    He  was  buried  on  the 


battlefield  and  his  g^ave  marked  with  head  and  foot  boards.  He  did  his  duty 
nobly  and  fought  bravely."***  His  teacher  and  principal,  C.  C*  Nestlerode, 
wrote  a  long  and  commendatory  letter  concerning  this  young  man. 

An  incident  worth  mentioning  is  given  in  a  letter  from  Maj.  Gen.  Hamilton 
to  Col.  Mathias  of  the  Fifth  Infantry.  In  commending  the  Fifth  for  gallantry 
at  Iuka>  he  says :  "To  show  you  how  the  Fifth  has  become  a  household  word 
with  us,  my  youngest  boy,  a  prattler  of  four  years  of  age,  when  asked  what 
company  he  belongs  to,  says,  'Company  A,  Fifth  Iowa,  papa's  pet  regiment.' " 

In  the  midst  of  the  trials  of  war  in  the  field  there  were  not  wanting  those  at 
home  who  saw  no  good  in  such  sacrifice  of  blood  and  treasure,  and,  to  make 
such  efforts  less  effective,  sought  in  secret  ways,  if  not  openly,  to  hinder  if  not 
destroy  the  success  of  the  Union.  This  movement  took  the  form  of  agree- 
ments to  resist  the  collection  of  the  Federal  tax  when  it  should  come  to  coUec- 
ticm.    A  writer  warns  them  in  the  following  words : 

"The  time  has  come  when  obedience  to  the  constitution  and  requirements  of 
the  law  is  to  be  the  rule,  and  those  who  resist,  whether  north  or  south, 
will  soon  find  that  the  strong  arm  of  the  government  is  uplifted  to  strike  down 
all  resistance.  I  would  say  to  those  who  have  joined  these  organizations  that  it 
would  be  well  to  stop  and  think  before  going  further ;  a  few  steps  may  lead  you 
to  acts  of  treas(m,  the  blackest  crime  known  to  our  laws." 

What  is  the  meaning  of  the  actions  of  men  when  they  bring  speakers  from 
abroad  to  further  resist  the  collection  of  taxes,  the  draft,  and  any  military 
arrest?  Such  organizations  did  exist  as  the  full  heading  of  an  agreement  will 
show,  although  under  the  high-sounding  title  of  "Independent  Riflemen."*** 

The  following  is  the  heading  to  a  long  list  of  signatures,  some  eighty  or 
more,  who  were  organized  for  the  purposes  set  forth  and  for  others  perhaps  not 
able  to  be  listed.  The  reading  is  from  the  original  agreement  now  in  the  pos- 
session of  Hon.  John  T.  Moffit.  It  is  suggestive  of  the  days  in  which  it  was 

Tipton,  Iowa,  July  28th,  A.  D.  1863. 

We,  the  undersigned,  do  hereby  agree  to  form  ourselves  into  an  Independent 
Military  Compcmy  of  Mounted  Riflemen,  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  the  proper 
authorities  in  enforcing  the  laws  of  the  government,  upholding  and  supporting 
the  ccmstitution  of  the  United  States  and  State  of  Iowa,  and  for  the  further 
purpose  of  protecting  the  rights  of  citizens,  preserving  order  and  quietness  in 
the  community. 



April  II,  1863,  the  Loyal  League  was  organized  in  this  county  with  a  con- 
stitution providing  for  the  usual  officers  and  proceedings  of  business,  and  a 
pledge  which  shows  its  purpose.  Among  the  things  subscribed  to  by  anyone  be- 
coming a  member  is  one  clause  which  reads:  "I  will  stand  up,  under  all  cir- 
cumstances, for  the  restoration  and  preservation  of  the  whole  union,  and  by 


every  means  in  my  power  endeavor  to  thwart  the  intrigues  and  hostile  designs 
of  all  disunionists  and  traitors." 

J.  C.  Betts  was  its  first  president,  Dr.  J.  F.  Kennedy,  until  recently  secretary 
of  the  State  Board  of  Health,  one  of  the  vice-presidents,  W.  P.  Wc4f  and  J.  W. 
Bagley,  secretaries.  Considerable  discussion  arose  between  the  Loyal  League 
members  and  those  called  by  the  title  K.  G.  C.'s  (Kn^ts  of  the  Golden  Circle). 

At  a  union  meeting  held  in  Springfield  Township  in  May,  '63,  B.  F.  Gue,  after- 
wards Lieutenant  Governor  of  Iowa,  addressed  the  assembly  made  up  of 
citizens  from  Inland  and  Springfield.  A  "liberty  pole"  was  dedicated,  and  a 
series  of  resolutions  adopted  in  support  of  all  war  measures. 

At  a  mass  meeting  of  the  Fairview  League,  Mr.  J.  Gdger  addressed  the 
meeting  on  behalf  of  the  members  of  Company  A,  Fifth  Iowa,  James  Anderson, 
who  lost  his  life  in  the  line  of  duty,  and  incidentally  touched  upon  the  prin- 
ciples governing  all  of  the  patriotic  organizations. 

The  hundred  day's  call  came  in  May,  1864,  and  this  county  was  called  upon 
for  its  share  of  the  ten  thousand  the  state  was  to  furnish.  Col.  J.  H.  Rothrock 
was  authorized  to  recruit  men  in  Cedar  county.  It  was  at  this  time  that  the 
county  board  of  supervisors  agreed,  with  one  excepticm,  to  grant  a  bounty  of 
fifty  dcdlars  to  each  man  enlisting.^^^ 

On  Monday  morning  May  30,  1864,  the  company  of  hundred  day  men,  Capt 
Durbin  commanding^  left  for  their  active  duty.  Not  much  demonstration  now 
when  men  set  out  for  war.  It  had  become  a  serious  business,  and  no  one  was 
certain  of  the  end.  Eighty-nine  men  left  the  county  in  this  company.  The  com- 
pany was  mustered  in  at  Camp  McClellan,  Davenport,  as  Company  I,  Forty- 
Sixth  Iowa,  on  June  10,  1864.  Capt.  Durbin  was  promoted  to  Lieutenant  Coloael 
of  the  r^ment  and  Wm.  P.  Wolf  became  its  captain.  The  entire  regiment 
left  Davenport  for  Cairo  on  the  14th  of  June. 

The  first  news  from  Company  I  was  to  the  effect  that  Capt  Wolf  had  been 
severely  wounded  and  a  number  of  men  taken  prisoner.  They  had  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  guerrillas  while  trying  to  rescue  a  group  of  prisoners. 

The  long  expected  draft  came  after  all  possible  efforts  had  been  made  to 
complete  the  quota  demanded  from  each  township.  This  occurred  in  September, 
1864.  Some  townships,  Cass  and  Massillon,  had  filled  their  appointment  before 
the  draft  was  made.  Inland  and  Dayton  raised  volunteers  enough  to  remove 
any  need  of  a  draft.  It  was  in  October  before  the  drafted  men  left  for  their 
assignments.  Some  were  called  upon  to  serve  their  country  who  could  not  leave 
their  families  without  a  great  sacrifice,  but  under  the  circumstances  there  was  no 
escape  from  the  demands  of  a  needy  government.  Cheerful  compliance  was  the 
only  way  to  avoid  an  unpleasant  situaticMi. 

A  prison  story  typical  of  what  the  boys  in  blue  had  to  endure  when  cap- 
tured in  the  line  of  duty  is  told  in  a  letter  f  rcmi  one  of  them  to  his  brother.  In 
the  language  of  the  writer,  "I  have  been  confined  in  this  priscm  neariy  six 
months.  Fed  on  commeal  and  beef,  and  occasionally  to  relieve  the  monotony 
we  get  the  sweepings  of  some  old  confederate  mill,  consisting  of  rye  screenings, 
dirt,  and  old  wheat  ground  together  and  dealt  out  in  three-fourths  of  a  pound  per 
day  rations.  Then,  to  cap  the  climax  of  hospitality,  there  is  sometimes  a  ration 
of  shelled  com.    There  are  none  here  with  whom  I  ever  was  acquainted,  never- 





thcless  I  always  find  friends  who  are  always  ready  to  do  a  brother's  part  You 
ask,  where  are  my  comrades  ?  They  were  sent  to  Camp  Gross,  Hempstead,  Texas. 
And,  why  am  I  not  there?  I  was  out  on  short  "French"  as  the  boys  term  it, 
and  did  not  get  back  in  time  to  go.  I  was  gone  four  days  and  was  captured 
by  a  bushwhacker  and  brought  back.  I  had  rather  a  rich  time  of  it  all  alone 
without  map,  compass,  or  companions.  My  health  is  good;  I  enjoy  a  continual 
feast, — ^a  contented  mind,  knowing  that  it  is  for  my  coimtry  I  suffer.  We  have 
meetings  every  evening,  Bible  class  in  the  morning,  and  singing  school  in  the 

"Some  of  the  boys  began  a  tunnel  in  the  latter  part  of  July,  which  was  a 
long  hard  job  with  our  limited  means  for  digging,  and  yet  this  was  not  the  great- 
est of  our  difficulties.  We  were  very  closely  guarded.  The  tunnel  was  ready  to 
be  opened  some  time  before  it  was,  on  account  of  the  nights  being  too  light. 
When  the  proper  time  came  twenty-eight  made  their  escape,  when,  through  the 
indiscretion  of  some  of  our  men,  it  was  discovered  and  two  months  of  hard  toil 
went  for  nothing. 

"The  next  morning,  as  was  expected,  there,  was  a  grand  yankee  himt  The 
dogs  were  out  as  well  as  the  confederates  themselves.  They  rushed  around  the 
camp  yelling  like  fiends  fresh  from  the  lower  regions,  until  they  struck  the  trail, 
when  all  dashed  into  the  woods.  But  the  hounds  did  not  find  it  such  fine  f tm,  for 
the  boys  had  used  plenty  of  black  pepper,  which  made  their  dogships  snort  and 
sneeze  and  bay  terribly.  About  ten  in  the  mornings  the  yelling  in  the  confed- 
erate camp  atoounced  the  capture  of  the  prisoners,  and  before  night,  thirteen 
were  again  in  the  stockade. 

"Imagine  my  feelings  at  seeing  these  comrades  of  mine  with  their  torn  clothes 
and  mangled  limbs.  This  is  no  idle  tale  but  the  facts  as  I  have  witnessed.  The 
moment  anyone  is  missing  the  hounds  are  put  upon  his  track,  and  if  caught  he 
is  treated  as  a  deserter.  A  persevering  in  a  second  attempt  means  that  he  will 
be  shot. 

'The  paroling  officer  is  here  and  has  paroled  six  hundred  and  forty  men, 
but  I  am  not  among  the  lucky  number."  (J.  W.  R.,  Dec.,  '64.)  **• 

The  Thirty-Seventh  Iowa,  called  the  Gr^  Beard  Regiment  because  it  con- 
tained not  a  man  under  forty-five,  was  mustered  out  in  1865.  Only  two  were 
left  in  the  regtmeat  who  went  from  here,  and  these  were  H.  H.  Linsley  and 
Robert  Yard. 

No  sooner  were  the  soldiers  in  camp  than  a  movement  began  to  keep  them 
supplied  with  comforts  and  often  later  with  the  necessities  of  army  life.  Or- 
ganizations were  perfected  for  sending  the  contributions  to  the  front  An  early 
announcement  reads :  "The  last  meeting  of  the  Soldiers'  Aid  Society  will  be  held 
at  the  home  of  Mrs.  W.  A.  Betts  on  Friday  afternoon  at  half  past  one ;  the  male 
members  of  the  society  are  requested  to  be  present,  as  the  ladies  wish  to  con- 
sult with  them  in  r^;ard  to  the  distribution  of  the  articles." 

A  great  variety  of  means  was  employed  to  raise  funds  for  sending  these 
supplies.  Entertainment  and  festival  alike  kept  everyone  informed  of  the  doings 
of  this  relief  association.  The  entire  county  took  this  matter  up  in  May,  1862, 
calling  the  citizens  in  mass  meeting  to  devise  ways  and  means  to  assist  the 
soldiers  in  the  field.    The  call  was  signed  by  eleven  men  of  the  county. 


This  organization  adopted  a  constitution  containing  provisions  for  the  relief 
of  wounded  soldiers,  residents  of  or  enlisted  from  the  county,  to  provide  them 
necessary  supplies,  and  to  return,  free  of  expense  to  friends,  when  necessary,  die 
bodies  of  volunteers  from  this  county  slain  or  dying  in  the  service  of  their  gov- 
ernment. Any  person  could  become  a  member  by  contributing  to  its  funds. 
Three  committees  were  {^pointed  according  to  its  constitution — ^surgical  com- 
mittee, burial  and  finance. 

Whoi  the  order  waS  issued  by  the  Adjutant  General  for  the  organization  of 
the  home  guards  the  county  at  once  took  action.  This  order  induded  all  points, 
and  was  for  the  purpose  of  preserving  order  at  home.  J.  W.  Kynctt  was  elected 
Captain,  J.  D.  Mitchell  ist  Lieut,  and  J.  W.  Casad  2nd  Lieut 

While  the  county  at  first  got  credit  for  only  two  entire  companies,  it  famished 
many  to  companies  outside  the  county.  In  the  Eleventh  Regiment,  besides  hav- 
ing one  company,  there  was  a  large  representation  in  three  others.  Company  I, 
of  Muscatine,  had  eighteen  from  Cedar  county.  Mount  Vernon  had  a  number. 
The  company  from  Wilton,  close  to  Cedar's  border,  had  more  than  forty  from 
this  county.  Men  from  Cedar  were  in  the  Thirteenth,  Fourteenth,  and  in  tbc 
Second  Cavalry.  All  summed  up  the  number  would  compose  four  companies 
additional  to  those  credited  to  the  county.  Such  an  arrangement  came  about 
from  the  associaticms  of  men  near  to  the  county  lines,  and  the  same  conditiois 
often  happened,  doubtless,  in  other  parts  of  the  state. 

A  great  celebration  was  prepared  for  the  Fourth  of  July,  1865,  after  the  war 
was  over.  The  assassination  of  Lincoln  had  cast  a  glo<xn  over  the  community, 
but  events  passed  so  rapidly,  time  was  so  fully  occupied,  that  new  topics  came  np 
for  adjustment  in  n^id  succession.  The  bitterness  of  war  was  not  gone,  for 
there  were  broken  hearts  everywhere.  Yet  in  the  observance  of  the  day  of 
Independence  an  effort  was  made  to  bring*  about  a  union  of  sentiment  in  die 
future  growth  and  recovery  from  the  great  disaster.  In  the  midst  of  these 
plans,  when  the  program  of  the  day  was  nearly  finished,  an  event  occurred 
that  was  more  than  ordinary  in  its  effect.  One  man  who  had  often  expressed 
his  sympathy  with  the  treasonable  side  was  honored  with  a  place  on  the  pro- 
gram ;  an  opportunity  to  redeem  himself  which  he  failed  to  improve.  The  rq>ort 
states  that,  "Attempting  to  respond  to  the  toast  *My  Fatherland,'  he  was  some- 
what hastily  ejected  from  the  platform."  Among  the  speakers  on  this  program 
of  peace  were  Sylvanus  Yates,  J.  W.  Kynett,  L.  L.  Sweet,  W.  H.  Wynn,  Capt 
Safley,  Revs.  Pancoast  and  M.  K.  Cross,  and  Capt.  W.  P.  Wolf.  The  topics 
were  of  war  events  or  of  the  heroes  concerned  in  them. 

On  the  ninety-first  anniversary  of  American  Independence  the  Soldiers' 
Monument,  which  now  stands  in  front  of  the  city  library  in  Tipton,  was  dedi- 
cated. Then  it  stood  in  the  center  of  the  square,  and  so  remained  until  the  time 
of  the  erection  of  the  Carnegie  library,  when  it  was  moved  to  its  present  position. 

The  square  was  once  the  playground  of  the  public  schools,  and  a  genecal 
common  in  the  early  days.  After  the  Civil  War,  before  soldiers  had  settled 
down  into  the  ordinary  ranks  of  citizens,  a  movement  was  b^^n  to  erect  a  shaft 
to  their  memory.  The  call  for  the  consideration  of  this  subject  came  in  June, 
1865,  in  time  for  action  and  incorporation  before  the  memorable  celebration  00 
July  4  juit  referred  to.    At  the  time  of  this  patriotic  meeting  the  first  subscrip- 


tions  were  taken,  the  amount  reported  as  six  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  being 
raised  in  a  few  minutes.  From  time  to  time  other  sums  were  added  until  the 
amount  of  three  thousand  dollars  had  been  raised.  Of  this  sum  one-half  was 
voted  from  the  county  funds,  the  other  fifteen  hundred  being  private  gifts  in 
sums  of  twenty-five  dollars  or  below. 

After  suitable  designs  had  been  submitted  the  one  offered  by  an  Iowa  firm 
was  selected,  and  the  cornerstone  was  laid  on  July  4,  1867,  under  the  auspices 
and  in  accordance  with  the  ritual  of  the  Masonic  order.  The  veterans  of  the 
Civil  War  led  the  march  on  that  day,  and  they  came  from  all  parts  of  the  county. 
The  Odd  Fellows  and  Good  Templars,  followed  by  the  Masons,  came  in  order, 
and  an  entire  day  was  consumed  in  the  regular  program. 

The  names  of  all  the  soldiers  from  the  county  were  read  by  Rev.  Kynett,  the 
Declaration  of  Independence  was  read  by  Capt.  Wolf,  and  an  oration  was  de- 
livered by  Rev.  S.  Pancoast. 

An  appeal  was  made  at  this  time  for  a  sum  sufficient  to  put  an  iron  fence 
about  the  monument  square,  and  a  sum  of  about  three  hundred  dollars  was  raised 
in  a  short  time. 

The  block  selected  for  this  monument  was  early  set  aside  as  block  thirty-two 
for  county  purposes,  and  this  was  donated  to  the  monument  association,  later 
in  its  history  to  be  given  again  to  the  public  for  library  purposes  also. 

When  the  cornerstone  was  laid  it  contained  the  names  of  the  officers  of  the 
association,  and  the  names  also  of  all  members  who  contributed  the  sums  of 
one  dollar  or  more.  The  largest  individual  subscription  was  twenty-five  dollars 
and  the  smallest  twenty  cents,  so  far  as  noted. 

On  reaching  the  monument  square  the  order  of  exercises  made  necessary 
by  the  laying  of  the  cornerstone  included  the  assignment  of  the  soldiers  and 
orders  in  a  definite  arrangement.  The  Masons  having  charge  of  the  ceremony 
approached  the  monument  from  the  east,  arriving  at  an  arch  decorated  widi 
evergreens,  where  the  Master  and  his  officers  passed  through  the  lines  to  the 
platform,  while  the  remainder  of  the  brothers  formed  a  hollow  square.  Grand 
Master  Rev.  J.  W.  Kynett  conducted  the  ceremonies.  Deputy  Grand  Master  J. 
W.  Casad,  holding  a  vessel  of  corn,  stood  east  of  the  cornerstone.  Senior  Grand 
Warden  Rev.  G.  M.  Scott,  holding  a  vessel  containing  wine,  stood  west  of  the 
cornerstone,  and  Junior  Grand  Warden  Wm.  H.  Cobb,  holding  a  vessel  contain- 
ing oil,  occupied  a  position  to  the  south.  The  ceremonies  were  opened  by 
music  and  prayer  by  the  Chaplain,  Rev.  E.  Skinner.  The  several  implements 
of  Masonry  were  applied  in  the  laying  of  the  cornerstone  and  the  part  of  con- 
secration followed. 

The  Deputy  Grand  Master  went  forward  with  the  com  and  scattering  it  on 
the  stone  said : 

"I  scatter  this  corn  as  an  emblem  of  plenty.  May  the  blessings  of  bounte- 
ous Heaven  be  showered  upon  us  and  upon  all  like  patriotic  and  benevolent 
undertakings,  and  inspire  the  hearts  with  virtue,  wisdom,  and  gratitude." 

The  Senior  Grand  Warden  then  went  forward  with  the  wine,  and  pouring  it 
upon  the  stone  said: 

"I  pour  this  wine  as  an  emblem  of  joy  and  gladness.    May  the  Great  Ruler 
of  the  Universe  bless  and  prosper  our  National,  State,  and  City  Governments, 


preserve  the  union  of  the  States,  and  may  it  be  a  bond  of  friendship  and  broth- 
erly love  that  shall  endure  through  all  time." 

The  Junior  Grand  Warden  thai  came  forward  with  the  oil,  and  pouring  it 
upon  the  foundation  stone  said: 

"I  pour  this  oil  as  an  emblem  of  peace.  May  its  Uessings  abide  with  us 
continually,  and  may  the  Grand  Master  of  earth  and  heaven  shelter  and  protect 
the  widow  and  orphan,  shield  and  protect  them  from  trials  and  vicissitudes  of 
the  world,  and  so  bestow  his  mercy  upon  the  bereaved,  the  afflicted,  and  the  sor- 
rowing that  they  may  know  sorrow  and  trouble  no  more." 

The  Grand  Master  offered  the  invocation  and,  after  the  public  grand  honors 
were  given,  a  short  address  by  the  Grand  Master  followed,  closing  this  part  of 
the  exercises  on  this  memorable  Fourth  of  July. 

A  circular  was  issued  to  the  families  of  those  who  had  lost  their  lives  in  the 
war  asking  for  all  the  details,  and  this  information  appears  either  upon  the 
monument  itself  or  in  the  roster  of  companies. 

Not  until  October  of  1867  was  the  monument  completed  by  the  contractors, 
W.  H.  Simpson  &  Co.    It  has  a  fitting  inscription  on  the  west  front  :**• 




MONUMENT,  A.  D.  1867. 

The  names  of  the  dead  appear  on  the  three  remaining  sides  in  ordtr. 

It  is  probably  known  to  most  of  the  citizens  of  the  county  that  William 
Beaver  Post,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  was  named  in  honor  of  the  first 
man  from  Cedar  County  to  fall  in  battle,  a  member  of  Company  A,  Fifth  Iowa 
Infantry.  His  death  occurred  about  the  sixth  of  March,  1862,  while  on  a  scout- 
ing expedition,  near  New  Madrid,  Missouri.  Coming  at  this  time  early  in  the 
company's  history  it  brought  home  to  the  community  from  which  he  went  the 
real  facts  of  war.  A  wife  and  five  children  were  left  at  home  when  he  set  out 
for  battlefields  never  to  return*  Some  time  in  1897  ^  pstpcr  was  found  that  was 
of  much  interest  to  members  of  the  Post  since  it  contains  what  is  given  of  an 
inscription  on  the  stone  or  marker  of  Wm.  Beaver's  grave. 

The  paper  mei^oned  was  found  among  the  effects  of  Mrs.  Hall  in  the  north 
part  of  town.  It  was  in  the  handwriting  of  her  son,  who  was  a  member  of 
the  same  regiment  as  Wm.  Beaver.  The  paper  ccmtaining  the  words  was 
turned  over  to  the  Post  as  a  part  of  their  history. 

The  inscription,  which  seems  from  its  reading  to  have  been  put  there  by 
hands  not  friendly  but  yet  not  wholly  forgetful,  reads  as  follows : 


Welcome  here. 

This  is  the  spot  where  one  not  satisfied  with  leaving  other  folks  alone  would 

insist  on  being  buried,  a 


Killed  the  4th  of  March,  1862,  while  on  picket  duty  by  the 

Confederate  pickets, 

New  Madrid,  Missouri. 

This  Yankee  said  he  belonged  to  the  Fifth  Iowa  Regt. 

The  very  first  observance  of  Memorial  Day  occurred  when  a  number  of 
citizens  formed  in  line  of  march  and  went  to  the  strains  of  martial  music,  that 
music  yet  inspiring  to  the  old  soldier,  to  decorate  the  new  montunent  erected  so 
recently  in  the  square.  From  that  time,  May  30,  1868,  to  the  present  day,  with 
scHne  slight  interruptions  the  custom  has  prevailed  and  no  day  set  apart  for  re- 
membering the  soldier  dead  is  complete  unless  the  children  take  part  in  these 
ceremonies  and  lay  their  contribution  of  flowers  at  the  foot  of  the  monument 
through  the  intervening  hands  of  the  Grand  Army. 

At  this  first  observance,  Capt.  E.  H.  Pound  made  a  short  address  fitting  such 
a  day  and  Lieut.  Bull  called  the  roll  of  the  honored  dead.  The  wreaths  were' 
placed  for  the  first  time  and  Rev.  G.  M.  Scott  pronounced  the  benediction. 

William  Beaver  Relief  Corps,  composed  originally  of  twenty-one  members, 
wives  and  daughters  of  veterans  of  the  Civil  War,  or  of  previous  wars,  was 
instituted  in  Tipton  in  1891.  Mrs.  Alice  L3rtle,  of  Iowa  City,  the  officer  in 
charge  of  this  work,  officiated  on  that  occasion.  Other  ladies  are  admitted  to 
this  organization  now  besides  the  ones  mentioned  in  the  beginning  of  its  exist- 
ence.   This  is  the  only  Relief  Corps  in  the  county. 

On  each  Memorial  Day  Comstock  Post  of  Mechanicsville,  J.  Q.  Wilds  Post 
of  Stanwood,  and  Ho3rman  Post  of  Qarence  are  represented  in  the  exercises  and 
have  a  place  reserved  for  them  in  the  line  of  march.  Their  names  will  continue 
to  stand  in  memory  of  the  comrade  who  fell  in  battle  or  left  his  command  to  die 
in  loneliness  of  wounds  or  disease.  The  ranks  grow  thinner  and  thinner,  and 
soon  there  will  be  no  old  soldier  to  march  on  May  30th  to  guide  the  younger  citi- 
zens into  the  sacred  precincts  of  the  veteran  dead. 

The  story  of  the  death  of  Capt.  J.  C.  Gue  is  full  of  tragedy,  full  of  sadness, 
if  (me  can  picture  to  himself  the  story  of  his  comrade  on  that  fateful  afternoon. 
It  was  about  two  by  the  clock  when  this  foraging  party  of  some  fifteen  men,  the 
captain  and  one  sergeant,  went  for  sweet  potatoes  to  feed  the  hungry  company. 
Not  finding  any  near  at  hand  they  had  gone  some  distance,  probably  six  miles, 
before  arriving  at  a  plantation  where  the  supply  was  sufficient. 

Engaged  in  the  digging  and  filling  the  army  wagon  to  return  to  camp  their 
attention  was  called  to  a  party  of  horsemen  ccxning  in  their  direction,  part  of 
them  in  blue  coats.  A  discussion  arose  as  to  the  nature  of  the  men  approaching, 
were  they  enemies  or  friends?  The  old  landlord  of  the  plantation  declared  tfiem 
to  be  union  men  because  they  had  gone  that  way  the  day  before. 

Capt.  Gue  at  this  time  said  "he  would  see,"  and  forthwith  set  out.  At  his  ap- 
proach the  one  who  had  tarried  behind  the  main  body  saluted  and  the  captain 
rode  directly  toward  him  along  the  edge  of  the  field.  When  he  had  come  within 
a  distance  of  fifty  yards,  without  warning  so  far  as  one  could  tell,  although 
he  may  have  been  called  upon  to  surrender,  the  confederate  raised  his  carbine 
and  shot  him  down.  Before  the  rest  of  his  companions  could  reach  him,  the 
robber  had  done  his  work,  securing  the  revolver  and  sword  of  the  captain.  He 
even  pulled  off  his  new  boots  which  he  had  but  recently  purchased,  but  he  missed 


the  watch  which  in  the  fall  from  the  horse  became  hidden  in  the  clothing. 
Capt.  Gue  rode  the  colonel's  horse  and  the  confederates  endeavored  to  secure 
that,  but  after  the  shooting  the  horse  remained  about  half  way  between  the  two 
parties  making  it  possible  to  secure  him  through  the  efforts  of  the  only  two 
mounted  men  in  the  foraging  company.  The  wagon  was  loaded  with  the  pota- 
toes and  then  the  sad  duty  of  placing  the  dead  captain's  body  on  that  to  take 
it  to  camp  the  six  miles,  fell  to  the  lot  of  his  command.  There  were  some 
who  went  out  with  the  foragers  who  were  musicians  and  being  unarmed  re- 
turned to  camp  as  soon  as  danger  threatened.  Carrying  the  news  to  camp  that 
the  whole  company  was  surrounded,  the  regiment  turned  out  under  orders  to 
rescue  them  and  they  were  met  by  the  returning  party  and  their  sad  message. 

Captain  Gue  was  buried  at  that  camp  by  a  detail,  the  regiment  being  ordered 
into  battle  before  the  honors  of  war  could  be  paid  to  the  dead  comrade.  His 
body  is  supposed  to  have  been  recovered  long  afterward  by  his  brother,  Hon. 
B.  F.  Gue,  and  reinterred  at  Vicksburg.  Sergt.  Andrew  Pierce,  of  Wm.  Beaver 
Post,  states  these  facts  as  he  remembers  them  on  that  day  long  ago.^^' 

The  first  movement  toward  organizing  for  a  county  reunion  was  made  in 
August,  1879.  A  permanent  organization  wtas  recommended  at  that  time.  F.  L. 
Sheldon,  J.  E.  Pickering  and  C.  L.  Longley  were  {^pointed  on  this  committee. 
Remarks  were  made  at  this  time  approving  of  such  a  movement  by  T.  W.  Max- 
son,  O.  D.  Heald,  L.  L.  Sweet  and  others. 

In  October  following  the  above  preliminary  meeting  the  promised  reunion 
materialized,  and  a  great  gathering  of  veterans  from  the  county  met  at  the  fair- 
grounds for  a  two  days'  meeting.  At  this  time  the  roster  showed  Grand  Army 
men  from  nearly  every  northern  state.  Eleven  were  present  from  the  Second 
Iowa  Cavalry ;  nine  from  the  Fifth  Infantry,  nearly  all  from  Company  A,  the  old 
guards;  sixteen  from  Company  E  of  the  Eleventh  Infantry;  of  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Iowa,  seventeen  from  Company  C,  nineteen  from  B,  were  there  and  four 
from  other  companies.  Twenty-one  members  of  the  Thirty-Fifth  answered  to 
roll  call.  Many  others  from  Iowa  regiments  were  present.  At  this  meeting,  in 
addition  to  the  outlined  program,  a  permanent  organization  was  arranged  for 
and  completed. 

A  most  interesting  event  occurred  at  this  time  when  the  battleflags  of  the 
Fifth,  Eleventh,  Twenty-Fourth,  and  Thirty-Fifth  Infantry,  kindly  loaned  by 
Gov.  Gear,  were  on  the  stand  in  the  hands  of  D.  R.  Smith,  D.  Cummins,  James 
Dickinson  and  Jacob  Onstott,  who  acted  as  color  bearers  during  the  day.  The 
flags  were  tightly  furled  and  tied  up,  but  the  men  who  followed  them  would  not 
be  denied  one  more  sight  of  these  revered  emblems.  They  were  carefully  un- 
furled, and,  as  their  torn  and  battered*  folds  spread  into  view  the  names  they 
bore,  the  Cornell  Light  Artillery  fired  a  salute,  and  "the  two  hundred  veterans 
stood  uncovered  and  in  silence  while  the  unbidden  tear  filled  every  eye.*' 

Fully  three  thousand  assembled  at  this  reunion.  After  the  speech  making 
and  story  telling  was  all  done  the  old  flags  were  taken  out  upon  the  race  track, 
the  representatives  of  each  of  the  four  regiments  mentioned  fell  in  behind  thdr 
respective  colors,  those  from  other  regiments  forming  by  themselves,  and  after 
a  few  preliminary  commands,  as  it  was  said,  "just  to  limber  up  a  little,"  they  set 
off  around  the  track,  once  more  following  their  war  flag  after  fifteen  years. 


Another  great  reunion  was  held  in  the  county  in  October,  1882,  when  organ- 
ized companies  of  veterans  bearing  arms  loaned  for  this  purpose  participated  in 
a  sham  battle  witnessed  by  ten  thousand  people.  This  was  held  on  the  fair 
grounds  where  the  camp  was  located,  and  it  is  reported  that  twfo  hours'  time  was 
required  for  the  crowd  to  disperse  after  the  program. 

According  to  arrangement  the  southern  flag  was  displayed  from  the  north- 
west comer  of  the  grounds  where  Capt.  Creitz  was  in  command  of  the  Wilton, 
West  Branch,  and  Atalissa  companies.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  grounds 
were  Capt.  Kelly  and  the  Stanwood  and  Tiptcm  companies — ^both  sides  having 
additional  support  from  scattered  reinforcements.  After  due  effort  was  made 
the  rebel  position  was  taken  and  their  colors  captured.  It  is  said  that  the  wounded 
on  the  Federal  side  were  tenderly  cared  for  by  the  Muscatine  drum  corps,  con- 
sisting of  Becky,  the  old  drum  major  of  the  Thirty-Fifth  Iowa,  and  his  company. 

After  the  mock  war  was  over  the  Cedar  County  Veterans'  Association  was 
presented  with  a  shell  brought  from  the  field  of  Gettysburg. 

The  Twenty-Fourth  Iowa  Volunteers  held  their  Seventh  reunion  in  Tipton 
in  September,  1897.  On  that  occasicm  something  more  than  seventy-five  mem- 
bers enrolled,  and  the  history  of  the  regiment  was  seen  in  review.  A  short  time 
before  this  reunion  their  former  major,  and  after  the  death  of  Col.  Wilds,  their 
Colonel,  Gen.  Ed  Wright,  of  Des  Moines,  had  died  and  the  members  of  the 
regiment  mourned  his  loss  at  this  gathering.  Col.  Wilds  was  killed  at  Win- 
chester, where  the  Twenty-Fourth  fought  with  Sheridan,  and  where  they  saw  that 
gallant  commander  on  his  famous  ride  of  "twenty  miles  away."  Gen.  Wright 
took  command  there,  and  sought  to  make  his  regiment  a  model.  It  will  be  re- 
lated elsewhere  of  the  place  of  Gen.  Wright  in  the  history  of  this  county.  His 
daughter.  Miss  Flora  Wright,  was  in  attendance  at  this  reunion,  and  the  mem- 
bers called  her  the  daughter  of  the  regiment. 

The  sham  battle  at  the  great  reunion  of  1882  had  one  feature  of  sadness  con- 
nected with  it,  when  by  the  premature  discharge  of  a  cannon  the  arm  of  one  man 
was  blown  away  and  others  were  injured  seriously.  At  the  gate  when  the  crowd 
was  leaving  a  cdlection  was  taken  for  the  colored  man  who  had  lost  his  arm  and 
a  hatful  of  money  was  the  result.  Probably  his  name  would  be  familiar  to  the 
younger  generation  by  saying  that  he  was  the  husband  of  "Mzxnmy"  Powell. 

At  the  reimion  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Iowa  in  Tipton,  September,  1909,  the 
history  of  the  regiment,  the  days  of  departure  for  the  field  of  action,  the  long 
story  of  conflict,  and  the  return  were  told  in  eloquent  words,  so  rich  in  their 
sentiment,  so  full  of  emotion,  and  so  personal  that  they  seem  to  be  sacred. 

It  is  allowed  to  incorporate  in  this  chapter  some  of  the  utterances  on  that 
occasion  by  permbsion  of  those  who  are  the  fortunate  possessors  of  the  elo- 
quence, the  experience,  and  the  liberality  expressed  in  the  quotations. 

Captain  Rathbun  indicated  the  purpose  of  the  reunion  in  the  words  which 

''We  came  to  your  city  today  to  participate  in  a  reunion  of  what  is  known  as 
the  Twenty-fourth  Iowa  Regimental  Association,  an  organization  composed  of 
one  of  Iowa's  regiments  which  served  in  the  army  of  the  Union  during  the  war 
of  the  rebellion. 

"To  some  of  us,  however,  it  is  more  than  a  reunion — a  home  coming  as  well. 



"Two  companies  of  the  ten,  two  hundred  of  the  original  members  of  the  r^ 
ment  were  recruited  here.  This  is  our  second  reunion  in  your  city.  The  first 
was  in  September,  1897.  The  welcome  we  received  then,  and  the  universal  hos- 
pitality extended  has  never  been  forgotten,  but  has  been  remembered  with  the 
greatest  pleasure  by  all  whose  good  fortune  it  was  to  be  here  at  that  time. 

"Of  the  nearly  1,000  members  of  the  regiment  when  it  was  mustered  into 
service,  our  corresponding  secretary.  Comrade  H.  C.  Kurtz,  informs  me  that 
there  are  about  450  members  living  today.  But  the  homes  of  many  are  so  distant 
that  at  five  o'clock  this  evening  the  enrollment  here  was  only  91.  By  companies 
as  follows: 

'A-s,  B-23,  C-15, 1>9,  E-6,  F.13,  G-i,  H.7,  1-7,  K-s. 

'Unless  we  recall  the  fact  that  nearly  five  decades  have  passed  since  Ac 
enlistment,  it  may  seem  strange  that  the  numbers  surviving  are  so  few.  But 
perh2q)s  Providence  has  been  as  kind  to  those  who  went  to  the  front  as  to  those 
who  remained  at  home.  So  far  as  I  know  there  is  but  one  who  was  in  business 
in  Tipton  in  1862  who  is  in  business  here  today.  I  presume  it  is  about  the  same 
in  all  towns  where  the  companies  were  raised. 

"In  the  address  of  welccmie  tonight  the  history  of  the  regiment  was  con- 
cisely and  correctly  though  briefly  stated  and  it  is  unnecessary  for  me  to  repeat 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  Twenty-fourth  does  not  claim  to  be  the  regiment  that 
'put  down  the  rebellion,'  but  it  was  one  of  Iowa's  fifty-five  regiments  wfaidi 
served  in  the  Union  army,  one  of  the  2,700  regiments  which  composed  the 
grandest  and  bravest  army  of  the  centuries,  and  it  can  be  truthfully  said  that  no 
other  r^fiment  did  better  service,  no  other  regiment  has  a  better  record  in  the 
archives  of  the  War  Department.  With  this  its  members  should  be  and  are  con- 

When  permission  was  given  to  use  the  address  of  Hon.  C.  L.  Longley,  of 
Vicksburg,  formerly  editor  of  the  Advertiser,  it  was  the  intention  to  take  the 
historical  data,  but  the  address  is  too  full  of  the  inspiring  words  the  soldier 
loved  to  hear  to  omit  anything : 

"When  I  was  young — ah,  woful  when — 

Ah,  for  the  change  twixt  now  and  then! 
Naught  cared  this  body  for  wind  and  weather 
When  Youth  and  I  dwelt  in't  together." 

"Fifty-five  years  ago  this  month  I  first  crossed  the  plot  of  ground  where 
we  now  stand  cm  my  way  to  the  little  old  brick  still  seen  to  my  left — ^then  Tip- 
ton's sole  school  building ;  ahd,  standing  here  today  and  looking  down  the  vista 
of  those  years,  I  can  well  say,  with  our  silver  tong^ed  comrade,  who  long  since 
answered  the  final  roll  call,  'The  past  rises  before  me  like  a  dream.'  For  seven 
or  eight  consecutive  years  this  spot  was  playground,  rendezvous,  trysting  place; 
it  then  acquired  associations  that  made  of  it  a  shrine. 

"You  all  remember,  or  will  know,  of  the  momentous  events  with  which  be- 
gan the  seventh  decade  of  the  last  century.  How  the  war-doud  gathered 
lowered  and  finally,  in  1861,  tempestuously  broke  upon  our  peace-loving  people. 
You  know  how  Governor  Kirkwood's  call  for  ten  companies,  to  cbnstitute  Iowa's 
one  regiment  in  Lincoln's  first  75,000  levy,  was  instantly  responded  to  by  the 
proffer  of  more  than  fifty  companies ;  and  how  her  quota  of  the  much  larger  call 


soon  made  was  more  than  filled  before  the  summer  passed.  Men  sprang  to 
arms,  and  scarcely  a  boy  of  manly  stature  but  burned  to  join  them  and  feared 
the  opportunity  to  be  a  hero  would  flit  and  leave  him  still  a  clod. 

"But  the  momentous  months  were  on,  and  those  of  us  still  at  home  saw  our 
maimed  friends  and  schoolmates  return  from  Donelson,  from  Belmont  and  from 
Shiloh  and  b^;an  to  understand  that  a  uniform  was  not  alone  a  cheap  title  to 
glory,  ncM"  the  soldier's  Ufe  an  idle  holiday.  Nevertheless,  when  in  the  summer 
of  1862  and  after  reverses  to  the  Union  arms  on  the  Peninsula  and  elsewhere 
other  calls  came,  agg^r^^ting  'six  hundred  thoussmd  more,'  the  response  was,  if 
possible,  even  more  prompt,  enthusiastic  and  tmiversal ;  for  within  the  State  of 
Iowa  alone  twenty-one  regiments — eighteen  infantry  and  three  cavalry — were 
recruited  substantially  within  thirty  days. 

"Of  course  you  understand  that  it  was  now  and  here  that  the  Twenty-fourth 
Iowa  sprang  into  existence.  And  right  here  I  wish  to  correct  a  somewhat  com- 
mon misapprehension.  The  following  found  in  the  archives  of  the  Adjutant 
General  of  the  State,  is  the  very  first  authority  for,  or  official  recognition  of, 
the  title  of  Temperance  Regiment,'  as  applied  to  the  Twenty-fourth : 

"'Executive  Office,  Iowa,  August  6,  1862. 
"'E.  C.  Byam: 

"*Sir:  The  Secretary  of  War  has  authorized  me  to  raise  a  regiment  of 
infantry  in  this  State  for  United  States  service  to  be  known  as  the  Temperance 
Regiment'  to  be  commanded  by  you.  This  regiment  is  in  addition  to  the  five 
regiments  heretofore  called  for.  I  therefore  request  and  authorize  you  to  pro- 
ceed immediately  to  the  raising  and  organization  of  such  regiment.  The  regi- 
ment will  be  the  Twenty-fourth  Iowa  Infantry  and  will  rendezvous  at  Musca- 
tine. Recruiting  commission  will  be  issued  to  you  by  the  Adjutant  General  for 
such  persons  as  you  may  designate  as  recruiting  officers  and  passes  will  be  de- 
livered to  you  by  him  for  such  recruiting  officers  and  for  the  recruits  to  the 
place  of  rendezvous.  An  acting  quartermaster  will  be  appointed  by  me  to  make 
the  necessary  arrangements  at  Muscatine  for  quartering  and  subsisting  the  men 
as  they  arrive.  I  shall  expect  the  regiment  to  be  in  rendezvous  by  the  15th  of 
September  next    Very  respectfully, 

'Your  obedient  servant, 

'Samuel  J.  Kirkwoch),  Governor.' 

On  August  6,  1862,  when  the  foregc^ng  was  issued,  every  company  after^ 
wards  serving  in  the  Twenty-fourth  with  a  single  possible  exception,  was  in 
process  of  being  recruited,  had  its  ranks  already  more  than  half  filled  and  its 
oTgaxdzation  was  completed  not  later  than  the  15th  of  the  month  named— only 
nine  days  after  the  order  to  Col.  Byam  was  penned  by  the  Governor.  This  point 
is  not  made  through  any  sensitiveness  with  r^^ard  to  the  name,  'Temperance 
Regiment' — ^better  deserved,  I  honestly  believe,  by  no  regiment  than  by 
the  Twenty-fourth  Iowa — ^but  simply  in  vindication  of  facts  or  history,  which 
are  that  with  one  exception,  the  companies  of  the  Twenty-fourth  were  raised 
precisely  as  were  other  con^anies  in  Iowa  at  the  time,  and  then,  upon  applica- 
tion and  by  careful  selection,  were  assigned  to  Col.  Byam's  r^;iment  In  evi- 
dence,  note  the  following  letter^  co{Hed  verbatim  et  KteraHm  (because  the  spell- 

xuur  uuc 


ing  is  rather  too  good  to  be  lost,  and  therefore  left  unidentified),  from  the 
Adjutant  General's  records: 

"'August  the  II,  1862. 

"  'Governor  S.  Kirkwood : 

"'Sir:  I  have  got  a  full  (a  voice,  "Capt.  Williams")  company  and  we  arc 
now  organized  and  the  officers  are  elected  and  it  is  the  unanimous  request  of 
every  man  that  we  be  transferred  to  the  Twenty-fourth  regiment.  The  Co. 
are  all  temperance  men  and  Col.  E.  C.  Byam  has  requested  me  to  let  you  know 
the  mind  of  Co.  He  is  pleased  with  the  report  of  the  Co.  His  agent  has  seen 
the  men  in  ranks ;  if  you  can  make  the  change  you  will  confer  a  favor  on  loi  men. 

"'Signed  ' 

"  'Dear  Governor :    I  most  heartily  endorse  the  above  request. 

"  'E.  C.  Byam,  Col.  24th  Iowa  Infantry.' 

"Upon  the  back  of  this  letter,  in  the  handwriting  of  Iowa's  grand  old  war 
Governor,  appears  the  following  indorsement: 

"  'Adjutant  General  Baker  will  assign  this  Co.  to  Byam  if  he  wills.' 

"Although  there  is  in  the  records  no  affirmative  evidence,  it  appears  that 
Company  'G'  may  have  been  the  exception  indicated,  as  the  original  recruiting 
commission  for  this  company  was  issued  to  Rev.  F.  W.  Vinson  under  date  of 
August  6,  and  the  enlistments  were  all  after  that  date,  with  none  later  than 
August  15 — so  that  the  company  was  actually  raised  in  nine  days.  And  the 
rapidity  of  enlistments  in  all  the  companies  was  only  exceeded  by  the  clean 
sweep  of  those  eligible.  They  went  by  whole  families;  ten  first  cousins  in  Co. 
'F' — four  Brennaman  brothers,  three  Kurtz  brothers  and  the  rest,  I  think, 
Hershe — ^and,  strange  to  say,  all  three  of  those  Kurtz  boys  are  here  present  this 
day :  in  Co.  'B,'  four  Rigbys ;  Co.  'O,'  three  Hakemans  and  two  Hueys ;  Co.  *D,' 
four  Rosenbergers,  and  so  on  down  the  list.  Oh,  it  was  an  uprising  and  out- 
pouring ;  and  by  the  middle  of  August  each  company  was  assembled  at  the  con- 
venient local  center  trying  to  'drill'  (usually  without  the  slightest  knowledge  <mi 
the  part  of  anyone  present),  and  before  the  end  of  the  month  had  brc^en  the 
home  ties  and  'Gone  to  War.' 

"It  was  upon  this  spot  (then  a  piece  of  bare  prairie  420  feet  square,  including 
the  surrounding  streets)  that  Companies  'B'  and  'C  assembled,  August  27, 
1862,  very  early  in  the  morning,  for  that  ever-to-be-remembcred  parting  and 
starting.  And  it  will  not  be  invidious  for  me  to  recall  as  best  I  may  the  scenes 
of  that  day,  for  they  were  duplicated,  scwnewhere,  not  only  by  each  of  the  other 
companies  of  the  Twenty-fourth,  but  by  each  of  the  216  companies  then  being 
formed  in  our  State.  Older  or  younger,  no  one  who  was  here  present  will 
have  forgotten  that  day  and  that  scene.  At  least  one  hundred  vehicles,  mostly 
farm  wagons,  which  were  to  convey  the  'boys'  sixteen  miles  to  the  railroad, 
were  here  assembled;  then  the  fathers  and  mothers,  the  wives,  sisters, 
and  sweethearts !  It  has  been  well  said  that  three  elements  made  the  vital  force 
that  saved  our  country  upon  a  thousand  fields — ^the  boy  in  the  uniform,  the 
mother  that  gave  him  and  the  girl  he  left  behind  him — a  trinity,  like  all  the  best 
things,  mostly  woman!  Ah,  those  mothers!  Let  me  give  you  an  incident  of 
one,  typical  of  all :  Her  only  child,  not  yet  18,  burned  to  go  with  the  first  com- 
pany from  his  locality;  the  mother  not  only  prevailed  against  that,  but  exacted 


a  solemn  promise  that  he  would  not  enlist  without  her  permission,  which  she  in 
turn  pledged  herself  to  give,  *if  necessary,'  More  than  a  year  later  came  the 
loud  calls  for  more  men ;  this  boy  was  away  from  home  at  the  time,  but  hasten- 
ing back,  his  first  words  were,  'Mother,  I've  just  got  to  go  now!'  With  her 
arms  about  his  neck  and  the  tears  streaming  down  her  face  that  mother  said, 
'My  son,  I  think  you  have!'  You  young  mothers  of  today,  with  your  boys  at 
your  knee,  you  are  thinking  you  could  not  and  would  not  do  thus ;  but  tmder  simi- 
lar circumstances  you  'would'  whether  you  'could'  or  not!  For  two  thousand 
years  the  Spartan  woman  has  been  the  synon3rm  for  self-sacrificing  patriotism,  but 
the  nimbus  thrown  about  her  by  the  romantic  legends  of  the  centuries  pales 
before  the  halo  which  is  placed  upon  the  brow  of  the  American  woman  by  facts 
yet  known  to  thousands  of  living  witnesses !  Hers  was  the  farewell  with  smiles 
and  tears,  hers  the  agony  of  suspense — ^the  waiting  and  the  watching,  often  in 
face  of  privation  and  want ;  hers  the  desolating  sorrow  when  Hope  was  no  more  ; 
but  hers  always  the  spirit  of  encouragement  and  the  hand  of  help !  God  bless  the 
American  wcxnan,  the  best  of  His  best! 

"But  we  are  at  this  moment  witnessing  upon  this  ground,  the  farewells  of  47 
years  ago.  The  two  companies  of  young  men  (fifty  of  them  just  from  the 
school  house  at  my  left  and  all  averaging  scant  22  years)  are  in  the  center 
fcMined  in  mass.  The  first  good-byes  are  spoken  more  formally  by  preachers 
and  teachers,  in  words  trembling  with  emotion — for  the  elder  who  stay  more 
than  the  younger  who  go,  appreciate  the  gravity  and  the  pathos  of  the  moment. 
Then  ranks  are  broken  for  the  real  farewells ;  with  one  hand  on  his  boy's  shoul- 
der and  the  other  palm  to  palm,  the  father  looks  into  his  boy's  eyes  with  but  few 
words ;  the  sister  weeps  upon  his  breast,  the  sweetheart  presses  her  lips  to  his ; 
but  his  mother — she  gathers  him  in  her  arms  as  when  a  helpless  babe,  and,  hold* 
ing  hard  her  throbbing  heart  and  welling  tears,  she  bids  him  ever  to  fear  God 
and-— do  his  duty! 

"Finally  the  last  lingering  words  have  been  spoken  and  we  are  off.  The 
ride  of  sixteen  miles  with  part  of  every  load  composed  of  sisters  and  sweet- 
hearts (the  mothers  are  mostly  on  their  knees  at  hi^ne)  was  a  picnic  Darkness 
found  us  in  the  rendezvous  at  Camp  Strong,  Muscatine,  where  the  greatly  needed 
military  training  filled  the  days.  There  were  plenty  of  incidents  that  would 
bear  recalling,  including  the  visits  of  the  friends  from  home;  but  we  hasten  to 
get  a  glimpse  of  the  real  life  of  the  soldier,  which  began  for  the  Twenty-fourth 
when  we  arrived,  early  in  October,  at  Helena,  Arkansas — a  place  whose  name, 
we  always  thought,  should  have  ended  with  its  first  syllable.  Time  forbids  any 
detail  of,  or  even  reference  to,  consecutive  events.  We  had,  both  then  and  later, 
hardships  and  privations,  as  well  as  amusements  and  pleasures.  Perhaps  it  is 
as  well  that  memory  holds  the  latter  best  and  clearest  But  what  I  would  like 
is  to  recall  one  or  two  typical  incidents,  or  features,  that  may  illumine  for  you 
the  daily  life  of  the  soldier.  It  had  much  sameness — reveille  and  'hard  tack,' 
drill  by  squad,  by  company  and  by  battalion;  more  hard  tack,  more  drill  and 
then  more  tack. 

"But  often,  far  too  often,  during  the  winter,  routine  was  broken  by  the 
funeral  call.    From  the  hospital — ^a  place  where 


"  'There  was  a  lack  of  woman's  nursing, 
There  was  a  dearth  of  woman's  tears/ 
a  place  more  dreaded  by  the  soldier  than  was  the  chance  of  wounds  or  of  death 
upon  the  field  of  battle — from  the  hospital  you  followed  the  casket — I  forget, 
box  or  blanket — ^to  the  shallow  grave  prepared  on  hillside,  levee  or  plain,  for  a 
comrade's  mortal  remains.  To  the  slow  muffled  drum  you  marched,  with  arms 
reversed.  The  chaplain  may  or  may  not  have  been  present,  but  there  was  no 
father,  mother,  sister  or  brother;  the  salute  is  fired;  the  handkerchief  snatched 
from  the  snares  of  the  drums,  and  with  lively  tune  and  quick  step,  camp  and  its 
routine  is  quickly  resumed. 

''Again,  one  of  the  early  lessons  of  that  winter  was  the  demanding  and  com- 
manding potency  of  the  'long  roll.'  That  fierce  rattle  of  the  drums,  punctuated 
by  great  throbs  of  sound,  like  artillery  amid  a  blare  of  musketry,  we  were  told 
meant  attack  and  immediate  danger,  which  instantly  must  be  met  in  hostile 
array.  Thus  it  was  that  cme  night  just  before  Christmas,  1862,  when  between 
one  and  two  o'clock,  the  braves  of  the  Twenty-fourth  were  suddenly  awakened 
by  that  dreaded  alarm,  each  individual  hair  arose  upon  its  owner's  head  as  he 
was  struggling  into  clothing  and  equipments.  The  regiment  was  then 
in  'shacks'  about  9x18,  each  holding  8  men,  who  slept  in  four  'bunks'— one  above 
another  on  either  side,  with  about  thirty  inches  of  floor  between  them.  When 
eight  husky  men  came  at  once  into  that  space  and  at  once  b^;an  frantically  to 
dress,  there  was  some  mix;  and  you  will  not  be  surprised  that  two  of  them, 
each  having  one  trousers'  leg  occupied,  after  vainly  stabbing  the  air  in  an  ^ort 
to  find  the  other  one,  found  instead  that  both  had  hold  of  and  partly  occupied 
one  and  the  same  pair!    And  not  a  hostile  'Johnny'  within  forty  miles! 

"In  the  early  spring  of  1863,  after  a  couple  of  short  and  minor  expedi- 
tions, the  Twenty-fourth  joined  Grant's  gjeat  Vicksburg  campaign.  It  was 
here.  May  16,  at  Champion  Hill,  that  with  one  company  acting  as  provost  guards 
at  corps  headquarters,  the  remaining  nine  overran  and  captured  a  Confederate 
battery,  sustaining  189  casualties,  82  of  which  were  'killed  or  mortally  wounded' 
— a  fatality  exceeded  during  the  war  by  but  very  few  regiments  in  a  single  en- 
gagement Then  came  the  siege  and  capture  of  Jackson,  New  Orleans  and  the 
Teche  campaign,  followed  in  the  spring  of  1864  by  Banks'  ill-starred  Red  River 
fiasco.  Then  to  the  far  East,  where  the  Twenty-fourth  was  the  first  Iowa  regi- 
ment to  march  through  the  streets  of  Washington ;  then  glorious  Shenandoah 
Valley  campaign  with  'Little  Phil,'  then  to  Georgia  and  North  Carolina,  in  Sher- 
man's rear;  and  then — ^home! 

"Victory  at  Appomattox  was  grand,  the  home-coming  glorious,  for  those  of 
us  who  came,  but — 996  men,  including  'field  an  staff,'  were  mustered  into  the 
Twenty- fourth  Iowa  at  Camp  Strong;  recruits  were  added  to  bring  its  total 
membership  up  to  1,207.  Where  were  those  comrades  then?  Where  are  they 
today?  At  the  time  of  our  muster  out,  death  had  already  claimed  343;  since 
then  a  much  greater  number.  The  monument  before  me  (dedicated  July  4th, 
1866,  and  the  first  of  its  kind  in  Iowa)  bears  the  names  of  64 — ^all  of  whom  went 
from  Cedar  County  and  who  died  during  the  war.  Four  companies  are  repre- 
sented—^! from  *B,'  32  from  'C,'  10  from  'D,'  and  i  from  'H.'  To  these  oar 
comrades  and  to  all  others  who  either  during  or  since  the  war  passed  over  die 


river  and  are  'waiting  in  the  Shade,'  this  assembly  is  especially  a  memorial. 
We  bring  to  them  one  and  all  our  affectionate  remembrances,  ourselves  linger- 
ingf  on  the  brink.    We,  ourselves,  but 

"  'Wait  for  the  bugle ;  the  night  dews  are  cold. 

The  limbs  of  the  soldier  feel  jaded  and  old. 

The  field  of  our  bivouacs  is  windy  and  bare, 

There  is  lead  in  our  joints,  there  is  frost  in  our  hair; 

The  future  is  veiled  and  its  fortunes  unknown 

As  we  lie  with  hushed  breath  till  the  bug^e  is  blown. 

"  'At  the  sound  of  that  bugle  each  comrade  shall  spring 
Like  an  arrow  released  from  the  strain  of  the  string. 
The  courage,  the  impulse  of  youth  shall  come  back 
To  banish  the  chill  of  the  drear  bivouac. 
And  sorrows  and  losses  and  cares  fade  away, 
When  that  life-giving  signal  proclaims  the  new  day. 

"  'Though  the  bivouac  of  age  may  put  ice  in  our  veins, 
And  no  fibre  of  steel  in  our  sinews  remains; 
Though  the  Comrades  of  yesterday's  march  are  not  here. 
And  the  stmlight  seems  pale  and  the  branches  are  sear, 
Though  the  sound  of  our  cheering  dies  down  to  a  moan. 
We  shall  find  our  lost  youth  when  the  bugle  is  blown.' 

"Comrades  for  whom  the  bugle  has  already  blown,  the  great  majority  of  the 
old  Twenty- fourth  Iowa — ^'We  who  are  about  to  die,  salute  you  I'  "*** 

When  rumors  of  war  came  in  1898,  the  military  company  in  Tipton  and  vicin- 
ity made  preparations  for  any  emergency.  The  Iowa  National  Guard,  it  was 
understood,  would  be  the  first  to  be  called  out  for  service.  In  preparation  for 
these  events  the  citizens  of  the  county  took  great  interest,  and  no  one  more  than 
the  one  who  offered  to  mount  the  commanding  <^cer  in  case  of  need. 

It  was  in  March,  1898,  that  Alex  Spear,  one  of  the  substantial  farmers  of  the 
county,  called  at  the  office  of  Maj.  John  T.  Moffit,  and  asked  if  he  was  furnished 
with  the  necessary  horses  in  the  event  of  being  called  upon  for  service. 

Major  Moffit  admitted  that  he  was  not  in  possession  of  the  horse  he  would 
need  to  lead  his  troops.  Since  Cedar  county  was  then,  as  now,  noted  for  its  fine 
horses,  Mr.  Spear  said  he  was  anxious  that  the  officers  from  this  county  should 
be  as  well  mounted  as  any  in  the  entire  division.  He  determined  to  prevent  any 
failure  in  this  respect  by  offering  to  the  Major  the  best  mount  his  stables  could 
produce.  This  was  the  description  of  the  fine  animal  selected :  a  large  bay  mare, 
seven  years  old,  coach  and  trotting  bred,  standing  sixteen  hands  high,  and  weigh- 
ing eleven  hundred  pounds  or  more;  one  of  a  fine  saddle  gait.  This  was  the 
splendid  prospect  for  the  officer  in  case  a  call  should  come  for  active  service. 

On  Saturday,  just  a  week  before  the  orders  were  received  to  march,  Mr. 
Frank  Moffit  sent  Lieut.  Sweinhart,  as  a  present,  a  fine  black  horse,  beautiful 
enough  to  make  him  the  envied  of  all  soldiers.  Lieut.  France  was  presented  by 
other  citizens  with  a  horse  said  to  be  worthy  a  brigadier  general — 2,  Kentucky 


After  the  ultimatum  had  been  issued  by  Pres.  McKinley,  Company  F  awaited 
impatiently  the  order  that  all  began  to  feel  was  inevitable.  All  was  expectancy 
on  the  afternoon  and  evening  of  Monday,  the  25th  of  April,  1898,  and  late  into 
the  night  the  order  was  awaited,  until  all  had  given  it  up  and  gone  home  to  rest. 

It  is  related  that  business  was  practically  suspended  during  Monday  while  the 
order  was  awaited,  and  the  streets  were  thronged  while  awaiting  that  first  news. 
The  arrangements  were  all  made,  everything  was  packed  ready  to  respond  at  a 
moment's  notice.  A  last  drill  at  the  armory  followed  by  a  dancing  party  occupied 
the  members  of  the  company,  until  the  conclusion  was  reached  that  no  orders 
would  come  until  morning,  and  they  separated,  for  a  short  time  as  it  proved. 
Many  had  not  yet  gone  to  their  homes  for  the  night  when  the  order  came  to  as- 
semble at  Camp  McKinley  at  Des  Moines. 

The  message  by  wire  came  at  12  -.30  A.  M.,  on  Tuesday,  the  26th  of  April,  and 
one  hour's  notice  given  of  the  coming  special  train  over  the  C.  &  N.  W.  to  cany 
the  company  to  Des  Moines.  Bells  were  rung,  and  buglers  rode  through  the 
streets  sounding  the  assembly  call,  while  the  fire  whistle  added  to  the  alarm. 

The  suspense  was  over  and  the  final  summons  was  a  relief  to  high  strung 
nerves  awaiting  some  definite  decision.  Knapsacks  were  hastily  put  on,  and 
orders  were  given  to  "fall  in." 

At  the  depot  scenes  of  the  Civil  War  were  repeated  with  this  difference,  that 
in  1861  the  boys  crossed  the  country  to  Wilton  in  lumber  wagons  instead  of  taking 
train  at  once.  The  sensations  were  not  different,  and,  it  is  safe  to  say,  the  vet- 
erans of  the  Civil  War  recalled  the  old  days  when  they  were  young  and  start- 
ing out  to  serve  their  country  where  home  and  friends  and  all  the  cherished  things 
of  life  must  be  surrendered.  While  after  events  did  not  make  the  havoc  in  home 
life  caused  by  the  Civil  War  the  remembrance  of  these  things  affected  this  de- 
parture. Mothers  and  fathers  felt  the  same  reluctance  in  giving  up  their  sons  for 
the  conquering  of  a  foreign  despot  as  those  of  other  days  for  the  preservation 
of  the  nation. 

In  the  darkness  of  midnight,  with  a  few  flickering  lanterns,  with  hearts  fuO 
of  unsaid  things,  the  train  was  loaded  with  its  human  freight  and  with  the  equip- 
ment including  the  gift  mounts  of  the  officers  moitioned  before.  There  was  no 
noise,  but  the  silent  feeling  of  serious  business,  and  a  determination  to  find  out 
the  secrets  of  war. 

On  the  Sunday  following  the  assembling  at  Camp  McKinley,  a  multitude  made 
an  excursion  there  to  see  the  soldiers  in  camp.  Tipton  sent  a  big  dd^^ation  over 
the  road  now  iii  the  control  of  the  Rock  Island  system,  and  they  spent  Sunday  with 
Company  F. 

The  49th  Regiment  was  ordered  to  Jacksonville  June  9,  1898,  and  were  on 
their  way  by  the  nth.  When  next  heard  from  Company  F  and  those  enlisted 
f  rcMn  this  county  were  in  camp  at  Jacksonville,  Fla.  They  went  over  the  Mil- 
waukee road,  and  a  number  of  people  from  the  county  went  to  Marion  to  sec 
them  off.  While  the  company's  train  halted  there  they  were  remembered  by  Capt 
and  Mrs.  S.  W.  Rathbun,  both  formerly  of  this  county ;  the  Captain's  name  being 
found  in  the  official  and  military  records  of  the  county  while  Mrs.  Rathbun  was 
prominent  in  its  educational  history. 


The  regiment  was  fed  in  home  fashion  at  Marion,  and  this  reminds  one  of 
the  Wilton  people  feeding  the  boys  on  their  way  to  Muscatine  in  1861,  and  the 
Tipton  dinner  to  the  Mechanicsville  company  a  little  later.  History  only  repeats 
itself  a  little  more  rapidly  in  its  movement,  and  the  changes  of  time  in  prosecuting 
the  war  were  correspcmdingly  short. 

The  journey  of  the  boys  to  the  south  was  fully  described  in  the  interesting 

newspaper  letters  of  one  of  their  number,  now  a  regular  army  officer,  E.  H. 

After  trying  experiences  in  camp  life,  in  fighting  disease  and  escaping  by  nar- 
row margins,  the  first  death  came  to  Company  F  of  the  49th.  Joe  Wilson,  who 
went  out  with  the  company  on  the  night  journey,  never  returned  to  his  home  until 
his  mother  brought  him  after  the  long  hospital  fight  was  ended.  His  burial  oc- 
atrred  in  his  home  town  on  September  30,  1898.  All  the  business  houses  were 
cl:>sed,  and  the  G.  A.  R.  and  W.  R.  C.  attended  in  a  body  in  honor  of  the 
young  soldier.  The  public  schools  were  closed  and  joined  in  the  services  for  the 
foimer  pupil.  Col.  J.  T.  Moffit,  Adjt.  J.  C.  France,  and  Capt.  Rowell  were  all 
present  from  the  Jacksonville  camp. 

Shortly  after  this  another  member  of  Company  F  was  brought  home  by  his 
friend  and  comrade  Ed  Wolf — Private  Harry  Staininger  died  in  the  Florida 
hospital  and  was  buried  in  Tipton  October  8,  1898.  This  was  the  second  death 
in  the  company  due  to  disease  from  a  changed  climate  and  the  unhealthy  condir 
ticms  under  which  a  large  body  of  men  were  called  upon  to  live  during  the  sum- 
mer season. 

It  was  in  December  that  the  49th  Iowa  set  sail  for  Havana.  A  telegram  from 
Col.  Dows  conveyed  this  information  to  the  friends  at  home. 

While  the  regiment  was  in  Cuba  a  paper  of  that  island  called  "The  Times," 
gave  some  account  of  its  composition  and  activities.  They  were  then  in  Camp 
Columbia,  which  was  described  as  "being  swept  by  the  zephyrs  from  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico,  and  washed  by  the  blue  waters  of  the  mighty  ocean." 

The  colonel,  Wm.  G.  Dows,  had  risen  from  the  ranks,  through  every  grade  of 
militia  service  since  the  organization  of  the  r^ment  in  1878.  He  and  the  captain 
of  Cwnpany  C  were  the  oldest  members  in  point  of  service  in  the  regiment.  At 
this  time  the  regiment  was  said  to  be  the  only  strictly  volunteer  one  in  the  island, 
as  there  was  no  r^fular  army  officer  in  it**' 

The  regiment  had  the  honor  of  furnishing  a  detail  for  guard  at  Morro  Castle, 
and  were  the  first  soldiers  of  the  army  of  the  United  States  to  set  foot  in  that 
fortress.  Company  F  of  Tipton,  Capt.  L.  J.  Rowell,  ist  Lieut.  J.  E.  Hartley 
belonged  to  this  regiment.  Company  H,  of  Marshalltown  had  for  its  captain 
Chas.  S.  Aldrich,  a  Cedar  County  boy. 

When  Comp&ny  F  left  for  the  Des  Moines  camp  in  1898,  and  later  were 
ordered  south,  and  finally  into  Cuba,  there  was  much  anxiety  on  the  part  of 
the  families,  and  friends  concerned.  When  they  returned,  a  great  reception 
was  given  them  by  all  the  people. 

They  landed  at  the  same  station  from  which  they  set  out  that  early  morning, 
when  the  excitement  was  such  that  no  one  thought  of  sleep  the  whole  night 
through,  but  the  return  was  somewhat  different  from  the  departure. 


It  was  a  day  of  general  rej<Mcing,  great  crowds  assembling  to  greet  the 
return  on  Tuesday  morning,  May  i6,  1899.  A  program  had  been  carefully  pre- 
pared for  the  occasion,  and  the  whole  day  was  to  be  given  up  to  its  fulfilment, 
but,  owing  to  the  great  crowd  at  the  station  when  the  special  train  came  in,  and 
the  spontaneous  greetings  from  all  the  friends,  formal  exercises  were  forgot- 
ten ; — even  the  Grand  Army  escort  of  twenty- four  grizzled  veterans  of  the  Qvil 
War  which  had  formed  in  line  to  meet  the  younger  soldiers  just  back  from  Cuba. 

Greetings  and  responses,  toasts  and  banquets  followed  in  due  season,  when 
the  emotions  of  men  were  stirred  by  the  kind  appreciation  of  friends,  and  the 
tears  w^re  not  forgotten  for  the  ones  who  gave  up  their  young  lives  in  camp 
or  hospital  ward. 

C<xnpany  B,  First  Regiment,  I.  N.  G.,  was  organized  in  Tipton,  in  1884  and 
that  same  year  took  part  in  the  encampment  at  Waverly,  la.  Cs^t.  Wm.  Kdly, 
formerly  ist  Lieut,  of  Co.  B,  Twenty-fourA  Infantry  during  the  Civil  War, 
commanding.  It  remained  in  the  First  Regiment  as  Company  B  until  1892 
when  it  became  Company  M,  of  the  Second.  In  1898  it  was  transferred 
back  to  the  First  as  Company  F.  At  the  enlistment  in  the  Spanish-American 
War  it  became  Ownpany  F  of  the  Forty-Ninth. 

It  was  reorganized  at  the  close  of  the  war  and  in  1899  was  still  Company 
F  of  the  Forty-ninth.  Later  in  1902  it  was  transferred  to  the  Fifty-third  Regi- 
ment and  is  now  in  that  organization. 

The  original  members  of  this  coaq>any  as  recruited  in  1884  follows : 

Captain,  William  Kelly. 

First  Lieut,  R.  M.  Carothers. 

Second  Lieut.,  H.  L.  Brotherlin. 

Second  Lieut.,  S.  D.  Casad. 

First  Lieut.,  S.  D.  Casad. 

Second  Lieut,  J.  T.  M<^t. 

Captain,  J.  T.  Moffit. 

Major  Second  Regt.,  J.  T.  Moffit 

First  Lieut.,  Walter  Jeflfers. 

Second  Lieut.,  W.  T.  Gilmore. 

Second  Lieut.,  L.  J.  Rowell. 

Captain,  L.  J.  Rowell. 

Major,  L.  J.  Rowell. 

First  Lieut,  C.  S.  Aldrich. 

Second  Lieut.,  C.  S.  Aldrich. 

Second  Lieut.,  F.  H.  Gunsolus. 

First  Lieut,  F.  H.  Gunsolus. 

Second  Lieut,  J.  E,  Bartley. 

Private,  Burgess,  J.  L. 

Private,  Coutts,  W.  H. 

Private,  Chitlick,  Geo. 

Private,  Doyle,  Thos.  F. 

Corporal,  Deardorf,  O.  G. 

Private,  Dallas,  W.  J. 

Private,  Ferguson,  Will. 


I  3 


_  L 


Private,  Geiger,  A.  C.  T. 
Private,  Hirschfieldt,  Frank, 
Private,  Ives,  C.  E. 
Private,  Jakaway,  Ekner. 
Private,  Murray,  Chas. 
Corporal,  Moore,  W.  J. 

Private,  McKee,  L.  S.  ,^ 

Sergt,  Neiman,  J.  N. 
Private,  Safley,  Clarence. 
Private,  Sproat,  C.  N. 
Private,  Simons,  C.  W. 

Private,  Safley,  Arthur,  ' 

Sergt,  Safley,  Geo,  R, 
Corporal,  Snyder,  C.  A. 

Private,  Weaver,  John  B.  ,  , 

Private,  Weaver,  Geo.  K,  . 

Private,  Wescott,  W.  D  . 
Private,  Wiggins,  W,  D. 

Private,  Yates,  Sherman.  ' 

Private,  Waddell,  Alex, 
Surgeon,  Pine,  P.  R. 
Private,  McEwen,  A.  J. 
Private,  Hanmiond,  Kirby. 

Private,  Stout,  Chas.  B.  _ 

Private,  Aldrich,  H, 
Private,  Rudy,  J.  P, 
Private,  Bailey,  Sherman. 
Private,  Stoat,  Jacob. 
Private,  Moscrip,  W.  A. 
Private,  Seitsinger,  J.  F. 
Private,  Stafford,  Leonidas  B. 
Asst,  Surgeon,  Peters,  R,  A. 
Private,  McVay,  Chas.  E. 
Private,  Godden,  John. 
Private,  Huber,  Henry  L. 

Roster  of  Company  F,  as  it  was  at  the  departure  for  Canq>  McKinley  on 
April  26th,  1898. 

Captain,  L.  J.  Rowell. 
First  Lieut.,  F.  H.  Gunsolus. 
SeccMid  Lieut,  J.  E.  Bartley. 
First  Seiigeant,  Wm.  Kauffman, 
Second  Sergeant,  R.  A.  Dutton. 
Third  Sergeant,  C.  E.  Wallick. 
Fourth  Sergeant,  F.  M.  Cottrell. 
Fifth  Sergeant,  R,  R.  Hoon, 
First  Corpora],  J.  L.  McCormick. 
Second  Corporal,  A.  M.  McCormick. 


Third  Corporal,  E.  C.  Fori 
Fourth  Corporal,  Claude  Qaiic 
Musician,  C.  E.  Dilts. 
Private,  Wm.  M.  Aldrich. 
Private,  Birch  Auldridge. 
Private,  Frank  Brown. 
Private,  W,  H.  Bruch. 
Private,  Ed  Chase. 
Private,  C.  L.  Dunn. 
Private,  S.  V.  Downing. 
Private,  E.  E.  Dotson. 
Private,  H.  P.  Dutton. 
Private,  Harry  Dean. 
Private,  Frank  Foy. 
Private,  Wm.  Gregg. 
Private,  Forest  Gay. 
Private,  Arthur  Hawley. 
Private,  Geo.  Henan. 
Private,  C.  S.  Hawkins. 
Private,  Fred  Shaw. 
Private,  Robt  Sproat 
Private,.  J.  R.  Wilson. 
Private,  H.  L.  WUley. 
Private,  Asher  Wirick. 
Private,  E.  H.  Yule. 
Private,  Harry  Harris. 
Private,  Claus  Hartmen. 
Private,  C.  C.  Helmer. 
Private,  A.  H.  Keller. 
Private,  M.  Kizer. 
Private,  L.  A.   Kelling. 
Private,  Joe  Leantey. 
Private,  Stewart  Maxson. 
Private,  Everett  McQung. 
Private,  L.  D.  Moorehead. 
Private,  W.  G.  McCormick. 
Private,  John  McDonald. 
Private,  E.  F.  G.  Onstott. 
Private,  Wm.  Palmer. 
Private,  Ralph  Reed. 
Private,  Chas.  Stout. 
Private,  J.  R.  Smith. 
Private,  Frank  Shultz. 
Private,  Arthur  Waddell. 
Private,  Joe  Whalen. 
Private,  W.  E.  Williams. 
Private,  F.  W.  Yule. 



Major,  John  T,  Moffit. 
Lieut.,  J.  C.  France. 


Lieut.,  Claude  Sweinhart. 

Lieut,  Ed.  WcJf, 

Lieut,  Art  Hobstetter. 

Lieut.,  Chas.  Reichert. 

Lieut.,  Harold  Murray.^* 

The  record  of  Company  F,  as  mustered  out,  is  fotmd  upon  the  War  Records 
as  below: 

The  company  was  organized  at  Tipton,  Iowa»  and  mustered  into  the  United 
States  service  June  2,  1898,  at  Des  Moines,  la.,  and  on  Jnne  11,  1898,  was  sent 
out  by  train  to  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  where  it  arrived  June  14,  1898.  Was  detailed 
on  special  duty  at  Rifle  Range  of  Seventh  Army  Corps,  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  from 
September  12  to  September  18,  1898,  inclusive. 

On  October  25  it  was  moved  (in  company  with  its  reg^ent)  by  train  to 
Savannah,  Ga.,  where  it  remained  in  camp  until  December  2,  1898,  when  it  was 
detailed  on  special  duty  as  Provost  Guard  in  the  dty  of  Savannah.  It  was  re- 
lieved on  December  19,  1898,  and  on  this  date  it  embarked  on  the  U.  S.  Trans- 
port "Minnewaska"  for  Cuba,  where  it  arrived  at  Havana,  December  21,  1898. 
Disembarked  December  23,  1898,  and  marched  to  ''Camp  Columbia,'^  near 
Havana^  where  it  remained  in  camp  tmtil  February  20,  1899,  on  which  date  it 
left  for  a  practice  march.  After  two  days'  march  it  arrived  at  San  Antonio  de 
los  Banos,  Cuba,  where  it  camped  for  four  days.  On  February  25,  1899,  it 
broke  camp  and  after  a  two  days'  march  arrived  at  "Camp  Columbia,"  Havana, 

It  remained  in  camp  at  this  place  tmtil  April  5,  1899,  when  it  embarked  on 
the  Steamship  City  of  San  Antcmio  for  Savannah,  Ga.,  where  it  arrived  after 

five  days  spent  in  "Camp  Detention"  on Island,  South  Carolina, 

April  14,  1899.    Here  it  remained  in  camp  until  mustered  out  on  May  13,  1899. 

The  officers  as  mustered  out  were: 

Captain,  L.  J.  Rowell. 

First  Lieutenant,  J.  E.  Bartley. 

Second  Lieutenant,  William  C.  Kauffman. 
First  Sergeant,  Clarence  E.  Wallick. 

Sergeant,  J.  L.  McCormick. 

Seiigeant,  A.  M.  McCormick. 

Sergeant,  E.  C.  Ford. 

Sergeant,  Chas.  L.  Dunn. 

Corporals,  W.  B.  Gr^ig,  E.  F.  McQui^,  Robt.  Sproat,  Harry  S.  Dean,  Wes- 
ley Rhoardes,  Frank  S.  Foy,  Chas.  A.  Hawley,  W.  W.  Aldrich,  John  R.  Smith, 
Maynard  W.  Kizer,  William  Palmer,  Edwin  J.  Wolf .^w 

The  individual  records  of  the  company  in  the  Spanish-American  war  are 
found  in  the  muster  out  rolls  but  cannot  be  copied  in  detail.    Captain  Rowell  was. 


forced  to  leave  the  company  for  a  time  on  account  of  severe  illness,  and  it  dien 
was  in  command  of  Lieut.  Bartley.  Promotions  occurred  as  the  vacancies  d^ 
manded  and  a  comparison  of  the  company  roster  on  leaving  and  returning  will 
indicate  where  these  were. 

This  makes  no  record  of  the  two  officers  of  the  fiftieth,  Major  MoSit  and 
Adj.  France.  The  former  became  Lieut.  C(donel  at  Jacksonville  cm  Aug.  20, 
1898.  This  is  the  second  appointment  to  the  office  in  the  volunteer  service  from 
this  county,  there  being  one  in  the  Civil  war. 

Adj.  France,  after  his  return  from  Cuba,  was  commissioned  Captain  in  die 
40th  U.  S.  V.  for  special  service  in  the  Philippine  Islands  for  two  years.  He 
served  in  the  40th  for  twenty-two  months,  nineteen  of  which  were  spent  across 
the  Pacific.  His  regimental  commander  was  Col.  Godwin,  how  in  command  of 
the  Seventh  Cavalry.  A  certain  poem  written  by  Captain  Miller  of  this  regiment 
describes  the  service  of  Capt.  France  in  a  very  complimentary  way  at  the  battle 
of  Augusan,  May  14, 1900.  He  was  in  other  engagements  dtCring  the  service  from 
August,  1899,  to  June  24,  1901,  among  them  being  Cogayan  de  Misamis,  April  7, 
1900.  He  participated  in  Bell's  expedition  February,  1900,  and  another  to  North 
Mindanao  in  March ;  also  in  the  (^rations  around  Macajambos  in  December  of 
the  same  year.    He  returned  and  was  mustered  out  in  June,  1901. 

Capt.  L.  J.  Rowell,  who  was  in  conunand  of  Co.  F  of  the  49th  during  hos- 
tilities is  now  Lieut.  Colonel  of  the  53d  I.  N.  G. 

ROSTER  CO.  F,  53D  REGT.  I.  N.  G.  JULY  30,  I9IO. 

Capt.  J.  E.  Bartley. 
First  Lt.  Chas.  R.  Willey. 
Second  Lt.  Earl  C  Ford. 
First  Sergt.  R.  E.  Kent. 
Sergt.  Ralph  W.  Hepoer. 
Sergt.  Wm.  A.  ShafiFer. 
Sergt.  Lloyd  E.  Murray. 
Sergt.  Fred  H.  Bagley. 
Sergt.  Everett  Tracht. 
Corp.  Gilman  E.  Gerber. 
Corp.  Thaddeus  L.  Levy. 
Corp.  Chas.  J.  Lang. 
Corp.  Ira  Wright 
Corp.  Ward  Williams. 
Corp.  Harry  A.  Stonerook. 
Cook  Fred  T.  Challis. 
Cook  John  Brown. 
Musician  Chas.  C.  Bartley. 
Musician  Garth  M.  Diltz. 
Private  Austin,  Arthur  B. 
Private  Baker,  Wren  L. 
Private  Barth,  Arnold  A. 
Private  Carlisle,  Forest  E. 
Private  Eutsler,  Roy  V. 


Private  Fisher,  Frank. 

Private  Foote,  Fred. 

Private  Fields,  Forrest  F. 

Private  Franco,  Lester. 

Private  Gregg,  Christy  B. 

Private  Griffis,  Chas.  E. 

Private  Gillem,  Ralph  L. 

Private  Goodale,  Roy  E. 

Private  Hamer,  Sam. 

Private  Hawkins,  Albert  B. 

Private  Kams,  Geo.  F. 

Private  Kensinger,  John  F. 

Private  Lang,  John  M. 

Private  Lang,  Bernard  F. 

Private  Matucha,  Yaro. 

Private  Maurer,  Geo.  W. 

Private  Mitchell,  Lawrence  P. 

Private  Mixell,  Ambrose. 

Private  Marker,  Ray. 

Private  Morden,  Wilbur. 

Private  Miller,  Harry  O. 

Private  O'Hara,  James  M. 

Private  Paterson,  Alexander. 

Private  Paterson,  Wm.  R. 

Private  Potter,  Ray  A. 

Private  Reed,  Enmior. 

Private  Shipley,  Everett 

Private  Shaffer,  Henry  J. 

Private  Sheets,  Preston  E. 

Private  Spence,  Walter  S. 

Private  Sweet,  Charles. 

Private  Schell,  Wm.  C. 

Private  Templeton,  Edie. 

Private  Tevis,  John  W. 

Private  Williams,  Qare. 

Private  Wieske,  Albert. 

P.rivate  Wieske,  Wm.*** 

Company  A,  of  the  Fifth  Iowa,  was  the  first  enlisted  in  Cedar  County  for 
the  suppression  of  the  Rebellion.  This  company  was  formed  from  a  military 
organization  existing  prior  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  Rebellion,  and  was  ready 
for  the  First  Regiment,  but  for  various  reasons  was  crowded  out,  and  was  finally 
assigned  to  the  position  of  Co.  A,  of  the  Fifth,  in  consequence  of  not  being  able 
to  secure  the  position  they  desired. 

The  regiment  was  mustered  in  at  Burlington,  July  15,  1861,  and  ordered  to 
Keokuk  August  2,  from  which  point  they  were  sent  into  Missouri  for  a  few 
days  in  pursuit  of  bushwhackers,  after  which  they  were  sent  to  St.  Louis,  and 
from  thence  ordered  to  Jefferson  City,  Mo.,  and  from  there  to  BoonviUe,  Mo. ; 


thence  followed  the  rebel  army  under  Price  to  Springfield,  Mo.,  and  on  their 
return  encamped  at  Syracuse  until  the  following  February,  when  they  were 
moved  across  the  country  to  St  Louis,  and  thence  by  transport  to  Cairo,  where 
they  remained  a  few  weeks  and  were  transferred  to  Cape  Girardeau.  They  were 
then  marched  to  New  Madrid,  where  they  had  a  skirmish  with  the  enemy,  and 
the  first  man  from  Cedar  County,  Private  Wm.  Beaver,  for  whom  the  G.  A.  R 
Post  of  Tipton  was  named,  was  killed.  After  the  fall  of  New  Madrid,  they 
crossed  the  Mississippi  and  marched  to  Tiptonville  to  intercept  and  Gq>ture 
rebels,  who  were  attempting  to  escape  from  Island  No.  lo.  They  were  then  or- 
dered back  to  New  Madrid,  thence  to  a  point  above  Fort  Pillow,  on  the  Missis- 
sippi, thence  by  way  of  Cairo  and  the  Tennessee  River  to  Pittsburg  Landing,  to 
take  part  in  the  operations  before  Corinth. 

Upon  the  evacuation  of  Corinth,  they  followed  the  rebels  to  Rienzi,  and 
afterwards  remained  in  camp  at  Gear  Creek,  Rienzi  and  Jacinto,  until  Sept  i8, 
1862,  when  they  started  for  luka,  where,  on  the  19th,  they  took  part  in  the  battle 
of  luka,  where  Co.  A  went  into  the  fight  with  forty-three  men,  and  had  twenty- 
seven  killed  and  wounded.  It  was  here  that  the  regiment  distinguished  itself, 
so  that  it  was  complimented  very  highly  by  the  Generals  commanding.  The 
position  they  held  was  in  support  of  a  battery,  which  in  consequence  of  the 
superiority  of  ntunbers  of  the  enemy,  was  at  one  time  captured,  but  rallying  to 
the  rescue  of  the  Fifth  Regiment  retook  the  battery  with  the  terrible  loss  above 
mentioned.  They  returned  to  Jacinto  on  the  21st  of  September,  thence  removed 
to  Corinth  to  take  part  in  the  battle  at  that  place.  Engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  the 
rebeb  after  that  battle,  they  remained  in  camp  at  Corinth  until  November,  when 
they  joined  the  expedition  against  Vicksburg,  going  by  way  of  Holly  Springs  to 
Oxford,  thence  to  Memphis,  where  they  remained  in  camp'  until  spring  of  1863. 

From  here  they  were  ordered  to  Helena,  thence  in  the  Yazoo  Pass  expedition. 
After  their  return  to  Helena,  they  moved  to  Milliken's  Bend,  and  through  Louis- 
iana to  a  point  below  Vicksburg,  and  thence  by  gunboat  to  a  point  below  Grand 
Gulf,  Miss.  From  here  they  were  ordered  to  Raymond  and  Jackson,  and  back  to 
the  battle  of  Champion  Hill,  where  Company  A  lost  ten  in  kSled  and  wounded. 

After  this  they  engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  the  rebels  to  Vicksburg,  and  tock 
part  in  the  charge  on  the  22nd  of  May. 

They  then  toc4c  their  places  in  the  siege  of  Vicksburg,  where  they  remained 
until  the  last  of  June,  when  they  were  ordered  to  Black  River,  to  confront  Ac 
enemy  coming  to  the  relief  of  Vicksburg. 

They  returned  to  Vicksburg  July  i  and  remained  in  camp  imtil  Sept.  i,  when 
they  were  ordered  to  Helena  for  the  purpose  of  joining  the  expedition  against 
Little  Rock,  but  were  from  there  ordered  to  Chattanooga  by  way  of  Corinth, 
marching  a  considerable  portion  of  the  distance.  They  were  then  transferred 
to  the  Seventeenth  Corps,  and  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  where  the 
regiment  lost  thirty  men  in  killed  and  wounded  and  eight  officers  and  seventy-six 
men  taken  prisoners,  leaving  only  sixty-five  men  in  the  regiment  who  answered  at 
roll  call  that  evening.  They  afterward  went  down  the  river  to  Stevenson  and 
Himtsville,  Ala.,  where  they  remained  all  winter.  In  April,  1864,  the  veterans  of 
the  regiment  went  home  on  furloughs,  and  on  their  return  were  placed  on  Ac 
railroads  to  do  guard  duty,  being  most  of  the  summer  at  Kingston,  Ga.    They 


pursued  the  rebel,  General  Wheeler,  in  his  last  raid  to  the  rear  of  Sherman,  in 
June,  1864,  traveling  during  the  time  nearly  nine  hundred  miles  and  being  three 
wedcs  without  blankets  or  change  of  clothing. 

About  the  last  of  July,  1864,  the  ncm- veterans  of  the  regiment  were  mustered 
out  of  service,  leaving  180  men,  who,  on  application  to  the  war  department,  were 
transferred  to  the  Fifth  Iowa  Cavalry,  leaving  eleven  officers  without  a  com- 
mand, who  were  mustered  out  of  service  September  28,  1864,  at  General  Kil- 
patrick's  headquarters,  fifteen  miles  south  of  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

(This  regiment  was  disbanded  in  August,  1864,  on  the  expiration  of  its  term 
of  service.  The  veterans  and  recruits  were  transferred  to  the  Fifth  Iowa  Cav- 

Surg.  Peter  A.  Carpenter,  Com.  Asst.  Surg.  July  15,  1861,  Com.  Surg.  April 
27,  1862. 

Sergt.  Major  Geo.  S.  Spicer,  e.  June  24,  1861,  as  private,  prmt.  sergt  maj. 
July  15,  1862,  trans,  to  12th  Louisiana  colored  regiment  as  captain. 

Hospital  Steward  Thos.  F.  Tracy,  e.  Jime  24,  1861,  as  private,  prmtd.  May 
I,  1862. 

Drum  Major  A.  P.  Gilbert,  discharged. 


Capt.  Eugene  Childs,  com.  capt.,  res.  March  26,  1862. 

Capt.  Wm.  Dean,  e.  as  ist  sergt.  June  24,  1861,  prmt.  ist  lieut.  Nov.  i,  1861, 
prmt.  capt.  March  27,  1862,  res.  July  9,  1863. 

Capt  Wm.  G.  McElrea,  e.  June  24,  1861,  as  corp.,  prmt.  to  sergt.  June  20, 
1862,  prmtd.  to  2nd  lieut.  Sept  20,  1862,  prmtd.  ist  lieut  Feb.  23,  1863,  prmtd. 
capt  July,  1863. 

First  Lieut  Wm.  H.  Hammond,  com.  ist  lieut,,  res.  Oct.  6,  1861. 

First  Lieut  John  W.  Casad,  e.  as  private  June  24,  1861,  prmtd.  to  2nd  lieut 
Dec.  2,  1861,  prmtd.  to  ist  lieut.  May  i,  1862,  wd.  at  luka  Sept  19,  1862,  res. 
Feb.  14,  1865. 

First  Lieut  Luke  D.  Ingman,  e.  as  sergt.  June  24,  1861,  prmtd.  to  ist  sergt 
July  15,  1862,  wd.  at  luka,  prmtd.  to  2nd  lieut.  Feb.  23,  1863,  prmtd.  to  ist  lieut 
July  ID,  1863. 

Second  Lieut.  Joshua  T.  Taylor,  com.  2nd  lieut,  res.  Dec.  2,  1861. 

Second  Lieut  Lafayette  Shawl,  e.  as  sergt.  June  24, 1861,  prmtd.  to  2nd  lieut 
May  I,  1862,  killed  in  battle  of  luka.  Miss.,  Sept.  19,  1862. 

Sergt.  Geo.  W.  Logan,  e.  June  24,  1861,  wd.  May  16,  1863,  at  Champicm 
Hills,  wd.  Dec.  15,  1863,  by  railroad  collision  and  died  same  date. 

Sergt.  Wm.  Elliott,  e.  June  24,  1861,  disc  Feb.  3,  1862,  for  disab. 

Sergt  Daniel  R.  Smith,  e.  June  24,  1861,  as  private,  prmtd.  July  15,  1861. 

Sergt.  P.  S.  McCracken,  e.  June  24,  1861,  wd.  at  luka,  Sept.  19,  1862. 

Corp.  Chas.  W.  Mitchell,  e.  June  24,  1861,  wd.  at  Jackson  May  14,  1863, 
trans,  to  invalid  corps  Feb.  15,  1864. 

Corp,  Wm.  G.  Hall,  e.  June  24,  1861,  reduced  to  ranks. 

Corp.  Wm.  Zeitler,  e.  June  24,